1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Windthorst, Ludwig

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WINDTHORST, LUDWIG (1812–1891), German politician, was born on the 17th of January 1812 at Kaldenhof, a country house near Osnabrück. He sprang from a Roman Catholic family which for some generations had held important posts in the Hanoverian civil service. He was educated at the Carolinum, an endowed school at Osnabrück, and studied at the universities of Gottingen and Heidelberg. In 1836 he settled down as an advocate in Osnabrück: his abilities soon procured him a considerable practice, and he was appointed president of the Catholic Consistorium. In 1848 he received an appointment at the supreme court of appeal for the kingdom of Hanover, which sat at Celle. In the next year the revolution opened for him, as for so many of his contemporaries, the way to public life, and he was elected as representative for his native district in the second chamber of the reformed Hanoverian parliament. He belonged to what was called the Great German party, and opposed the project of reconstituting Germany under the leadership of Prussia; he defended the government against the liberal and democratic opposition; at this time he began the struggle against the secularization of schools, which continued throughout his life. In 1851 he was elected president of the chamber, and in the same year minister of justice, being the first Catholic who had held so high an office in Hanover. As minister he carried through an important judicial' reform which had been prepared by his predecessor, but had to retire from office because he was opposed to the reactionary measures for restoring the influence and privileges of the nobility. Though he was always an enemy to liberalism, his natural independence of character prevented him from acquiescing in the reactionary measures of the king. In 1862 he again was appointed minister, but with others of his colleagues he resigned when the king refused his assent to a measure for extending the franchise. Windthorst took no part in the critical events of 1866; contrary to the opinion of many of his friends, after the annexation of Hanover by Prussia he accepted the fait accompli, look ihe oath of allegiance, and was elected a member both of the Prussian parliament and of the North German diet. At Berlin he found a wider field for his abilities. He acted as representative of his exiled king in the negotiations with the Prussian government concerning his private property and opposed the sequestration, thus for the first time being placed in a position of hostility to Bismarck. He was recognized as the leader of the Hanoverians and of all those who opposed the “revolution from above.” He took a leading part in the formation of the party of the Centre in 1870–1871, but he did not become a member of it, fearing that his reputation as a follower of the king of Hanover would injure the party, until he was formally requested to join them by the leaders.

After the death of Hermann von Mallinckrodt (1821–1874) in 1874, Windthorst became leader of the party, and maintained that position till his death. It was chiefly owing to his skill and courage as a parliamentary debater and his tact as a leader that the party held its own and constantly increased in numbers during the great struggle with the Prussian government. He was especially exposed to the attacks of Bismarck, who attempted personally to discredit him and to separate him from the rest of the party. And he was far the ablest and most dangerous critic of Bismarck's policy. The change of policy in 1879 led to a great alteration in his position: he was reconciled to Bismarck, and even sometimes attended receptions at his house. Never, however, was his position so difficult as during the negotiations which led to a repeal of the May lav/s. In 1887 Bismarck appealed to the pope to use his authority to order the Centre to support the military proposals of the government. Windthorst took the responsibility of keeping the papal instructions secret from the rest of his party and of disobeying them. In a great meeting at Cologne in March 1887 he defended and justified his action, and claimed for the Centre fuU independence of action in all purely political questions. In the social reform he supported Bismarck, and as the undisputed leader of the largest party in the Reichstag he was able to exercise influence over the action of the government after Bismarck's retirement. His relations with the emperor William II. became very cordial, and in 1891 he achieved a great parliamentary triumph by defeating the School bill and compelling Gossler to resign. A few days afterwards he died, on the 14th of March 1891, at Berlin, He was buried in the Marienkirche in Hanover, which had been erected from the money subscribed as a testimonial to himself. His funeral was a most remarkable display of public esteem, in v/hich nearly all the ruling princes of Germany joined, and was a striking sign of the position to which, after twenty years of incessant struggle, he had raised his party. Windthorst was undoubtedly one of the greatest of German parhamentary leaders: no one equalled him in his readiness as a debater, his defective eyesight compelling him to depend entirely upon his memory. It was his misfortune that nearly all his life was spent in opposition, and he had no opportunity of showing his abilities as an administrator. He enjoyed unbounded popularity and confidence among the German Catholics, but he was in no way an ecclesiastic: he was at first opposed to the Vatican decrees of 1870, but quickly accepted them after they had been proclaimed. He was a very agreeable companion and a thorough man of the world, singularly free from arrogance and pomposity; owing to his small stature, he was often known as “die kleine Excellenz.” He married in 1839. Of his three children, two died before him; his wife survived him only a few months.

Windthorst's Ausgewahlte Reden were published in three volumes (Osnabrück, 1901–1902). See also J. N . Knopp, Ludwig Windthorst: ein Lebenbild (Dresden; 1898); and Husgcn, Ludwig Windthont (Cologne, 1907).  (J. W. He.)