1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Bülow, Karl von
BÜLOW, KARL VON (1846-1921), German field-marshal, was born in Berlin March 24 1846 and joined the 2nd Guards regiment of infantry in 1864. He gained distinction at Königgrätz in the war of 1866, served through the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, winning the Iron Cross (2nd class), and, after holding various staff appointments, became colonel of the 4th Guards regiment in 1894. Three years later he was promoted major-general and was transferred to the War Office. In 1900 he was promoted lieutenant-general and in 1901 was general commanding the Guards division. In 1912 he attained the rank of generaloberst and was entrusted with the III. Army Inspection. He was thus marked out for high command, and on the outbreak of the World War he was placed in charge of the II. Army, which invaded Belgium. He occupied Liége (Aug. 7) and advanced to the Marne. He commanded the I. and VII. Armies during the retreat and at the battles of the Aisne, thus incurring responsibility in the eyes of the public for the failure to take Paris. In Jan. 1915 he was promoted field-marshal and in June 1916 was, by his own wish, placed on the retired list. He died in Berlin Aug. 31 1921.