1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Bruce, Sir David

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BRUCE, SIR DAVID (1855–), British bacteriologist, was born at Melbourne May 29 1855. He was educated at Stirling high school and Edinburgh University, where he took his degree of M.B. in 1881. He entered the R.A.M.C. in 1883, and from 1884 to 1889 served in Malta and Egypt. His stay in Malta was marked by his researches into the origin of Malta fever, and in 1887 he discovered the micro-organism of this disease, propounding the theory that it was spread by the use of goats’ milk (see 17.514). In 1889 he became assistant professor of pathology at Netley, and in 1894 went to South Africa, where he remainded until 1901, serving throughout the South African War. In 1902 he became a member of the Army Advisory Board, a post he retained until 1910. For many years Bruce conducted researches into the origin of sleeping-sickness, and in 1894 he discovered the micro-organism not only of that disease but also of nagana (tsetse fly disease), and the method of their dissemination. In 1903 he went to Uganda as director of the Royal Society’s commission for the investigation of sleeping-sickness, and in 1904 proceeded to Malta to carry on further investigations into Malta fever, returning to Uganda in 1908. In every case a great advance in the study of tropical medicine was the result. From 1911 to 1914 he was in Nyasaland, investigating the possible connexion between human and cattle diseases, and in 1914 became commandant of the Royal Army Medical College, holding the post till 1918. Bruce, who was \knighted in 1908, was created K.C.B. in 1918 and retired in 1919. He published many papers on tropical diseases.