1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Arizona
ARIZONA (see 2.544). In 1920 the pop. was 334,162 as against 204,354 in 1910, an increase of 129,808, or 63.5%. This was the largest percentage of increase shown by any state. The pop. of the chief cities was as follows: Tucson, 20,292 (13,193 in 1910), Douglas, 9,916 (6,437 in 1910), Bisbee, 9,205 (9,019 in 1910). The average number of inhabitants to the square mile in 1920 was 2.9 as compared with 1.8 in 1910. The rural pop. constituted 64.8% of the whole in 1920 as against 69% in 1910.
Agriculture.—During the decade ending in 1920 agriculture underwent remarkable changes. There was a considerable increase in the number of acres irrigated, from 320,051 ac. in 1909 to 467,349 ac. in 1919, a gain of 46%. Almost a third of this gain was in Yuma county as a result of the Laguna Dam; the greater portion of the remainder was the result of pumping in other counties. The greatest change was the transition from dairy farming to cotton growing. In 1916 the dairy business reached its height, when the dairy cattle in the Salt River Valley were estimated at 60,000. The introduction of long staple cotton reduced this number to about 8,000 at the end of 1920. The development of the cotton industry was notable; in 1914 there were 13,300 ac. under cultivation, and in 1920, according to estimate, 180,000 ac. This increase, coupled with the great rise in the price of cotton, caused cotton land to rise from $300 and $400 to $700 and in some instances to $1,000 an acre. The great fall in the price of cotton was expected, if it proved permanent, to result in a return to dairy farming and lower land values.
Minerals.—In 1910 Arizona's production of 297,250,538 lb. of copper placed her first among the producing states. This increased to 559,235,000 lb. in 1920. The tendency during 1910-20 was toward the development of grade deposits, the Miami Copper Co., the Inspiration Copper Co., the New Cornelia Copper Co., and the Ray Consolidated Copper Co. being conspicuous for this type of work. The older companies such as the Copper Queen, the United Verde, and the Calumet and Arizona copper companies still had high-grade deposits in 1920; but the Copper Queen turned in the direction of low-grade ores, having completed the stripping of Sacramento Hill near Bisbee. The plant for handling this huge low-grade deposit was to be completed in 1921. The yield of gold and silver was not unimportant. Gold production increased from 152,350 oz. in 1910 to 380,034 oz. in 1920; and silver from 2,566,528 oz. in 1910 to 6,098,251 oz. in 1920. Gold production increased mainly because of the output of the Tom Reed and the United Eastern mining companies, the latter producing one-fourth of the total for the state in 1920. Considerable amounts of gold and silver were also obtained in treating copper ore.
Manufactures.—The following table shows the growth of manufactures:
|Number of establishments||480||311|
|Proprietors and firm members||416||261|
|Wage earners, average number||8,528||6,441|
|Cost of materials||92,645,437||33,600,240|
|Value of products||120,769,112||50,256,694|
|Value added by manufacture||28,123,675||16,656,454|
The principal industries in 1920 were the smelting and refining of copper, cars and general shop construction and repairs by steam railway companies, flour-mill and gristmill products, lumber and timber products.
Education.—The progress in public education in the decade 1910-20 was greater than the increase in population. In 1916 a high school of the state was for the first time admitted to the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. In 1920 there were in the association 14 of the 29 high schools of the state. The growth of the normal schools at Tempe and Flagstaff kept pace in enrolment and equipment with the growth of the public schools. In 1910 there was organized a state school for the deaf, affiliated with the university of Arizona and under its direction. The university of Arizona increased from an enrolment of 84 regular college students in 1910-11 to one of 892 for the first semester of 1920-1. This institution in 1921 was composed of three colleges and two schools on the campus at Tucson: college of Letters, Arts and Sciences; college of Mines and Engineering; college of Agriculture; school of Law and school of Education. The Agricultural Experiment Station, the Arizona bureau of mines, the state pure food laboratory and the state museum were also on the campus. In 1916 the university of Arizona was
admitted to the North Central Association, and in 1919 it became a member of the Association of American Colleges.
History.—During the years 1910-20 Arizona provided two issues of national interest. The first of these was her admission to the Union. As provided by the Enabling Act signed by President Taft June 30 1910, a constitutional convention met at Phoenix from Oct. 10 to Dec. 9 1910 to frame a constitution. The constitution then adopted provided that one-fourth of the electors of a judicial district might, by petition, demand the recall of a judge. If he did not then resign a special election could be held to determine whether he should be recalled. In Aug. 1911 the National House of Representatives by a vote of 214 to 57 passed a joint resolution providing for the admission of Arizona on condition that the constitutional provision for recall be submitted to a vote of the people. President Taft had already informed Congress that he would not sign the bill, and in a message to Congress took the position that he must veto the measure or assume responsibility for the recall of judges. Later in August he approved a resolution granting statehood on condition that the voters in the general fall election strike out the provision for recall. This they did; and on Feb. 14 1912 President Taft signed the proclamation admitting Arizona. After the state was admitted the people amended the constitution, inserting the original clause providing for the recall of judges. The presidential vote in 1912 was 10,324 for Wilson, 6,949 for Roosevelt, and 3,021 for Taft; in 1916, 33,170 for Wilson and 20,524 for Hughes; in 1920, 37,016 for Harding and 29,546 for Cox. Arizona's Alien Labour law provided the other issue of national interest. The voters of the State, 1914, by a majority of 10,684, enacted a law providing that when any corporation, company, partnership, or individual employed more than 5 workers, 80% of these should be qualified electors or native born citizens. The ambassadors of Great Britain and Italy claimed that the law violated existing treaties. The U.S. District Court declared the law unconstitutional as conflicting with the Fourteenth Amendment. On appeal the U.S. Supreme Court upheld this decision, Nov. 1 1915. Justice Hughes in the final decision said that it had already been established that aliens were entitled to equal protection of our laws. The election of Nov. 1916 resulted in a gubernatorial contest that aroused high party feeling. Governor Hunt, supported by a Democratic assembly, had been elected for two terms. He ran for a third time in 1916. On the face of the returns Campbell, the Republican candidate, was elected; but both candidates came to Phoenix in Jan. to be inaugurated, and Hunt refused to leave the executive office. Later he was compelled to surrender the office to Campbell, but assumed it again in Dec. 1917 after the state Supreme Court had declared him the legally elected governor. At the next election in 1918 Campbell was chosen governor, and he was reëlected in 1920. The bitter political struggle was largely the outgrowth of an industrial situation that culminated in a number of strikes throughout the state. That at Clifton and Morenci beginning in Sept. 1915 roused the widest interest. This strike, conducted for the most part by Mexican labour, was organized and at first directed by agents of the Western Federation of Miners. The unique characteristic of the struggle was the sympathy for the strikers shown by the chief executive of the state, Governor Hunt having ordered in the early days of the strike that no strike-breaker should be admitted into the district. Another singular characteristic was the absence of the usual violence. This was attributed to the action of the sheriff who deputized strikers themselves to protect the property of the company. There was no loss of life, and although a large concentration plant at Clifton was destroyed by fire, this was not proved to be the work of strikers. After repeated attempts at conference, no settlement was reached till the Western Federation of Miners withdrew, leaving the Arizona State Federation of Labor in charge. An increase of wages was granted; but the managers asserted that this was the natural result of the increased price of copper, and that they had in no way yielded to the strikers. The industrial strife reached even a more crucial stage in the summer of 1917 when the Bisbee deportation incident occurred. The employees in several of the mines had struck for higher wages and better working conditions, claiming that they had been the losers in the general rise in prices, and that they had not shared in the profits due to the increased value of copper. There was a general fear that violence would result from the activities of the Industrial Workers of the World. Sheriff Wheeler, supported by the conservative citizens of Bisbee, took the position that the members of the I.W.W. and their sympathizers were vagrants, traitors, and disturbers of the peace of the county. In July 1917 the sheriff and his many deputies rounded up over 1,100 of the alleged offenders and deported them to Columbus, N.M. President Wilson at once warned Governor Campbell of the danger of such a precedent; and two months later, at the solicitation of Samuel Gompers, he appointed a committee, of which Secretary Wilson of the Federal Department of Labor was chairman, to investigate and adjust the industrial disputes. This committee found that there was no machinery whereby the grievances could have been adjusted, since the managers refused to recognize certain labour organizations. The committee further recommended that Congress make future deportations a Federal offence. A number of indictments against Wheeler and his deputies were secured; and one case, the State of Arizona v. H. E. Wootton, came to trial. The defendant was freed on the plea of the “law of necessity”; the other cases were not pressed. The last territorial governor was Richard E. Sloan, 1909-11. State governors were George W. P. Hunt (Dem.), 1911-9; Thomas E. Campbell (Rep.), 1919-.
Bibliography.—Mining: Publications of U.S. Geological Survey and Bureau of the Mint (1920). Recall of Judges: Congressional Record, vol. xlvii., pt. 4, pp. 3964-3966. Cases: Hunt v. Campbell, Pacific Reporter 169; Arizona's Alien Labor Law, 2,19 Federal; and 239 U.S., Bisbee Deportation; U.S. Labor Department, Report on Bisbee Deportation (pub. 1918). Histories: McClintock, Arizona the Youngest State; Beard, Contemporary American History.
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