1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caviglia, Enrico

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CAVIGLIA, ENRICO (1862-), Italian general, was born at Finalmarina (Genoa) May 4 1862. He entered the artillery, and his early years in the army were spent between this branch of the service and the general staff, but on attaining his majority he passed to the infantry arm. He served in Eritrea and in the Italo-Turkish War and, as a captain of the general staff, was attached to the Japanese army during the Russo-Japanese War. In Feb. 1914 he was nominated vice-director of the Military Geographical Institute in Florence. On Italy's entry into the World War he served as a colonel on the general staff, and in Aug. 1915 he was promoted to major-general and given command of the Bari Brigade. In June 1916 he took over the 29th Div. and two months later was promoted lieutenant-general “for war merit.” In July 1917 he was given command of the XXIV. Corps, which under his direction broke through the Austrian lines on the Bainsizza plateau. After Caporetto he took command of the VIII. Corps and subsequently of the X., and in June 1918, after the Austrian offensive on the Piave, he was chosen to command the VIII. Army. Under his leadership the VIII. Army played an important part in the final victory of Vittorio Veneto. From Jan. to June 1919 Caviglia was Minister of War, and as such became a senator, and in Nov. of the same year he was promoted army general. In Jan. 1920 he took over the command of the troops in Venezia Giulia, with headquarters at Trieste. He had a very difficult task to perform, since the discipline of the troops had been severely shaken by the example of D'Annunzio's Fiume raid, and there was danger of trouble on the frontier with the Yugoslavs. Caviglia restored discipline, and showed both firmness and tact in dealing with these delicate problems. When it became evident that only force would drive D'Annunzio from Fiume he did not hesitate to carry out his task.