1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Berthelot, Henri Mathias

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BERTHELOT, HENRI MATHIAS (1861-       ), French general, a son of the chemist, Marcellin P. E. Berthelot (see 3.811), was born at Feurs (Loire), Dec. 7 1861. At 20 years of age he entered St. Cyr, and in 1883 was appointed a sub-lieutenant in the 1st Regt. of Zouaves. Three years later he was promoted lieutenant. In Nov. 1891 he was made a captain and was transferred to the 99th Inf. Regiment. In 1907 he became a lieutenant-colonel and was posted to the 55th Inf. Regiment. He was then given a staff appointment, being promoted colonel in June 1911. In Dec. 1913 he was made a general of brigade. On the outbreak of the World War he was appointed head of the French operations staff at headquarters, and in this capacity he exercised a very marked influence on the course of events in Aug. 1914, so much so as to expose him later to the reproach of having been “the irresponsible commander-in-chief” during the disastrous battle of the Frontiers. In Nov. of the same year he was given command of a division. In Aug. 1915 he became commander of the XXXII. Army Corps, an appointment which he retained until Sept. 1916, when he was made chief of the French military mission to Rumania. Here his thoroughness was the principal factor in revising the Rumanian army, and the fruits of his work appeared in the campaign of 1917. In June 1917 he was made a grand officer of the Legion of Honour. After a brief mission to the United States he was, in July 1918, given command of the V. Army. This army he commanded in the battles on the Marne and the Aisne, which initiated the final Allied offensives. Later, he was sent on a mission to the Balkans. In Oct. 1919 he was made governor of Metz.