1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Fayolle, Marie-Emile
FAYOLLE, MARIE-EMILE (1852-), French marshal, was born at Puy (Haute Loire) May 14 1852. He entered the École Polytechnique in, 1873, and on leaving in 1875 was posted to the 16th Regt. of artillery. As a subaltern he saw service in Tunis. He was promoted captain in 1882. In 1889 he passed through the École de Guerre, to which, in Nov. 1889, he returned as assistant to Col. Ruffey, who was then artillery lecturer. At this time Foch was lecturer in tactics, and Maud'huy and Pétain joint lecturers in infantry. In 1900 Fayolle succeeded Ruffey as artillery lecturer and held the appointment for seven years. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel in 1902 and colonel five years later. In Nov. 1908 he took over command of a regiment of artillery, and in 1910 he was made a general of brigade; but as on May 14 1914 he had passed the age limit and had not received further promotion he was placed on the retired list. On the outbreak of the World War he was recalled and given command first of a reserve brigade and then of the 70th (Reserve) Division. This division took part in the abortive Lorraine offensive of Aug. 1914. It distinguished itself in the defence of Nancy and was made the subject of a special order of the day by de Castelnau. In Oct. 1914 the division again received special notice — this time for the part it played in the fighting on the line Gavrelle-Bailleul. On Oct. 11 Fayolle was made a Commander of the Legion of Honour. In June 1915 the division was again made the subject of a special army order by Gen. d'Urbal who commanded the X. Army. On May 13 1915 Gen. Fayolle had been, contrary to the custom in the case of retired officers and in face of considerable opposition, promoted a temporary general of division. In June of the same year he succeeded Gen. Pétain in the command of the XXXIII. Corps. On Feb. 26 1916 he was promoted to the command of the VI. Army, and on March 25 following was confirmed in his rank as general of division. In command of the VI. Army, he carried out the French portion of the Somme offensive (July 1916-Nov. 1916). On Oct. 8 1916 Fayolle was made a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour. In May 1917 he again succeeded Pétain, this time in the command of the centre group of armies. In Nov. he went to the Italian theatre in command of the French forces that were sent thither after the disaster of Caporetto. He returned in Feb. 1918 and took an important part in repelling the German offensives of March-June 1918, and in the Allied counter-offensive from July 18 onwards as commander of the northern group of armies. On July 10 he was given the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour. Somewhat tardily he was, in Oct. 1919, awarded the Médaille Militaire. But not long afterwards he was, with Lyautey and Franchet d'Espérey, given the highest grade of all, that of Marshal of France.