1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Philippine Islands

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PHILIPPINE ISLANDS (see 21.392). The census of 1918 gave the pop. as 10,350,640, of whom 855,368 were classed as non-Christians. The 9,495,272 Christians were in 1918: Filipinos, 9,429,857; Chinese, 45,156; Japanese, 6,684; Americans, 6,405; Spaniards, 4,015; English, 1,063; all others, 2,092. The non-Christians were subdivided into Mahommedans and pagans. In 1917 H. Otley Beyer, of the University of the Philippines, estimated the Mahommedan pop. at 315,980, while the provincial governors of Mindanao and Sulu estimated it in 1919 at 402,799. Of the pagans, approximately 30,000 were Negritos, and most of the others belonged to Malayan stocks. Headhunting among the pagans virtually ceased owing to vigilant Government control.

The Christians include eight races, namely, Tagalog, Sambal, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Iloko, Ibanag, Bicol, all inhabiting the island of Luzon and islands near it, and the Bisaya, inhabiting the southern islands, including part of Mindanao. Each race has a distinct language, which differs from the others as widely as the Romance languages differ among themselves. The English language is used currently in all parts of the islands, being spoken by more people than ever spoke Spanish. Literacy is high among the Christian population. The cultural position of the Negritos is about the same as when they were discovered by the Spanish in 1521. The so-called “wild” peoples (all pagans except for a few who have embraced Christianity) occupy about the stage of culture exhibited in the 16th century by the ancestors of the Christian Filipinos. The culture of the Christian Filipinos is distinctly occidental and is unique in the Orient.

Manila, the capital, and Baguio, the summer capital, located in the uplands, in the Mountain province, are the only two chartered cities. Manila, the metropolis, which coincides with Manila province, had in 1918 a pop. of 283,613, or 20,858 to the sq. m., and Baguio had 5,462. In the 55 provinces and sub-provinces, there were in 1918 881 municipalities, 80 municipal districts, and 15 other subdivisions. The largest municipalities in 1918 were: Cebú with 65,300 inhabitants; Albay (Luzon), with 53,105; Iloilo (Panay), with 49,808; Batangas (Luzon), with 41,182; Ormoc (Leyte), with 38,247; Laoag (Ilocos Norte), with 38,294; and Baybay (Leyte), with 36,934. The most important are Cebú and Iloilo. The most populous provinces are: Cebú, with 857,410 inhabitants; Leyte, with 597,995; Pangasinan, with 567,644; Iloilo, with 508,272; Occidental Negros, with 397,325; Sámar, with 380,211; Bohol, with 359,600, and Batangas, with 340,195. The most densely populated provinces, apart from Manila, are Ilocos Sur (Luzon), with 217,410 inhabitants, or 492 to the sq. m.; Siquijor (Oriental Negros), with 56,695, or 461 to the sq. m.; Cebú, with 459 to the sq. m.; La Unión (Luzon), with 160,575, or 459 to the sq. m.; Cavite (Luzon), with 157,347, or 339 to the sq. m.; Pampanga (Luzon), with 257,641, or 313 to the sq. m.; Pangasinan (Luzon), with 292 to the sq. m.; and Laguna (Luzon), with 195,371, or 271 to the sq. mile. The Batanes Is., a sub-province lying N. of Luzon, have the smallest pop. of any provincial division (8,214), and a density of 111 to the sq. mile. The least densely populated is the sub-province of Apayao (Mountain province, Luzon), which has 11,123 inhabitants, but only 6 to the sq. mile. The majority of the people are engaged in agricultural and allied pursuits, and among the professional classes are men of considerable attainments.

Agriculture.—Between 1913 and 1918 the cultivated area of the

Philippine Islands (total area, 73,585,583 ac. or 115,026 sq. m.) rose from 5,859,877 ac. or 7.96% of the whole, to 7,294,159 ac., or 9.91% of the whole. The Filipino tao or peasant, naturally a good farmer, has been slow to adopt modern and more efficient methods, but through the efforts of the Bureaus of Agriculture and Education a beginning has been made in some places. In 1918 the value of the agricultural output was $183,479,158. The nine most important crops were those of which the following table shows the area,

production and value in 1910 and 1918:—
  Acreage Production (tons) Value

1918 1910 1918 1910 1918 1910

 Rice  3,379,305   2,944,588  1,539,186  810,786   $67,581,687   $31,300,133 
 Abacá (manila hemp)  1,265,894  1,175,585  166,863  168,452  46,246,612  13,476,171 
 Coco-nuts 828,936  405,556   1,506,796,110   937,927,927  28,266,896  19,470,813 
(number)  (number) 
 Sugar-cane 507,612  205,412  396,242  152,639  20,579,389  7,631,966 
 Indian corn 1,033,413  1,432,026  309,798  392,484  10,509,324  11,774,525 
 Tobacco 193,754  132,456  61,555  28,006  7,609,577  3,780,915 
 Cacao 2,820  3,151  566  74  252,335  33,406 
 Coffee 1,896  2,637  721  85  222,991  34,378 
 Maguey (aloe) 80,524  21,237  16,664  4,628  1,853,606  277,700 
The production of rice fails to meet demand, and imports are

necessary. In 1910 imports amounted to 184,620 tons, and total consumption to 712,674 tons; in 1918 imports and exports were, respectively, 159,130 tons and 47 tons; and consumption, 1,161,344 tons; in 1919 imports and exports were respectively 148,724 and 296 tons, and total consumption, 1,067,699 tons. To prevent profiteering in so vital a commodity, the Government has, in times of scarcity, purchased rice abroad, and sold it at a fair price. The cultivation of abacá has been given a new impetus by a law (No. 2380) which grades the product according to the cleaning of the fibre. Sugar is raised in almost all the islands, but chiefly in Negros, Panay and Luzon.

The construction of up-to-date sugar “centrals” in many localities
is redeeming Philippine sugar from the evil reputation which the

“muscavado” sugar formerly bore. Corn is raised chiefly in Cebú, where the soil is especially fitted for it, and where this grain, instead of rice, is the chief crop. Tobacco is raised especially in Luzon and Cebú, the product of the Cagayan valley in Luzon being that most esteemed. Cacao comes chiefly from the provinces of Albay and Camarines in Luzon; coffee from Mindoro I. and the Mountain province (Luzon); and maguey (introduced from America) from Cebú and the province of Ilocos Sur (Luzon). An effort is being made to encourage the raising of sisal instead of maguey, the former being the better fibre. Abacá is a natural monopoly in the Philippine Islands, for it can be grown commercially nowhere else. It is grown in many of the islands, but in recent years extensive plantations have been laid out in Mindanao, where the constant moisture needed for its growth is afforded. For many years, this fibre formed one-half the exports from the islands, and is still one of the leading exports. The export of 89,438 metric tons in 1900 rose to 164,754 tons in 1910, and to 165,129 tons in 1918. Exports for 1919 fell to 131,898 tons valued at $26,861,526, while exports for 1920 were 139,250 tons valued at $35,862,000. The timber resources are important, virgin forests covering about 40,000 sq. miles. About 99% of all timber lands belong to the Government. Much of the timber consists of valuable hard woods. Timber land is not sold, but is developed under the licence system, small operators being granted a licence for one year, and large operators for 20 years. During 1919, 2,950 licences were issued, some of which were for gathering firewood. About 100,000,000 bd. ft. of lumber is used annually in the Philippines. Exports of lumber in 1918 were 4,178,520 bd. ft., valued at $219,397, and in 1919, 4,503,304 bd. ft., valued at $259,592. Modern forest products include charcoal, nipa, from which sugar and alcohol are made, various rattans and fibres, copal, tan barks, dyewoods, gutta percha and rubber, paper pulp, a soap bark, pili nuts, wax, wood-oil and medicinal plants. A school of forestry is maintained by the Government in which up-to-date, scientific lumbering instruction is given. The chief animal is the carabao or water buffalo, of which there were 1,047,164 in 1913 and 1,271,208 in 1917. Other domestic animals for these two years numbered respectively: cows, 418,114 and 603,107; horses and mules, 179,089 and 214,204. During most years of American occupation, the carabao was assailed by rinderpest, and the archipelago in 1920 was slowly recovering from its effects. The heavy mortality of carabao hampered agriculture, especially the cultivation of rice which was much retarded at times. The Government employed various methods in its efforts to eradicate the disease, including inoculation with a special serum, strict quarantine, and even the killing of whole herds.

Minerals.—Mineral products include gold, silver, iron, copper, manganese, coal, petroleum, shale, sulphur, asphalt, asbestos, clay products, lime, sand and gravel, stone, salt, and mineral waters. The total value of the mineral output in 1907 was $117,046; in 1917. $3,018,225; and in 1918, $3,276,677. Between July 1 1902 and Dec. 31 1918, 10,943 mining claims were taken out, of which 6,683 were for gold, 1,893 for petroleum and 607 for copper. The gold output in 1908 was valued at $217,250; in 1913 at $868,362; in 1917 at $1,408,309; in 1918 (from 24 mines) at $1,287,985 and in 1919 at $1,309,724. Iron-ore deposits in Surigao province, estimated to contain about 500,000,000 metric tons, with 45 to 50% iron, have been reserved for the Government. Other rich deposits are said to exist in Bukidnon province in Mindanao. The manufactured iron all came from the mines of Angac in Luzon and was chiefly used for the making of plough points. Copper is found especially in Luzon at Mancayan, where it has been mined and smelted many years by the Igorot by primitive methods. Deposits of coal are found in many localities, although much of it is lignite. Attempts have been made to develop the deposits in the eastern part of Batan I., and in 1920 the Philippine Coal Mining Co. was said to be producing about 300 tons daily. In 1919 the output was 32,892 metric tons, valued at $411,000. Much attention has been given to the development of the coal deposits by the Government, and no little money was lost, but the industry seems at last to be on a good basis. Deposits of fair steaming coal are said to cover 58 sq. m. and to contain 61,788,000 metric tons. The National Coal Co. was organized in 1919, with

Government capital, to exploit Government deposits.
Manufactures.—The Philippines have passed beyond the initial

stage of manufacturing, although it is probably true that the manufacturing industries will long be limited in number. Embroideries and laces, the making of which has been fostered by the Bureau of Education as well as by some private schools, find a ready market, and during the World War when Belgium and Switzerland were unable to supply their markets, demand for the Philippine product was stimulated. The industry is still largely one of the home. Rope is made from abacá, both by the old rope-walk method and by modern machinery. Much of the abacá is stripped by machinery, although fibre cleaned carefully by hand is still the best. Saw-milling is increasing in importance, some of the mills being equipped with modern machinery. In 1910 there was only one sugar “central” in the archipelago for the production of centrifugal sugar. In 1920 there were 28, and the reputation of Philippine sugar was rising in

consequence. The war gave a great stimulus to the expressing of
coco-nut oil, because of the impossibility of obtaining sufficient

shipping for the export of the bulky copra. There were in 1920 more than 30 oil-mills, which produced over 100,000 tons of oil, the value of the product having increased in five years from about $1,000,000 to about $30,000,000 and furnishing about one-fourth of the export trade of the islands. The Philippines are the third producing coco-nut region in the world, there being over 800,000 ac. with about 68,000,000 trees, of which some 40,000,000 were bearing in 1920. The output of cigars in 1910 was 285,561,328; in 1913, 282,096,996; in 1918, 367,022,982 and in 1919, 517,343,450. The output of cigarettes for the same years was respectively 4,173,507,249; 4,384,807,247; 4,720,005,675 and 5,203,331,200. In 1918 there were 82 factories manufacturing cigars and 23 manufacturing cigarettes. In 1916 a tobacco inspection law was enacted by the Philippine Legislature providing for the improvement of the leaf and for inspection of leaf tobacco and of manufactured products, and prohibiting export to the United States unless certain fixed standards were met. In 1918 there were 10,583 factories in the archipelago, of which 1,047 were in Manila. Of the 182,117 employees, 21,828 were in Manila.

Communications.—In 1908 there were only 246 m. of first-class roads and bridges in the archipelago; in 1913, 1,303 m. of the first class; 1,264 m. of the second; and 1,937 of the third; and in 1919, 2,796; 1,235; and 1,984 m. respectively. Third-class roads are as a general rule fit only for carts and animals, and then only during the dry season. In 1919 cost of maintenance of old roads and bridges was $1,959,780. The archipelago has two railway systems, namely the Manila Railroad Co. operating in Luzon, and the Philippine Railway Co. operating in the islands of Cebú and Panay. The first had in 1913 517 m. of tracksand in 1918 640 m. This company, under contract with the Government, partly completed a line to the summer capital, Baguio, but could not carry the project to a successful end. In Jan. 1917 the Government of the Philippine Islands purchased the company's holdings and since that period the lines have been undergoing reconstruction. The Philippine Railway Co., an American concern, had 60 m. of track in 1910 (the first year of operation), and 133 m. in 1918. Under authority of an Act of Congress, approved Feb. 6 1905, the Insular Government guarantees 4% interest for a period not to exceed 30 years on the first lien bonds issued by the Manila Railroad Co. for new construction in southern Luzon, and the same to the Philippine Railway Co. The combined issues of both companies totalled $22,263,000. The lines in southern Luzon and those in Cebú and Panay have opened to active trade large stretches of territory and are affecting the industry of their districts. During recent years the number of motor vehicles has increased markedly, and they are now seen in almost all parts of the islands. An up-to-date electric street-railway system is operated in Manila. Post-offices increased in number from 540 in 1908 to 828 in 1918, and municipalities with free delivery service from 31 in 1908 to 462 in 1918. Telegraph offices (Government owned and operated) increased during the same period from 161 to 320. The inter-island cables are also owned and operated

by the Government. Manila has an efficient telephone service.
Shipping.—Manila is the chief port, but the ports of Iloilo, Cebú,

Zamboanga, and a few others share to some degree in the domestic and foreign trade. In 1911 there were 906 entries of foreign ships and 854 departures, with net tonnage of 1,849,475 and 1,787,650 respectively; and in 1918, 652 entries and 659 departures, with net tonnages of 1,412,871 and 1,544,648 respectively. The United Kingdom, which had uniformly occupied first place in the total foreign carrying trade of the islands, lost that position to Japan in 1917, but regained it in 1919, when British bottoms carried 525,000 tons. In the latter year, British and Japanese vessels carried 63% of the total foreign trade. Ships of the United States, which moved only 44,000 tons in 1916, moved 441,000 tons in 1919, while Philippine shipping engaged in foreign trade rose from 80,000 tons in 1916 to 128,000 tons in 1919. In value of cargo, British bottoms led in the import carrying trade up to and including 1917. In that year British ships carried cargoes valued at $25,865,273; Japanese, $18,964,331; and United States, $9,731,816. In 1918, Japanese ships carried import cargoes valued at $29,304,836; United States, $28,041,294; and British, $24,406,231. In the export trade, British bottoms also took first place up to and including 1917. In that year, British ships carried exports valued at $28,903,609; United States, $27,599,076; and Japanese, $24,657,632. In 1918 U.S. vessels carried exports valued at $53,389,398; British, $36,093,713; and Japanese, $24,544,204. In 1918 ships of the United States took first place in the total value of the foreign carrying trade, moving goods valued at $81,403,692, with the United Kingdom and Japan taking second and third place respectively. In recent years

new piers and warehouses have been built in Manila.
Foreign Trade.—Imports rose from $29,186,120 in 1908 to

$149,400,000 in 1920. Exports were $32,601,072 in 1908; $151,100,000 in 1920. The balance of trade was in favour of the Philippines during 1914-8, and in 1920. Import trade with the United States rose from $35,813 in 1874 to $92,289,773 in 1920. Exports to the United States rose from $2,657,333 m '874 to $105,216,263 in 1920. In 1874 the import and export trade with the United Kingdom was valued respectively at $1,737,487 and $3,032,950; and in 1918 at $2,764,407 and $19,481,698 respectively. Imports from and exports

to Japan were valued respectively at $13,104,055 and $7,968,304;
China, $6,576,962 and $3,249,290; French East Indies, $6,978,043

(mainly rice) and $1,302,376; Hong-Kong, $56,877 and $5,051,664. Total trade with France was valued at $1,785,167 in 1918; Germany, $366,534; Spain, $3,940,167; Australasia, $4,431,883; British East Indies, $3,515,885; Switzerland, $607,870; Italy, $189,152; Netherlands, $45,463; Hawaii, $479,436; Siam, $1,219,673 and all other

countries, $1,494,421.

Government.—In 1913, upon the occasion of the appointment by the President of the United States of a new governor-general of the Philippines, majority membership on the Philippine Commission was given to the Filipinos by presidential appointment. On Aug 29 1916 the U.S. Congress passed the Jones Act. The short preamble declared that “it has always been the purpose of the people of the United States to withdraw their sovereignty over the Philippine Islands and to recognize their independence as soon as a stable form of government can be established therein.” The Act created a Senate to supersede the Philippine Commission, 12 senatorial districts being established, each of which is represented by two senators elected by duly qualified voters except the 12th district (consisting of the Department of Mindanao and Sulu, the Mountain province, Baguio, and Nueva Vizcaya), whose senators are appointed by the governor-general. The Philippine Assembly was replaced by the House of Representatives, the membership of 81 of the Assembly to be increased in the new body by three representatives from the Mountain province, one from Nueva Vizcaya, and five from the Department of Mindanao and Sulu. Senators are required to be over 30 years of age, able to read and write English or Spanish, and to have been residents of the Philippines for at least two consecutive years and actual residents of the senatorial districts from which elected for at least one year immediately preceding election. Representatives must be over 25 years of age, and have the same residential qualification.

Senators are elected for six years, representatives for three. The Act extended the suffrage to males of 21 or over, to include those who under previous law were legal voters and had exercised their right; those who owned real property to the value of $250; those who annually paid $15 or more of the established taxes; and those who were able to read and write either Spanish, English, or a native language. Two resident commissioners with three-year terms were provided for, and paid by, the United States, to be over 30 years of age and bona fide electors; these commissioners to have seats in the House of Representatives at Washington, with right of debate but no vote in that body. The Legislature convenes on Oct. 16, but it may change that date within certain limits if it choose. A governor-general, vice-governor, auditor, and deputy auditor are appointed by the President of the United States, by and with the consent of the Senate. The vice-governor is in control of the Bureaus of Education and Health, but the remainder of his former bureaus and his subordinate duties were shifted to the Interior Department. Power is given to the Legislature to reorganize the other departments and bureaus of the Government. The chief justice and associate justices of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President of the United States by and with the consent of the Senate, and the judges of the courts of first instance are similarly appointed by the governor-general by and with the advice of the Senate of the Philippine Islands. The awards of the Supreme Court are reviewable by the Supreme Court of the United States.

The Government as reorganized consists of the following groups

of departments, bureaus, and offices. On the governor-general depend directly the Bureau of Audits, the civil service, and all other offices and branches of the service not assigned by law to any department. On the Department of the Interior depend the Bureau of non-Christian tribes (provided for in the organic Act), the Philippine general hospital, Boards of Pharmaceutical Examiners, Medical Examiners, Dental Examiners and Dental Hygiene, Optical Examiners, examination for nurses. On the Executive Bureau depend the Philippine constabulary, and Bureau of Dependent Children. On the Department of Public Instruction depend the Bureau of Education, the Philippine Health Service, and Bureau of Quarantine Service. On the Department of Finance depend the Bureaus of Customs, Internal Revenue, Treasury and Printing, the general supervision over banks, banking transactions, coinage, currency, and (except as otherwise specially provided) over all funds the investment of which may be authorized by law. On the Department

of Justice depend the Bureau of Justice, the courts of first instance
and the inferior courts, Philippine Library and Museum, Bureau of

Prisons and Public Utility Commission. On the Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources depend the Bureaus of Agriculture, Forestry, Lands, Science, Weather, and matters concerning hunting, fisheries, sponges and other sea products. On the Department of Commerce and Communications depend the Bureau of Public Works, Posts, Supply, Labor, Coast and Geodetic Survey, and Commerce and Industry. The secretaries of the several departments form the Cabinet.

There are in all 46 provinces, 34 of which are regular provinces and the rest special or sub-provinces. The chief executive of a province is the provincial governor, who is elective. He together with two other members, also elective, forms the provincial board or legislative branch of the provincial Government. In the special or sub-provinces, with the exception of Mindoro, Palawan, and Batanes, the provincial governor is appointive. The chief official of a town or municipality is the municipal president. The municipal council or legislative branch of the municipal Government consists of from 8 to 18 councillors, according to the size of the municipality.

In Oct. 1918 the governor-general, by an executive order, created the Council of State as an advisory body. This body, composed of the heads of all the executive departments and the presiding officers of the two Houses of the Philippine Archipelago, has become an integral part of the governmental system and is frequently referred to in legislation. The meetings of the Council have practically superseded those of the Cabinet, and it has been entrusted by the Legislature with certain executive functions. Policies decided on in the Council meeting are assured full consideration in the Legislature. Among other things the Council prepares and submits the budget.

Education.—Special attention has been paid to public education by the Government. Each of the 49 school divisions of the archipelago follows in general provincial boundary lines, except that of Manila and four insular schools, namely Philippine normal school, Philippine school of arts and trades, Philippine nautical school, and Central Luzon agricultural school, each of which is considered a distinct division. The public-school system, which aims at the creation of a staff of English-speaking Filipino teachers, is under the director of education, with central offices in Manila. There are seven elementary grades (four primary and three intermediate) and a four-year high-school course. Much attention is paid to industrial training, and to recreational athletics. Baseball and other games have had great influence throughout the islands. Each school division is in charge of a division superintendent and each of the several districts in a division of a supervising teacher. In 1908 there were 3,932 public schools, with a total enrolment of 486,676. In 1919, 749 new primary schools and 111 new intermediate schools were opened, with an increase during one year of 104,560 pupils in the elementary grades, and a record enrolment of 776,596 pupils in all public schools. During that year, 2,963 additional elementary teachers were appointed, and 300 primary schools constructed. Tuition fees were abolished in all intermediate schools. In 1908 $2,563,553 was spent for public education, and in 1918 $5,365,105. The Philippine normal school, in Manila, draws its pupils from all parts of the islands. There were in 1920 50 provincial high schools, 20 provincial trade schools, 14 provincial shops, 13 large agricultural schools, 15 farm schools, and 162 settlement farm schools. The farm schools ranged in size from about 125 to 2,000 ac. and the settlement farm schools from about 40 to 125 acres. School gardens, which have become an essential part of the public educational system, number about 4,000, and home gardens, the result of this instruction, over 100,000. A standard type of school buildings has been evolved, and there were in 1920 865 satisfactory school buildings (many constructed of concrete) and 2,170 buildings of semi-permanent and permanent types. In 1910 the Government began the systematic supervision of private schools, requiring courses in English and harmonizing the work with that of the public schools. New methods, courses, and text-books have been introduced, and all private schools complying with requirements have been given the same standing as Government schools. In 1920 there were about 300 accredited private schools with a total enrolment of 38,544 and a teaching force of 1,600. Higher education is provided for by the university of the Philippines, a Government institution, and by the Dominican University of Santo Tomás. The university of the Philippines in 1920 had 31 buildings of permanent materials. The total enrolment for 1919-20 was 3,427. Its three presidenti were, successively, an American, a Filipino and an American. The university of Santo Tomás, the oldest university under the flag of the United States, has departments of law, medicine, pharmacy, civil engineering, philosophy and letters, and theology. It has five buildings including a dormitory, and for the year 1919-20 had an enrolment of 701. Between the years 1914 and 1919 its graduates numbered 347. The educational programme of the islands has from the first had the hearty endorsement of the Filipino people, and Filipino legislators have at all times supported almost unanimously any movement looking toward the improvement of educational conditions. In Dec. 1918, $15,000,000 were appropriated by the Legislature for the extension of public schools. Instruction is being extended rapidly among the non-Christian population. In addition to the education supplied in the Philippines, some 9,000 Filipinos

are attending schools, colleges and universities in the United States;
some of these receive Government aid, but the majority are

paying for their own instruction. The work of the Philippine library and museum is largely educational in character. This institution was first founded as the Philippine library, May 20 1909. After the passage of the Jones Bill of 1916 it was amalgamated with the Philippine archives and the museum. It has charge of all the books owned by the Insular Government. The manuscripts of the library number several millions, the books in all over a quarter of a million.

Finance.—Philippine currency in circulation on June 30 1908 amounted to 40,337,982 pesos or 4.82 per capita; on Dec. 31 1913 to 50,697,253 or 5.53 per capita; and on Dec. 31 1919 to 146,500,000, or 14.16 per capita. The Philippine peso, nominally equivalent to $0.50 U.S., was in June 1921 quoted in New York City at $0.46 and has even reached much lower levels; in Nov. 1921 it was quoted at $0.4975. The total revenues and expenditures of the Insular Government for the year ending June 30 1908 were respectively, $10,899,261 and $11,469,785; and for 1919, $39,843,461 and $43,371,294. The great increases in revenues began in 1916 simultaneously with the large trade balances in favour of the Philippines. Revenues are mainly from customs collections, internal revenues and receipts from land taxes and leases. Customs collections for the year 1919 were $7,712,653 and for 1920, $8,878,932; and collections of internal revenues for 1919 $26,641,373. The latter collections come mainly from the excise tax, licence, profession and occupation taxes, cedulas, franchise taxes, income tax, documentary stamp tax, and inheritance tax. The bonded indebtedness for the Insular and municipal Governments as of June 30 1919 was $20,125,000, that for the former being $16,000,000. Commercial bank assets rose from $31,872,964 in 1913 to $177,293,860 in 1919. In 1908 postal savings bank deposits were $774,105 and withdrawals $512,839; and in 1918 $2,942,762 and $2,599,775 respectively; in 1919 there were 417 postal savings banks in operation. In 1919, operations of the eight banks in Manila reached a total of $4,197,682,000. The Philippine National Bank, the sole depository of the Government, with headquarters in Manila, has 11 branches and 41 provincial agencies in the Philippines, and branches in Shanghai and New York. Its assets on June 30 1920 amounted to $118,749,138. More recently reverses, due, it is reported, to poor management and the business crisis, overtook the


History.—W. Cameron Forbes was appointed acting governor-general in May 1909, and on Nov. 11 of the same year governor-general, succeeding James T. Smith. During his term, which expired on Oct. 6 1913, many public improvements were made, and the principle of the Filipinization of the civil service was carried out consistently, although comparatively few Filipinos were appointed to the higher offices.

The Taal volcano, which had been quiescent for a century and a half, erupted on Jan. 30 1911. Some 1,300 lives were lost. The outburst was accompanied by violent earthquakes, of which 1,014 were registered in Manila in about a fortnight. Earthquakes are of frequent occurrence in all parts of the islands, but are rarely of magnitude. During Governor-General Forbes's term no general appropriation measure for the expenses of Government was passed after that of 1910, because the two Houses could not agree upon the method of drawing it. In consequence, the provision of the organic Act of 1902 which declared that in the event of the failure to pass a general appropriation measure, the sum appropriated last should be considered as reappropriated, was declared to be in effect, and proclamation was so made each year. The breach between the two Houses tended to widen, and much constructive legislation that should have been enacted failed of passage. Educational measures, however, were generally assured of enactment and one is continually struck by the number of measures of this kind passed by each session of the Legislature. During this period also the demand for political independence by certain Filipino leaders, especially by Manuel Quezon, for part of the time resident commissioner in Washington, was constant and insistent. The Americans in the Philippines, regarded as appointees of the political party in control in the United States, were skilfully made to appear hostile to Filipino interests, and that administration was represented as withholding an inherent right of the Filipino people. The desire of the Filipinos for independence was and is real, and has grown with each succeeding year; the whole course of American administration has fostered that aspiration, and continually greater autonomy has been granted, although differences of opinion have been manifest as to the safety with which this could be done.

The change of administration in Washington in 1913 was hailed with delight by the Filipinos, in the belief that it would soon lead to political independence. On Oct. 6 1913 Francis Burton Harrison, who had been appointed governor-general by President Wilson, arrived in Manila, and immediately assumed office. By presidential appointment the majority on the Philippine Commission passed to the Filipinos. Various changes were made by the new governor-general in the personnel of several of the bureaus, the chief innovation being that Filipinos were appointed to a number of the higher posts. On Jan. 1 1917 there were 31 Americans and 22 Filipinos acting as chiefs and assistant chiefs, and on July 1 1920, 20 Americans and 30 Filipinos. On the latter date there were 760 Americans and 12,047 Filipinos connected with the Government, while in 1913 there had been 2,623 of the former and 6,363 of the latter. This increased rapidity in the Filipinization of the civil service after 1913, especially of the higher offices, has been criticized on the ground of decreased efficiency, but while this was necessarily the result to a considerable extent, it was not universally so, and the policy led, as a natural corollary, to a greater official harmony than had reigned previously. In Feb. 1916 an Act of the Legislature, providing a temporary pension for employees who had been in the service of the Philippine Government for from six to ten years or longer, gave an impetus to many Americans to request retirement under the terms of that Act. While technically the provisions of the Act apply to Filipinos as well as to Americans, it has been the policy of the Government to retire eligible Filipinos only because of age or physical disability. Upon the declaration of war against Germany by the United States, many Americans resigned to enlist, and it was felt that Americans were leaving the Philippine service too rapidly, especially the teachers. A very earnest effort was made after the war to recruit American teachers.

The virtual Filipino autonomy resulting from the above-mentioned changes was increased by the enactment by Congress in Aug. 1916 of the Jones Act, by which the Philippine Commission was replaced by an elective Senate (see Government above). The era of good feeling, inaugurated in 1913 by the change of Government, was seen almost immediately in the passing of an appropriation measure for the general expenses of Government the first to be enacted since 1910. Such measures have been passed annually since. One of the early Acts of the Legislature was to reduce certain salaries, especially those of the Philippine commissioners and of certain bureau chiefs; but, as in the United States, a bonus system was later adopted because of the increase in the cost of living and the governor-general recommended that salaries be increased. In 1915 the Philippine National Bank was created, taking over the former Agricultural Bank owned by the Government, which had never functioned acceptably. In the same year the Code Committee, after several years' work, finished the administrative code of the islands, which was passed by the Legislature. Among the first Acts of the all-Filipino Legislature of 1916-7 was the reorganization of the several departments of the Government, the result being that the Department of Public Instruction came to be the only one directly under an American.

The period was marked by generous appropriations for educational purposes, the most notable of these being the appropriation of $15,332,912 for the extension of free elemental education (see Education above). A previous Act prohibiting the display of the Philippine flag was repealed, a measure desired most ardently by Filipinos.

Upon the declaration of war against Germany by the United States, the Filipinos offered to supply a division of troops for the U.S. army and to supply funds for the construction of a destroyer and submarine for the U.S. navy, and there was a generous subscription to the Red Cross and to Liberty bonds. A volunteer National Guard was formed, which was joined by many of the Filipino youth, this being disbanded in 1919. There were also many Filipinos who served in the army and navy of the United States. In this connexion it should be noted that Filipinos have been admitted to West Point and Annapolis. Some 22 German ships, which had been interned in Manila harbour at the beginning of the World War, were seized after the American declaration of war, and the crews sent to an internment camp in the United States after a partly successful attempt had been made to damage the machinery and scuttle the vessels. Business during the war was brisk, notwithstanding the lack of shipping; but after the war, a depression developed from which the islands had not recovered in 1921. Governor-General Harrison resigned his post, as from March 3 1921, because of the change of administration in the United States, and Vice-Governor Yeater became acting governor-general. Shortly after assuming office, President Harding despatched Maj.-Gen. Leonard Wood and W. Cameron Forbes to the Philippines to make a complete survey and report on conditions. On Oct. 5 1921 Gen. Wood took oath of office as governor-general of the islands.

The Wood-Forbes report recommended, among other things, “that the present general status of the Philippine Islands continue until the people have had time to absorb and thoroughly master the powers already in their hands,” and “that under no circumstances should the American Government permit to be established in the Philippine Islands a situation which would leave the United States in a position of responsibility without authority.”

Bibliography.—John Arnold, The Philippines (official guide,

Manila, Bureau of Printing, 1912); H. Otley Beyer, Population of the Philippine Islands in 1916 (1917); Carl Crow, America and the Philippines (1914); Frederick Chamberlin, The Philippine Problem, 1898-1913 (1913); Charles B. Elliott, The Philippines to the End of the Commission Government and The Philippines to the End of the Military Régime; Mary H. Fee, A Woman's Impressions of the Philippines (1910); Leandro H. Fernández, A Brief History of the Philippines; Maximo M. Kalaw, The Case for the Filipino (1916), A Guide Book to the Philippine Question (1919), and Self-Government in the Philippines (1919); George A. Malcolm, The Government of the Philippine Islands (1916); Hugo Miller, Economic Conditions in the Philippines (1920); José P. Melencio, Arguments against Philippine Independence and their Answers (1919); Population and Mortality of the Philippine Islands (Bull. No. 4, Manila 1920); James A. Robertson, The Extraordinary Sessions of the Philippine Legislature and the Work of the Philippine Assembly (1910) and The Philippines since the Inauguration of the Philippine Assembly (1917); Statistical Bulletin No. 2 (Manila 1919); Cornelis de Witt Willcox, The Headhunters of Northern Luzon (1912); Daniel R. Williams, The Odyssey of the Philippine Commission (1913);

Dean C. Worcester, The Philippines Past and Present (1914).
(J. A. Ro.)