1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Frederick, Archduke of Austria
FREDERICK, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Teschen (1856-), Austro-Hungarian field-marshal, was born at Gross-Seelowitz, Moravia, June 4 1856. Like most of the princes of the ruling house he adopted a military career, and served creditably for many years as commandant of the V. (Pressburg) Corps. Subsequently commander-in-chief of the Austrian Landwehr and army inspector, he became, after the murder of the heir to the throne, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, inspector-general at the head of the common Austro-Hungarian army. Archduke Frederick was possessed of a considerable fortune, and was one of the greatest landowners in the monarchy; the Albertina Collection was among his inherited possessions. In the World War he was—from the dynastic point of view—as grandson of the victor of Aspern, Archduke Charles, and as nephew of the victor of Custozza, Archduke Albert, the predestined head of the armed forces of Austria-Hungary. He thought it his duty to accept this heavy responsibility, but, modestly estimating his own powers, left the actual exercise of the command to his chief-of-staff, Conrad von Hötzendorf. In the performance of ceremonial duties, and as mediator for the settlement of the conflicting demands of the military, civil and allied elements, his services were undeniable. In the spring of 1917 Emperor Charles himself took over the supreme command; the Archduke, although the Emperor's representative, no longer appeared in the foreground. He married, in 1878, Princess Isabella of Croy-Dülmen, and of this marriage there were eight daughters and one son, who served as an officer in the World War.