1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/New Mexico

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NEW MEXICO (see 19.520). The pop. in 1920 was 360,350 as against 327,301 in 1910, an increase of 33,049, or 10.1%, as against 67.6% in the preceding decade. The urban pop. (in places of 2,500 inhabitants or more) in 1920 was 18% of the total, as compared with 14.2% in 1910. The average number of inhabitants per sq.m. in 1920 was 2.9; in 1910 it was 2.7. The following table shows the growth of the principal cities for the decade 1910–20:—

1920 1910  Increase 
per cent

 Albuquerque   15,157  11,020  37.5 
 Santa Fé 7,236  5,072  42.7 
 Roswell 7,033  6,172  13.9 
 Raton 5,544  4,539  22.1 
 Clovis 4,904  3,255  50.7 

Agriculture.—During the decade 1910–20 the number of farms decreased from 35,676 to 29,844, or 16.3%; all land in farms increased from 11,270,021 ac. to 24,409,653 ac., or 116.6%; improved land increased from 1,467,191 ac. to 1,717,224 ac., or 17%. The value of all farm property rose from $159,447,990 in 1910 to $325,185,999 in 1920. The average acreage per farm in 1920 was 817.9 ac.; in 1910 it was 315.9 ac. The average value of land per acre decreased from $8.77 in 1910 to $8.04 in 1920. Of the 29,844 farmers in 1920, 25,756 were owners, 433 tranagers, and 3,655 tenants. The increase in the chief agricultural products during 1909–19 is shown in the following table:—

Acres Production Value

 Corn  1919   227,167   4,737,182 bus.   $7,105,781 
 Corn  1909  85,999  1,164,970 bus.  984,052 
 Oats 1919  40,029  1,085,311 bus.  1,139,580 
 Oats 1909  33,707  720,560 bus.  459,306 
 Wheat 1919  135,185  2,437,213 bus.  4,874,426 
 Wheat 1909  32,341  499,799 bus.  508,726 
 Beans 1919  112,419  850,334 bus.  2,976,176 
 Beans 1909  20,766  85,795 bus.  232,023 
 Hay and forage 1919  436,547  693,807 tons  12,852,751 
 Hay and forage  1909  370,596  433,504 tons  4,493,918 

Of live stock on farms in 1920 there were 182,686 horses, valued at $9,696,377; 20,369 mules, valued at $1,874,836; 1,237,551 beef cattle, valued at $59,580,397; 62,794 dairy cattle, valued at $3,520,903; 1,640,475 sheep, valued at $15,413,670; 87,906 swine, valued at $1,462,470. The production of wool in 1919 was estimated at 15,076,000 lb. In 1920 the number of farms irrigated was 11,390; the area irrigated was 538,377 ac., or 31.4% of the improved land in farms. The capital invested in irrigation enterprises was $18,210,412, as against $9,154,897, in 1910.

Manufactures.—Between 1914 and 1919 the capital invested increased from $8,984,000 to $15,226,000 or 69.5%, and the value of products from $9,320,000 to $17,857,000 or 91.6 per cent. The average capital per establishment increased from $24,000 to approximately $39,000, during the same period. The value added by manufacture in 1919 was 56.7% of total value of products as compared with 52.5% in 1914. The chief manufactures are lumber and timber products; railway-car construction; printing and publishing; and gristmill products. The following table, compiled by the U. S. Census Bureau, shows the other manufacturing statistics for the period 1914–9:—

1919 1914  Increase 
per cent

 Number of establishments 387  368  5.2 
 Proprietors and firm members  336  325  3.4 
 Salaried employees 574  493  16.4 
 Wage-earners, average number  5,736  3,776  51.9 
 Salaries  $1,027,341   $ 577,243  78.   
 Wages 6,658,462  2,695,448  147.   
 Materials, cost 7,727,483  4,430,134  74.4 
 Value added by manufacture   10,129,119   4,889,933  107.1 

Transportation.—In 1918 the railway mileage of New Mexico was 3,041, excluding switches and sidings. The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé railway owned 1,426 m. of track, almost half of the total. The other principal railways were the El Paso & Southwestern, 741 m.; the Denver & Rio Grande, 235 m.; the Southern Pacific, 167 m.; the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, 152 m.; and the New Mexico Central, 115 miles. During 1917–8 about 1,600 m. of highways were improved, involving the building of 1,200 culverts and 260 bridges, at a total cost of $1,500,000. In 1912 the territorial roads commission became a state highway commission in control of the state road fund; county road boards succeeded road supervisors. Counties may issue bonds for highways and bridges.

Mineral Products.—The total value for 1918 was $40,631,024, as compared with $18,072,919 in 1914. The chief products were: coal, 4,023,239 tons; copper, 98,264,563 lb.; zinc, 24,050,000 lb.; lead, 10,180,000 lb.; silver, 782,421 ozs. The value of the gold production was $683,000.

Education.—In 1916 a movement was begun to standardize and make more uniform the high-schools. In 1917 the state, taking advantage of the Smith-Hughes Act for promoting vocational education, received from the Federal Government $15,000, which was doubled by a like appropriation from the state. For the year ending June 1 1918 the total school enrolment was 62,422, of which number 31,538 were boys and 30,884 girls. The average daily attendance was for boys 19,807 and for girls, 20,000, a total of 39,807. The total number of children, age 7 to 14, in the state was 67,947. The number of school-houses was 1,289. The average monthly salary for men teachers was $71.52 and for women $67.66. Among the laws passed by the state Legislature in 1919 was one providing for compulsory school attendance between the ages of 6 and 16; children between the ages of 14 and 16 may be excused to enter employment. A child welfare department was created at the same time and placed under the jurisdiction of the Department of Education. The university of New Mexico, at Albuquerque, had in 1920 about 400 students and 35 officers of instruction. David Spence Hill was president. The museum of New Mexico, established at Santa Fé in 1909 in the historic palace, built about 1630, of the governors of the old Spanish province, contains a remarkable collection illustrating American archaeology and a notable library of works on general linguistics. The Archaeological Institute of America maintains there a special school of American Research. In 1918 the state spent $1,266,000 on its educational institutions, comprising the university of New Mexico, at Albuquerque; the State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, at State College; the Military Institute, at Roswell; the Normal University, at Las Vegas; the Normal School, at Silver City; the Spanish-American Normal School, at El Rito; the School of Mines, at Socorro; the Deaf and Dumb Asylum, at Santa Fé; and the Institute for the Blind, at Alamogordo.

Finance.—For the first seven years of statehood, Dec. 1 1911 to Nov. 30 1918, the aggregate state expenditures were $15,573,817 and county expenditures $34,227,143, making a total of $49,800,960. State receipts amounted to $16,520,448 and county receipts $34,235,224, making a total of $50,755,672. At the end of that period the bonded state debt was $3,385,500; county, $2,972,335; city, town and village, $3,250,000; school, $1,800,000, making a total of $11,407,835. In 1918 the total assessed valuation was $360,961,891,

as compared with $72,457,454 in 1912. There were in 1918 43 national banks with capital stock totalling $2,765,000 and resources of $45,000,000; 22 state banks with capital stock totalling $2,615,980 and resources of $19,110,000.

Legislation.—In 1913 the state Legislature ratified the Federal income tax amendment. Other legislation included a local option law; a “white slave” law; provision for an optional commission form of government for cities, towns and villages. In 1917 a workmen's compensation law was enacted; regulations concerning examination for admission to the bar were improved; and provision made for part payment of transportation expenses of normal school students from distant parts of the state. In 1919 legislative acts included the establishment of state mounted police; a Child's Welfare Bureau; an annual franchise tax on corporations; state inheritance and income taxes; fixing the maximum rate of interest at 10%; provision for teaching of Spanish in high-schools on petition; and the establishment of night-schools for illiterates. In 1914 an amendment of the state constitution was adopted, changing the terms of state and county officers from four to two years. In 1918 an article was added prohibiting the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors after Oct. 1 1918 (28,732 for, 12,147 against).

History.—The most important historical fact concerning New Mexico during the decade 1910–20 was its admission into the Union, June 6 1912, as the 47th state. Following the Enabling Act, passed by Congress June 20 1910, the territorial governor ordered an election of delegates to frame a constitution. The election was held Sept. 6 1910; the convention, consisting of 71 Republicans and 29 Democrats, assembled Oct. 3; and the adopted constitution was approved by the people Jan. 21 1911. The vote was 31,742 for, and 13,399 against. The chief opposition came from voters who favoured the inclusion of state prohibition. Certain provisions in the constitution made amendment difficult. These were not approved by President Taft, and Congress passed a resolution that at the election of Nov. 1911 the people should decide whether amendment should be made easier. The Republicans were pledged against such change, but favoured a repeal of the section requiring as a qualification for state office ability to speak and write English without the aid of an interpreter. Although as a territory New Mexico had been Republican, the Democratic candidate for governor, William C. McDonald, was elected, receiving 31,036 votes to 28,019 for H. C. Bursom, the Republican candidate. The governor was inaugurated Jan. 15 1912. The Republicans elected a majority of members of both Houses of the Legislature, the Democrats securing all state offices, excepting those of auditor and attorney-general. Two Republicans were sent to the U.S. Senate; one Republican and one Democrat were elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. An amendment to the constitution making it easier of amendment was carried by an overwhelming vote. One of the first two U.S. Senators to be elected was Albert B. Fall, who served by re-election until 1921, when he entered the Cabinet of President Harding as Secretary of the Interior. The presidential vote in 1912 was 20,437 for Wilson, 17,733 for Taft, and 8,347 for Roosevelt; in 1916 it was 33,524 for Wilson, and 31,152 for Hughes.

In 1916 the Elephant Butte Dam, under active construction since 1910, was completed by the U.S. Reclamation Service at a cost of about $5,000,000. It is situated 12 m. W. of Engle, Sierra county. Built across canyons of the Rio Grande, it governs the entire flow of the river and is the largest storage irrigation reservoir in the world. The average width of the reservoir is 1¼ m., maximum length 45 m.; the area of water surface, when full, 40,080 ac., the shore line 200 m.; the average depth 66 ft., and the maximum depth near the dam 193 ft. When full it holds 115,498,000,000 cub. ft., or 862,200,000,000 gallons. It irrigates 185,000 ac. of land, lying in New Mexico, Texas and Mexico (25,000 ac.).

About 15,000 men were inducted into service during the World War. The final allotments for the Liberty Loans, all heavily over-subscribed, were as follows: First, $1,392,850; Second, $3,860,100; Third, $5,903,300; Fourth, $5,898,100; Victory, $2,915,500.

The last territorial governor was W. J. Mills (Rep.), 1910–2. State governors were W. C. McDonald (Dem.), 1912–7; Ezequiel de Baca (Dem.), Jan. 1–Feb. 18 1917; W. E. Lindsey (Dem.), 1917–9; A. Larrazolo (Rep.), 1919–21; M. C. Mechem (Rep.), 1921–.