1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vives, Juan Luis

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VIVES, JUAN LUIS (1492-1540), Spanish scholar, was born at Valencia on the 6lh of March 1492. He studied at Paris from 1509 to 1512, and in 1519 was appointed professor of humanities at Louvain. At the instance of his friend Erasmus he prepared an elaborate commentary on Augustine's De Civitale Dei, which was published in 1522 with a dedication to Henry VIII. Soon afterwards he was invited to England, and is said to have acted as tutor to the princess Mary, for whose use he wrote De ratione studii puerilis epistolae duae (1523). While in England he resided at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, where he was made doctor of laws and lectured on philosophy. Having declared himself against the king's divorce from Catherine of Aragon, he lost the royal favour and was confined to his house for six weeks. On his release he withdrew to Bruges, where he devoted himself to the composition of numerous works, chiefly directed against the scholastic philosophy and the preponderant authority of Aristotle. The most important of his treatises is the De Caucis corruptarum Artium, which has been ranked with Bacon's Organon. He died at Bruges on the 6th of May 1540.

A complete edition of his works was published by Gregorio Mayans y Siscar (Valencia, 1782). Adolfo Bonilla y San Martin's Luis Vives y la filosofia del renacimiento (Madrid, 1903) is a valuable and interesting study which includes an exhaustive bibliography of Vives's writings and a critical estimate of previous monographs. The best of these are A. J. Nameche, "Memoire sur la vie et les Merits de Jean Louis Vives" in Memoires couronnes par I'Académie Royale des sciences et belles-lettres de Bruxelles (Brussels, 1841), vol. xv.; A. Lange's article in the Encyklopadie des gesammten Erziehungsund Unterrichlswesens (Leipzig, 1887), vol. ix.; Berthe Vadier, Un Moraliste du XVIme siecle: Jean-Louis Vives et son livre de l'education de la femme chretienne (Geneva, 1892); G. Hoppe, Die Psychologie von Juan Luis Vives (Berlin, 1901).