1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Garibaldi, Giuseppe

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GARIBALDI, GIUSEPPE (1879-       ), Italian general, eldest son of Gen. Ricciotti Garibaldi and grandson of the Liberator, was born at Melbourne July 29 1879. He fought under his father in the Greco-Turkish War in 1897, and also served in the South African War. In 1904 he went to Venezuela and fought in the insurrection against President Castro. He was imprisoned and condemned to death, but escaped. In 1905 he was employed in London in making arrangements for the settlement of Italian colonists in Australia. From 1907 to 1909 he worked in the Panama Canal Zone under Goethals, whence he went to Mexico and joined Madero, acting as the latter's chief-of-staff. In 1912 he joined the Greek army to fight in the Balkan wars, and reached the rank of brigadier. In 1914 on the outbreak of the World War he raised an Italian Legion of 14,000 men to fight on the side of France, and his six brothers accompanied him as officers. The Legion fought in the Argonne, and had 6,000 casualties, among the killed being two of the Garibaldi brothers. Giuseppe was made lieutenant-colonel, and subsequently colonel, in the Foreign Legion. In 1915 Garibaldi returned to Italy with his legionaries, and on Italy's entry into the war he and his brothers enlisted as volunteers. They were soon afterwards commissioned, Giuseppe being given command of a battalion. He served with the 4th Army until the spring of 1918, and distinguished himself in command of a regiment, a group of mountain troops and a brigade, and reached the rank of colonel-brigadier. He returned to the French front in March 1918 in command of the famous Brigata Alpi, which formed part of the Italian II. Corps. In June Garibaldi was promoted to brigadier-general, the only Italian officer of reserve to reach this rank. After the Armistice he commanded the Italian 8th Div. in Belgium. He retired from his command in June 1919 and gave up his commission in Feb. of the following year, returning to the business life which had been so often interrupted by these episodes of adventure.