1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Lowden, Frank Orren
LOWDEN, FRANK ORREN (1861- ), American politician, was born at Sunrise City, Minn., Jan. 26 1861. After studying at Iowa State University (A.B. 1885) and the Union College of Law, Chicago (LL.B. 1887), he practised in Chicago for about 20 years. In 1899 he was professor of law at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. In 1900 he declined the first assistant postmaster-generalship, offered him by President McKinley, whom he had supported. He was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1900 and 1904, and from 1904 to 1912 was a member of the Republican National Committee. He was also a member of the executive committee in 1904 and 1908. In 1906 he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives for the unexpired term of R. R. Hitt, deceased, and was re-elected for the terms of 1907-11. He declined to run for another term. He was governor of Illinois 1917-21, and was energetic in marshalling the resources of his state in support of America's war programme. In 1917, when the mayor of Chicago refused to interfere with a meeting of the People's Council, an organization accused of pro-Germanism, he ordered out the state troops to prevent the meeting. He introduced the budget system for state expenditure, thereby reducing the rate of taxation in spite of rising prices. He favoured woman suffrage and the enforcement of the Volstead Act for war-time prohibition. He was opposed to the League of Nations without reservations, on the ground that it would create a super-state. At the Republican National Convention in 1920 he had strong support for president. In the first four ballots he stood second; on the fifth he led with 303 votes (493 being necessary for nomination); on the sixth he tied for first place (311½ votes); on the seventh ballot he was second (311½ votes); on the eighth he again led (307 votes), but then to avoid a prolonged deadlock he released his delegates, who transferred their votes to Warren G. Harding, who was nominated on the tenth ballot.