1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Wardlaw, Henry
WARDLAW, HENRY (d. 1440), Scottish prelate, was a son of Sir Andrew Wardlaw and a nephew of Walter Wardlaw (d. 1390), bishop of Glasgow, who is said to have been made a cardinal by the anti-pope Clement VII. in 1381. Educated at the universities of Oxford and of Paris, Henry Wardlaw returned to Scotland about 1385, and owing to his influential connexions received many benefices in the Church. He passed some time at Avignon, and it was whilst he was residing at the papal court that he was chosen bishop of St Andrews, being consecrated in 1403. Returning to Scotland he acted as tutor to the future king, James I., and finished the work of restoring his cathedral. Then having helped to bring about the release of James from his captivity in England, he crowned this king in May 1424, and afterwards acted as one of his principal advisers. He appears to have been an excellent bishop, although he tried to suppress the teaching of John Wycliffe by burning its advocates. He died on the 6th of April 1440. Wardlaw's chief title to fame is the fact that he was the founder of the university of St Andrews, the first Scottish university. He issued the charter of foundation in February 1411, and the privileges of the new seat of learning were confirmed by a bull of Pope Benedict XIII., dated the 28th of August 1413. The university was to be " an impregnable rampart of doctors and masters to resist heresy."