1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Smith-Dorrien, Sir Horace Lockwood
SMITH-DORRIEN, SIR HORACE LOCKWOOD (1858-), British general, was born May 26 1858. He joined the army in 1876, took part in the Zulu war and in the Egyptian campaign of 1882 and, attached to the Egyptian army, served at Suakin in 1884 and afterwards on the Nile in 1885-6, for which he was given the D.S.O. He took part in the Tirah campaign of 1897-8 and, showing conspicuous skill in handling troops, was rewarded with a brevet lieutenant-colonelcy. Immediately afterwards he was summoned to the Sudan to take part in the final advance to Khartum; for this he was promoted brevet colonel. He went out to the Cape in command of his regiment in 1899 and was shortly afterwards given a brigade and promoted major-general; he remained in the field in S. Africa, taking part in numerous operations, until the end of 1901, when he was appointed adjutant-general in India. From 1903 to 1907 he acted, first as a district, and afterwards as a divisional commander, being promoted lieutenant-general in 1906. He was then brought home to take up the command at Aldershot, an appointment which he filled with marked success until 1912, when he was transferred to the Southern Command; he was promoted general that year.
On the death of Gen. Grierson in Aug. 1914 while the Expeditionary Force was still assembling in France, Sir H. Smith-Dorrien (who had been given the G.C.B. in 1913) was appointed commander of the II. Army Corps. At Mons, and during the subsequent retreat, the brunt of the enemy's onsets fell upon his troops, and when hard pressed near Le Cateau he found himself obliged to halt and to give battle; by his resolute action he effectually checked pursuit, although his losses were somewhat heavy. He subsequently commanded his corps at the battle of the Marne, on the Aisne, and during the severe fighting in Flanders in Oct. and Nov. On the splitting up of the Expeditionary Force into two armies he was appointed to the command of the II., receiving the G.C.M.G. for his services. This position he occupied until April 1915, when he returned to England and was placed in charge of one of the Home Defence armies. In the following Nov. he was chosen to take charge of the operations against German East Africa, but he fell ill on the voyage out, was unable to take up the command, and had to return home. He was appointed lieutenant of the Tower in 1917 and in 1918 became governor and commander-in-chief at Gibraltar.