1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Eugene, Archduke
EUGENE, ARCHDUKE (1863- ), Austro-Hungarian field-marshal, was born May 21 1863 at Gross-Seelowitz in Moravia. In his military career he had become commander of the XIV. (Innsbruck) Corps and army inspector when, before the outbreak of the World War, considerations of health compelled his retirement. It was only after the retreat of the Austro-Hungarian troops from Serbia in Dec. 1914 that the Emperor handed over to him the command of the army holding the Danube-Save line. After the Italian declaration of war the Archduke took over the command on the south-western front. At the time of its greatest extension his constantly changing area of command stretched from the Ortler to the sea. The battles fought under his directions on the Isonzo and on the Tirol front formed a series of successes. As a staff commander the Archduke was associated with Gen. Alfred Krauss (born 1862 at Zara), who was also known as a writer on military subjects. Under the new regulations concerning army commands in Jan. 1918 the Archduke received no further active command. As Grand Master of the Teutonic Order he remained unmarried. His unaffected character made him very popular.