1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Schuster, Sir Arthur

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SCHUSTER, SIR ARTHUR (1851-       ), British physicist, was born in Frankfort-on-Main Sept. 12 1851, the son of Francis Joseph Schuster, of Frankfort, who in early life made his home in London, where he carried on a successful business as merchant-banker in Cannon St., his three sons, Ernest Joseph (b.1850), subsequently a well-known lawyer, Arthur, and Felix (see below), being brought up, like himself, as British subjects. Arthur Schuster was educated at Owens College, Manchester, and at Heidelberg University, and devoted himself to a scientific career as an astronomer and mathematical physicist. He was chief of the “Eclipse” expedition to Siam in 1875, and from 1888 to 1907 was professor of physics in Manchester University, his main work for many years being connected with advanced research in spectroscopy, on which subject he contributed the article in the 9th ed. of the E.B. in 1887 (as also to the 11th ed. in 1910). He was awarded the royal medal of the Royal Society in 1893, and was one of the secretaries of the Royal Society from 1912 till 1920. He was president of the British Association in 1915, having in 1892 acted as sectional president for astronomy, and he became well known throughout the scientific world, receiving hon. degrees from both Oxford and Cambridge. He was also secretary of the International Research Council, and during the World War, both in that capacity and as a representative of the Royal Society, he did invaluable work as a scientific adviser in connexion with the organization of research in various departments. He was knighted in 1920, and was appointed a member of the royal commission on the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. His numerous publications include works on Theory of Optics (2nd ed. 1909), The Progress of Physics (1911) and Britain's Heritage of Science (1917).

His brother, Sir Felix Schuster, Bart. (1854-       ), was also educated at Owens College, Manchester, and studied further abroad, afterwards making his career in London banking. From 1895 he was identified, as governor, with the Union Bank of London, afterwards the Union of London & Smiths Bank, and in 1918 amalgamated with the National Provincial Bank as the National Provincial & Union Bank of England. He was a member of the Council of India from 1906 to 1916, and became chairman both of the Central Association of Bankers and of the Committee of London Clearing Banks. In these years he established for himself a leading position in financial and economic circles, and was made a member of several important Government committees and royal commissions, his annual addresses to the shareholders of his bank being recognized, with those of Sir Edward Holden (of the London, City & Midland Bank), as among the most important contributions of the day to sound thinking on current monetary problems. He was created a baronet in 1906.