1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Murphy, Charles Francis

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MURPHY, CHARLES FRANCIS (1858–), American politician, was born in New York City June 20 1858. He was educated in the public and parochial schools. He began work in 1876 as a street-car driver. Later with his small savings he opened a saloon, and as his business prospered became proprietor of several such establishments, in which he maintained good order. These, he declared, served as poor men’s clubs. In 1892 he succeeded Edward Hagan as Tammany leader of the 18th assembly district, and from that time his political power grew rapidly. In 1897 he was appointed a member of the board of commissioners of docks and ferries in New York City, serving five years, the last as treasurer. In 1902 he succeeded Richard Croker, on the latter’s retirement, as leader of Tammany Hall, a position he continued to hold for a longer period than any of his predecessors. In 1903 he secured the nomination of George B. McClellan for mayor of New York City, who was elected, and two years later reelected. In 1906 he supported William Randolph Hearst, the unsuccessful candidate for governor of New York on the Independence League and the Democratic tickets. In 1909 he supported for mayor Judge Gaynor, who was elected. At the Democratic National Convention in 1912 he swung his followers to Champ Clark, who led on the earlier ballots. Thereupon William Jennings Bryan, who had looked with favour upon Clark, declared that he would not support him so long as he was backed by Tammany, threw his influence on the side of Woodrow Wilson and secured his nomination. The same year, as presidential elector, Murphy gave Wilson support, and in 1916 approved his renomination. He was a delegate at the Democratic National Convention in 1920, and it was in part through his influence that James M. Cox secured the nomination.