1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Madero, Francisco Indalegio
MADERO, FRANCISCO INDALEGIO (1873-1913), Mexican president, was the son of Evaristo Madero, governor of Coahuila under Díaz and a large property owner of Jewish extraction. He was born on the family estate, Rosario, at Parras, Coahuila, Oct. 18 1873. His youth was employed in managing the family properties. During part of 1893 he attended the university of California. By 1903 he was known for independent political views, and in 1905 opposed the Díaz candidate for state governor. In 1908 he began his opposition to the reëlection of Díaz in 1910, writing La sucesión presidential en 1910, which went to three editions. In 1909 he headed the anti-reëlectionist party as candidate for the presidency. His vigorous campaign was ignored by Díaz until June 1910, when he was arrested at Monterrey for seditious utterances at San Luís Potosí and incarcerated until after the election of Díaz. Being released on bail July 20, he escaped Oct. 7 to San Antonio, Texas, where he issued the Plan de San Luís Potosí, dated Oct. 5. It was then evident that the Díaz election had been legally affirmed. The revolutionists in San Antonio voted Nov. 6 to begin armed revolts simultaneously throughout Mexico. Disturbances began prematurely, and Madero, threatened with arrest for violation of neutrality, crossed into Chihuahua and headed the movement begun by Pascual Orozco and others. The revolutionists took Ciudad Juárez early in May, ending the prestige of Díaz, who resigned under pressure May 25. Madero entered Mexico City in triumph June 7. During the ad-interim presidency of Francisco de la Barra he was elected President in Oct. and inaugurated Nov. 6 for a term to end Nov. 30 1916. His rule was marked by visionary schemes which provoked party dissensions. Revolts caused strained relations with the United States. The revolutionary programme did not become law. Felix Díaz, nephew of Porfirio Díaz, revolted, but was captured in Oct. 1912. General Bernardo Reyes, ex-governor of Nuevo León, had previously been captured in the United States and given over to Mexico. Both were confined in the capital, but they were released Feb. 9 1913 by a rising of military cadets. Government troops joined them, besieging the national palace for 10 days. Then Huerta, commanding Madero's troops, deserted him, and forced the President and vice-president, José Pino Suárez, to resign Feb. 18. Although promised personal safety, they were killed on the night of Feb. 22 while being removed from the national palace to the Penitenciaría. In Nov. 1920 Francisco Cárdenas, the alleged assassin, committed suicide in Guatemala while under arrest for extradition demanded by the Mexican Government for the crime.