A Compendium of the Theological Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg/10 Signification of Various Terms and Subjects in the Word

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The Days of Creation.

The six days or periods, which are so many successive states, of man's regeneration are in general as follows:—

The first state is that which precedes, both from infancy and immediately before regeneration, and is called a void, emptiness, and darkness. And the first motion, which is the Lord's mercy, is the Spirit of God moving over the faces of the waters.

The second state is when there is a division between those things which are the Lord's and those that are man's own. Those which are of the Lord are called in the Word remains[1] (reliquœ), and are here especially cognitions of faith acquired from infancy. They are laid up and not manifested until he comes into this state; a state which rarely exists at this day without temptation, misfortune, and sorrow,—which cause the things that are of the body and the world to be quiescent, and as it were dead. The things that are of the external man are thus separated from those that belong to the internal man. In the internal are the remains laid up by the Lord to this time, and for this use.

The third is a state of repentance, in which from the internal man he talks piously and devoutly, and brings forth things good, as works of charity; but which are yet inanimate, because he believes them to be from himself. And they are called the tender herb; then, the herb yielding seed; and afterwards, the tree hearing fruit.

The fourth state is when he is affected by love, and enlightened by faith. Before indeed he talked piously, and brought forth things that were good, but from a state of temptation and distress, not from faith and charity. These are therefore now enkindled in the internal man, and are called two luminaries.

The fifth state is, that he talks from faith, and confirms himself thereby in truth and good. The things which he now produces are animate, and are called the fishes of the sea, and the birds of the heavens.

The sixth state is when he utters truths and does good deeds from faith, and therefore from love. The things that he now produces are called the living soul, and the beast. And as he now begins to act at once both from faith and from love, he becomes a spiritual man; who is called an image. His spiritual life is delighted, and is sustained, by those things which are of the cognitions of faith and of the works of charity, which are called his meat; and his natural life is delighted and supported by those things that belong to the body and the senses; whence a conflict arises, until love reigns, and he becomes a celestial man.

They that are regenerated do not all attain this state. But some,—at this day even the greater part,—only reach the first; some only the second; some the third; the fourth; the fifth,—rarely the sixth; and scarcely any one the seventh. (A. C. n. 6-13.)


There were those at that time who formed doctrine out of the perceived truths of the Most Ancient and the succeeding churches, that it might serve for a test by which to know what is good and true. Such were called Enoch. This is signified by the words,—"And Enoch walked with God." Thus also they named that doctrine; and this [doctrine] too is signified by the name Enoch, which means to instruct. The same also appears from the signification of the word walk, and from the circumstance that he is said to have walked with God, and not with Jehovah. To walk with God is to teach and to live according to the doctrine of faith; but to walk with Jehovah is to live the life of love. To walk is a customary form of expression signifying to live; as to walk in the law, to walk in the statutes, to walk in the truth. To walk properly has relation to a way, which is of truth, consequently, which is of faith or of the doctrine of faith. (A. C. n. 519.)

"He was not, for God took him," signifies that that doctrine was preserved for the use of their posterity. The fact with regard to Enoch is, as was said, that he reduced to doctrine the perceived truth of the Most Ancient Church. This at that time was not permitted; for it is a very different thing to cognize by perception and to learn from doctrine. They who are in perception have no need to learn to know by the way of formulated doctrine what they have cognizance of; just as, for the sake of illustration, he who knows how to think well has no need to learn to think artificially, whereby his faculty of thinking well would be destroyed, as with those who cleave to scholastic dust. They who [learn] from perception, to them it is given by the Lord by an internal way to cognize what is good and true; but they who [learn] from doctrine, to them it is given to know by an external way or through the bodily senses. The difference is as between light and darkness. Add to this that the perceptions of the celestial man can in no wise be described; for they enter into the very least and most single particulars, with every variety according to states and circumstances. But as it was foreseen that the perceptive faculty of the Most Ancient Church would be lost, and that afterwards men would learn what is true and good by doctrines, or through darkness come to the light, therefore it is said that God took him; that is He preserved [the doctrine] for the use of their posterity. (ib. n. 521.)

The Giants.

"There were giants (Nephilim) in the earth in those days" (Gen. vi. 4). By Nephilim are signified those who from a persuasion of their own eminence and great superiority set at naught all things holy and true. This appears from what precedes and presently follows, namely, that they immersed doctrinal truths in their lusts, which is signified by these words, that "The sons of God went in unto the daughters of men" ["sons of God" signifying doctrinal truths of faith, and "the daughters of men" lusts, as shown before, n. 570]; and here that "they bare unto them." The high opinion of themselves and of their own conceits increases,—and that too according to the multitude of the falsities entering into them,—so that at length it becomes indelible; and when doctrinal truths of faith are added, they become so strongly persuaded of their principles that they set at naught all things holy and true, and become Nephilim. This race, which lived before the flood, is of such a character, as was said before, that they so deaden and suffocate every spirit with their most horrible conceits, which are poured forth from them like a poisonous and suffocating sphere, that the spirits do not in the least know how to think, and seem to themselves half dead. And if the Lord by His coming into the world had not freed the world of spirits from so malignant a race no one could have existed there; and therefore the human race would have perished, for it is governed by the Lord by means of spirits. . . . Further mention is made of them in the Word; and their posterity are called Anakim and Rephaim. That they are called Anakim appears in Moses:—The explorers of the land of Cannan said, There saw we the Nephilim, the sons of Anak, of the Nephilim; and we were in our own eyes as grasshoppers, and so were we in their eyes" (Numb. xiii. 23). That they are called Rephaim appears also in Moses:—"The Emim dwelt before in the land of Moab, a people great and many, and tall, as the Anakim; they were also accounted Rephaim (giants) as the Anakim; and the Moabites called them Emim" (Deut. ii. 10, 11). The Nephilim are no more mentioned, but the Rephaim, who are described by the Prophets as of such a character as has been stated. Thus in Isaiah:—"Hell beneath was moved for thee, to meet thee at thy coming; it hath stirred up the Rephaim for thee" (xiv. 9). The subject referred to is the hell where such have their abode. In the same:—"The dead shall not live; the Rephaim shall not rise; for that thou hast visited and destroyed them, and made all their memory to perish" (xxvi. 14). Here also their hell is spoken of, from which they shall no more rise. . . . And in David:—"Wilt thou show wonders to the dead? shall the Rephaim arise and praise Thee?" (Ps, lxxxviii. 10). This likewise is said of their hell, and signifies that they cannot rise and infest the sphere of the world of spirits with the most direful poison of their persuasions. But it has been provided by the Lord that the human race should no longer be imbued with such dreadful conceits and persuasions. Those that lived before the flood were of such a nature and genius that they could be imbued therewith, for a reason hitherto known to no one, but of which by the Lord's Divine mercy hereafter. (A. C. n. 581.)

Repentance of the Lord.

"And it repented Jehovah that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart" (Gen. vi. 6). That Jehovah repented signifies mercy; that He grieved at heart has a similar signification. To repent has relation to wisdom: to grieve at heart has relation to love.

That Jehovah repented that He had made man on the earth signifies mercy, and that He grieved at heart also signifies mercy, is evident from the consideration that Jehovah never repents, because He foresees all and every thing from eternity; and when He made man, that is created him anew, and perfected him till he became celestial, He also foresaw that in process of time he would become such as he now was, and therefore He could not repent. This plainly appears in Samuel. Samuel said, "The Strength of Israel will not lie, nor repent; for He is not a man that He should repent" (1 Sam. xv. 29). And in Moses:—"God is not a man that He should lie, neither the son of man that He should repent: hath He said, and shall He not do it? or hath He spoken, and shall He not make it good?" (Numb, xxiii. 19).

But it is said of the Lord that He repents and grieves at heart because such feeling is sure to be in all human mercy, and the expression here, as in many other places in the Word, is according to the appearance. What the mercy of the Lord is no one can know, because it infinitely transcends all understanding of man. But man knows what the mercy of man is,—that it is to repent and grieve; and unless he forms an idea of (Divine) mercy from another affection the quality of which he knows, he could never think anything about it, and therefore could not be instructed. This is the reason why human properties are often predicated of the attributes of Jehovah, or the Lord; as that Jehovah or the Lord punishes, leads into temptation, destroys, and is angry; when yet He never punishes any one, never leads any into temptation, never destroys any, and is never angry. (A. C. n. 586-588.)

The Flood.

By the flood (Gen. vi.) is signified an inundation of evil and falsity. This is evident from what was said above respecting the posterity of the Most Ancient Church: That they were possessed with filthy lusts; had immersed the doctrinal truths of faith in them; and therefore were infected with false persuasions, which extinguished all truth and good, and at the same time so closed up the way against remains that they could not operate; and therefore it could not but be that they destroyed themselves. When the way is closed against remains man is no longer man, because he can no longer be protected by the angels, but is entirely possessed by evil spirits, who seek and desire nothing else than to extinguish man. Hence the death of the antediluvians, which is described by a flood or total inundation. The influx of fantasies and lusts from evil spirits indeed is not unlike a kind of flood, and therefore it is called a flood or inundation in various parts of the Word.

To "destroy all flesh wherein is the breath of lives from under the heavens," signifies that the whole posterity of the Most Ancient Church would destroy themselves. This appears from the description of them already given,—that they successively derived from their parents such an hereditary genius that they beyond others were imbued with so dreadful persuasions; especially for the reason that they immersed the doctrinal truths of faith in their filthy lusts. They who have no doctrinals of faith, but live entirely in ignorance, cannot do so, and therefore cannot profane holy things, and so close the way against remains, and in consequence drive the angels of the Lord away from themselves. Remains, as has been said, are all things of innocence; all things of charity, all things of mercy, and all things of the truth of faith, which man from infancy has had from the Lord, and has learned. Each and all of these are carefully stored up; for if man were not in possession of them there could never be anything of innocence, of charity, and of mercy in his thoughts and actions, and of course nothing of good and of truth, and consequently he would be worse than the wild beasts. So, if he have remains of such things, and by filthy lusts and direful persuasions of falsity should stop the way against them so that they could not operate. Such were the antediluvians who destroyed themselves, who are meant by "all flesh wherein is the breath of lives under the heavens."

"Everything that is in the earth shall die" signifies those who were of that church and had become of such a character. That the earth does not mean the whole terrestrial globe, but only those who were of the church, was shown above. Therefore no flood is here meant, much less a universal flood, but only the extinction or suffocation of those who were of the church, when they were separated from remains and therefore from intellections of truth and volitions of good, and consequently from the heavens. (A. C. n. 660-662.)

"All the fountains of the great deep were broken up" signifies the extreme of temptation as to things of the will. . . . The deep in ancient times signified hell, and fantasies and false persuasions were likened to waters and streams, as well as to the vapour from them. So also some of the hells actually appear as deeps and as seas. Thence come the evil spirits who devastate and also who tempt man, and the fantasies they infuse and the desires with which they inflame him are like inundations and exhalations from thence; for, as was said, by evil spirits man is conjoined with hell, and by angels with heaven. Such things are therefore signified when all the fountains of the great deep are said to be broken up. That hell is called the deep, and the filthy things thence issuing, streams, appears from Ezekiel: "Thus saith the Lord Jehovah: In the day when he went down to hell I caused to mourn; I covered the deep above him, and I restrained the rivers thereof, and the great waters were stayed" (xxxi. 15). Hell is also called an abyss in John (Rev. ix. 1, 2, 11; xi. 7; xvii. 8; xx. 1, 3).

"The flood-gates of heaven were opened," signifies the extreme of temptation as to things of the understanding, (ib. n. 756, 757.)

"And the waters were strengthened exceedingly exceedingly upon the earth," signifies that false persuasions so increased. This appears from what has been said and shown before respecting the waters; namely, that the waters of the flood or the inundating waters signify falsities. Here, because there were still greater falsities or persuasions of the false, it is said that "the waters were strengthened exceedingly exceedingly," which is the superlative form in the original tongue. Falsities are principles of what is false and persuasions of what is false, and that these immensely increased among the antediluvians is evident from what has been said above concerning them. Persuasions of what is false increase immensely when men immerse truths in their lusts, or cause them to favour self-love and the love of the world; for then they pervert them, and in a thousand ways force them into agreement.

"All the high mountains that were under the whole heaven were covered," signifies that all the goods of charity were extinguished. This appears from the signification of mountains among the most ancient people. With them mountains represented the Lord, because they worshipped Him upon mountains, for the reason that they are the most elevated parts of the earth. Mountains therefore signified things celestial,—which they also called the highest,—consequently love and charity, and therefore the goods of love and charity, which are celestial. .. . . What is signified by the waters with which the mountains were covered is therefore plain; namely, that they were persuasions of what is false, which extinguish all the good of charity, (ib. n. 794-797.)

It has been granted me to learn by experience what an inundation or flood is in the spiritual sense. This inundation is twofold; one is of lusts and the other of falsities. That which is of lusts is an inundation of the voluntary part, and of the right part of the brain; and that which is of falsities is an inundation of the intellectual part, in which is the left part of the brain. When a man who had lived in good is remitted into his proprium, thus into the sphere of his very own life, there appears as it were an inundation; while he is in that inundation he is indignant, is angry, thinks restlessly, desires vehemently; in one way when the left part of the brain is inundated, where falsities are, and in another way when the right is inundated, where evils are. But when the man is kept in the sphere of life which he had received from the Lord by regeneration, he is entirely beyond such an inundation, and is as it were in serenity and sunshine, and in joy and happiness; and therefore far from indignation, anger, restlessness, lust, and the like. This is the morning or spring of spirits, the other state is the evening or autumn. It has been given me to perceive that I was out of the inundation, and this for a considerable length of time, while I saw that other spirits were in it; but afterwards I was immersed, and then apperceived the similitude of an inundation. They who are in temptations are in such an inundation. By this experience I was also instructed as to what is signified in the Word by the flood; namely, that the last posterity of the most ancient people who were of the Lord's celestial church entirely were inundated by evils and falsities, and so perished. (ib, n. 5725.)

The Resting of the Ark upon the Mountains of Ararat.

"And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat" (Gen. viii. 4). "The ark rested" signifies regeneration. This may be seen from the consideration that the ark signifies the man of that church [the new church represented by Noah, which succeeded the Most Ancient Church]. All things within the ark signify whatever appertained to that man. When therefore the ark is said to rest, it signifies the regeneration of that man. . . .

"The seventh month" signifies what is holy. This holiness corresponds to what was said of the celestial man (ch. ii. 3), where it is written that the seventh day was sanctified because God rested thereon.

"The seventeenth day" signifies a new [state]. This appears from what was said respecting this number in the preceding chapter (vii. 11), where it signifies a beginning; for every beginning is a new [state].

"The mountains of Ararat" signify light [lumen]. This may appear from the signification of a mountain, which is the good of love and charity; and from the signification of Ararat, which is light, and indeed the light of one who is regenerate. The new light or first light of the regenerate never springs from cognitions of the truths of faith, but from charity. For truths of faith are as the rays of light, and love, or charity, as the flame. The light in one who is being regenerated is not from the truths of faith but from charity; the truths of faith are the rays themselves of light from it. It thus appears that the mountains of Ararat signify such light. This light is the first light after temptation; which because it is the first is obscure, and is called lumen, not lux.[2]

From all this now it may be seen what the words of this verse signify in the internal sense; namely, that the spiritual man is a holy rest, from new intellectual light, which is the light of charity. With such wonderful variety and in so delightful order are these things perceived by the angels, that if a man could only enter into one such conception there would be thousands and thousands of things, in multiplying series, which would penetrate and affect him; yea indeed such things as can never be described. Such is the Lord's Word everywhere in the internal sense; although it appears in the literal sense as a rude history, like these words,—which signify these things,—that "the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat." (A. C. n. 850-855.)

The Bow in the Cloud.

"I have set my how in the cloud", signifies the state of the regenerate spiritual man, which is like the rainbow. It may be wondered that the bow in the cloud, or the rainbow, should be taken as the token of the covenant in the Word,—when the rainbow is nothing more than a certain appearance arising from the modification of the rays of light from the sun then falling upon the drops of rain; and—unlike the other signs of the covenant in the Church just referred to—only a natural phenomenon. But that the bow in the cloud represents regeneration, and signifies the state of the regenerate spiritual man, no one can know unless it be given him to see and therefore to know how it is:—When the spiritual angels, who were all regenerate men of the spiritual church, are so presented to view in the other life, there appears as it were a rainbow about the head. But the rainbows which appear are entirely according to their state; and their quality is discerned from them in heaven and the world of spirits. The reason why the resemblance of a rainbow appears, is that their natural [truths] corresponding to their spiritual present such an appearance. It is a modification of spiritual light from the Lord in their natural [truths]. These angels are those who are said to be born again of water and of the Spirit; but the celestial angels are those regenerated by fire. . . . It is because natural things correspond to spiritual that when what is around the regenerate spiritual man is thus presented to view it appears like a bow in the cloud; which bow is a representation of spiritual things in his natural. The regenerate spiritual man has a proprium of the understanding into which the Lord insinuates innocence, charity, and mercy; and according to the reception of these gifts by a man is the appearance of his rainbow when it is presented to view,—more beautiful the more the proprium of the man's will is removed, subdued, and reduced to obedience. (A. C. n. 1042.)


Those who are in faith separated from charity are described by Ham; in that he observed the nakedness of his father, that is his errors and perversities. They who are of such a character see nothing else in a man. But it is different with those who are in the faith of charity; they observe the good, and if they see anything evil and false they excuse it, and if they can, endeavour to amend it in him,—as it is here related of Shem and Japheth. Where there is no charity there is self-love, consequently hatred towards all who do not favour themselves. Hence it is that such men see nothing in their neighbour but his evil, and if they see what is good they regard it as nothing, or construe it into evil. . . . With such there dwells a continual contempt of others, or a continual derision of others; and as occasion offers they publish their errors. . . . With those who are in charity it is quite otherwise. Hereby are these two kinds of men distinguished, especially when they come into the other life. With those who are in no charity the spirit of hatred is then manifest in every least thing. They desire to examine every one, yea, to judge every one, and wish nothing more earnestly than to discover evil,—continually purposing in mind to condemn, punish, and torment. But those who are in charity hardly see another's evil, but observe all that is good and true in him, and what is evil and false they construe into good. Such are all the angels; and this they have from the Lord, who turns an evil into good. (A. C. n. 1079, 1080.)


"And he shall be a wild-ass man; his hand shall be against all, and the hand of all against him; and he shall dwell over against the face of all his brethren" (Gen. xvi. 12). The rational part of man consists of good and truth, that is, of those things which are of charity and those that belong to faith. Rational truth is what is signified by the wild-ass. It is this then that is represented by Ishmael, and is described in this verse. No one can believe that rational truth separate from rational good is of such a nature; nor should I have known it to be such, but that I have been convinced by living experience. It is the same whether we speak of rational truth, or of a man whose rational mind is of the nature here described. A man whose rational is such that he is only in truth, although in the truth of faith, and not at the same time in the good of charity, is entirely of such a character. He is morose, impatient, opposed to all, viewing every one as in falsity, instantly rebuking, castigating and punishing, is without pity, and does not apply himself or endeavour to bend the minds and affections of others; for he regards everything from the truth and nothing from good.

Every genuine rational consists of good and truth, that is of what is celestial and spiritual. Good or the celestial is its very soul or life; truth or the spiritual is what thence receives its life. The rational without life from celestial good is as is here described; it fights against all, and all fight against it. Rational good never fights, howsoever assaulted, because it is meek and gentle, patient and pliable; for its attributes are those of love and mercy. And although it does not fight yet it conquers all, nor ever thinks of combat, or boasts of victory; and this because it is Divine and is protected by the Divine itself. For no evil can attack good, nor even stay in the sphere where good is; when it only approaches, the evil withdraws of itself and retreats; for evil is infernal, and good is heavenly. It is nearly the same with the celestial-spiritual, that is with truth from a celestial origin, or with truth which is from good; for this truth is truth formed by good, so that it may be called the form of good. But truth separate from good, which is here represented by Ishmael and is described in this verse, is entirely different; for indeed it is like a wild ass, and fights against all, and all against it. Nay, it thinks and breathes scarcely anything but combats; its common delight or governing affection is to conquer, and when it conquers it boasts of victory. For this reason it is described by the wild ass, or the mule of the wilderness or ass of the forest, which cannot abide with others. Such a life is the life of truth without good, yea the life of faith without charity.

In the other life such truth is representatively manifested in various ways, and is always exhibited as strong, powerful, and hard, so that it cannot possibly be resisted. When spirits only think of such truth there arises something of terror; because its nature is such that it never yields, and therefore never withdraws; from all which it may appear what is also meant by his dwelling over against the face of all his brethren. Every one must see that some mystery lies hidden in this description; but what it is has hitherto been unknown. (A. C. n. 1949-1951.)


"And Abraham fell upon his face and laughed." To fall upon the face signifies to adore, "and laughed" signifies an affection of truth. This may be seen from the origin and essence of laughter. It has no other origin than an affection of truth or an affection of falsity. Hence comes the joy and the hilarity that expresses itself in the face by laughter. It is plain then that the essence of laughter is no other [than this affection]. Laughter indeed is something external which is of the body, for it appears in the face; but in the Word interior things are expressed and signified by exterior; as all interior affections of mind and soul by the face, interior hearing and obedience by the ear, internal sight or understanding by the eye, power and strength by the hand and arm. And so an affection of truth is expressed and signified by laughter. In the rational part of man is truth, which is the chief thing, and within this is the affection of good; but this is within the very affection of truth as its soul. The affection of good which is in the rational does not express itself by laughter, but by a kind of joy, and an agreeable [sensation] of pleasure therefrom which does not laugh; for in laughter there is commonly something also which is not so good. . . . That laughter here signifies an affection of truth is evident from the fact that it is here mentioned that Abraham laughed, and likewise Sarah, both before Isaac was born and after he was born; and also from the fact that Isaac was named from laughter, for the word Isaac signifies laughter. If such things were not involved in laughing, and in the name of Isaac which signifies laughter, these circumstances would never have been mentioned in the Word.

Laughter is an affection of the rational mind, and in truth an affection either of the true or the false in the rational; all laughter comes from this. So long as such an affection is in the rational as expresses itself by laughter, so long there is something corporeal or worldly, thus merely human. Celestial and spiritual good does not laugh, but expresses its delight and cheerfulness in another way; in the countenance, in the speech, and in the gestures. For there are very many things in laughter; for the most part something of contempt, which although it does not appear yet underlies it, and is easily distinguished from cheerfulness of mind which also produces something like laughter. (A. C. n. 2071, 2072, 2216.)

Borrowing from and Spoiling the Egyptians.

As these two verses (Exod. iii. 21, 22) relate to the spoiling of the Egyptians, by the women of Israel borrowing from the Egyptian women silver, gold, and raiment; and as no one can know how the matter is to be understood except by a revelation concerning things which are done in the other life,—for the internal sense involves such things as are done among angels and spirits,—therefore something is to be told on the subject. Before the Lord's coming the lower part of heaven was occupied by evil genii and spirits; and after that they were expelled from thence, and that region was given to those who are of the spiritual Church. So long as the evil genii and spirits were there, they were under the continual view of the angels of the higher heaven; hence they were restrained from doing evils openly. At this day also some who are more deceitful than others,—since they deceive by simulating innocence and charity,—are under the view of the celestials, and for so long are withheld from their wicked deceits. From these circumstances it has been granted me to know what was the state of the evil genii and spirits who before the coming of the Lord occupied the lower region of heaven; namely, that at that time they were withheld by the angels of the higher heaven from the open commission of evils. And it has also been granted me to know how they were withheld from the open commission of evils. They were kept under external restraints; namely, in fear of the loss of honour and reputation, and in fear lest they should be deprived of possessions in that region of heaven, and be thrust down to hell. And then there were adjoined to them simple good spirits; as is the case with men in the world who, although inwardly devils, are yet kept by these external restraints in honesty and justice and well-doing; and that they may be so kept there are adjoined to them spirits who are in simple good. Thus it was with the evil who were in the lower region of heaven before the Lord's coming. And then too they could be constrained to speak the truth and do good by their own loves. Just as evil priests, yea even the worst who inwardly are devils, can preach the doctrinals of their church with such ardour and simulated zeal as to move the hearts of their hearers to piety, yet at the same time are in the love of self and of the world. For the thought of honour and gain universally rules in them, and from that fire they are excited thus to preach. There are evil spirits with them who are in similar love and therefore in similar thought, who lead them; and to these simple good spirits are adjoined. From these statements it may be seen what was the state of heaven before the Lord's coming. But after His coming the states of heaven and hell were entirely changed; for then the evil genii and spirits who occupied the lower region of heaven were cast down, and in their place those who were of the spiritual church were elevated thither. The evil who were cast down were then deprived of external restraints; which, as was said above, were fear of the loss of honour and reputation, and of the deprivation of possessions in that region. They were thus left to their interiors, which were merely diabolical and infernal, and so were consigned to the hells. The deprivation of external restraints is effected in the other life by the removal of the good spirits who were adjoined to them. When these are removed they can no longer be in any simulation of what is good, just, and honest, but are such as they inwardly were in the world; that is such as they were in thought and will, which they had there concealed from others; and then they desire nothing else than to do evil. The simple good spirits who were removed from them were given or adjoined to those who were of the spiritual church, to whom that region of heaven was given for a possession. Thus it is that these latter were enriched with truths and goods which were before in the possession of the evil genii and spirits; for enrichment in truths and goods in the other life is effected by the adjunction of spirits who are in truth and good, because through them communication is opened. These are the things which are signified by the children of Israel not going empty from Egypt, and by a woman borrowing of her neighbour, and of her that sojourned in her house, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and raiment, and thus spoiling the Egyptians. Every one may see that if such things had not been represented the Divine [being] would never have commanded that the children of Israel should use such artifice against the Egyptians; for every such thing is at the farthest distance from the Divine. But as that people was entirely representative it was permitted by the Divine [being] that they should do so, because it was thus done with the evil in the other life. It should be known that very many things which were commanded by Jehovah, or the Lord, in the internal sense do not signify that they were commanded, but that they were permitted. (A. C. n. 6914.)

The Anger of the Lord.

"And the anger of Jehovah was kindled against Moses" (Exod. iv. 14). This signifies clemency. . . . That Jehovah has no anger, is evident from the consideration that He is love itself, good itself, and mercy itself; and anger is the opposite, and is also an infirmity, which cannot be imputed to God. When therefore anger is predicated of Jehovah or the Lord in the Word, the angels do not perceive anger, but either mercy, or the removal of evil from heaven. . . . Anger is attributed to Jehovah or the Lord in the Word because it is a most general truth that all things come from God, thus both the evil and the good; but this most general truth, which children and the simple must receive, ought afterwards to be illustrated; namely, by teaching that evils are from man, but that they appear as from God, and that it is so said to the intent that they may learn to fear God, lest they should perish by the evils which they themselves do. And afterwards they can love Him; for fear precedes love, that in love there may be holy fear. For when fear is insinuated into love, it becomes holy from the holiness of love; and then it is not fear lest the Lord should be angry and punish, but lest they should act against Good itself, because this will torment the conscience. . . . The reason why clemency and mercy are meant by anger is this: All the punishments of the evil arise out of the Lord's mercy to the good, lest they should be injured by the evil. But the Lord does not inflict punishments upon them, but they inflict them upon themselves; for evils and punishments are connected in the other life. The evil inflict punishments on themselves especially when the Lord does mercy to the good; for then their evils increase, and therefore their punishments. Hence it is that for the anger of Jehovah, by which the punishments of the evil are signified, mercy is understood by the angels. From all this it is evident what the quality of the Word is in the sense of the letter, and what truth Divine is in its most general sense; namely, that it is according to appearances, for the reason that man is such that when he sees and apprehends from his sensual he believes, and what he does not see nor apprehend from his sensual he does not believe, and therefore does not receive. Hence it is that the Word in the sense of the letter is according to the things which appear; yet in its interior bosom it contains a store of genuine truths, and in its inmost bosom the very truth Divine which proceeds immediately from the Lord, and therefore also Divine Good, that is, the Lord Himself. (A. C. n. 6997.)

"Cursed he Canaan." To be cursed is to avert one's-self from the Lord. The Lord is as far from cursing and being angry as heaven is from earth. Who can believe that the Lord, who is omniscient and omnipotent, and by His wisdom governs the universe and thus is infinitely above all infirmities, can be angry with dust so miserable, that is, with men, who scarcely know anything that they do, and can do nothing of themselves but what is evil? It is therefore not in the Lord to be angry, but to be merciful. (A C. n. 1093.)

The Frogs of Egypt.

Frogs signify reasonings from falsities. This is not from their croaking only, but also from their abiding in marshy and putrid lakes, by which infernal falsities are signified; for they who reason from falsities against Divine truths have their abode in hells which appear like marshes, and stagnant, fœtid waters; and those who are there when seen in the light of heaven appear like frogs, some in larger and some in smaller form, according to their elation of mind from reasonings more or less acute; they are also more and less unclean, according as their reasonings against Divine truth are more or less interior and dignified. That frogs signify reasonings from mere falsities against Divine truths, may appear from the miracle of the frogs in Egypt; for by all the miracles there performed, the plagues or evils are signified with which they are afflicted after death, who by the knowledges of the natural man contend against spiritual goods and truths, and endeavour to destroy them. That by frogs are there signified reasonings of the natural man from falsities against the truths of the spiritual man, is evident from the description of that miracle in Moses: "He caused the river to bring forth frogs abundantly, and they went up and came into the house of Pharaoh, and into his bed-chamber, and upon his bed, and into the house of his servants, and of his people, and into the ovens and the kneading-troughs. . . . And after they were dead, they were gathered into heaps, and the land stank" (Exod. viii, 3, 13, 14). Likewise in David: "He turned their waters into blood, and slew their fish; He caused frogs to come forth upon their lands, into the chambers of their kings" (Psalm cv. 29, 30); referring to the plagues in Egypt. The waters turned into blood signify truths falsified; the fish that were slain signify knowledges and cognitions of the natural man, that they perished; the frogs coming forth upon the land signify the reasonings of the natural man from falsities; the chambers of the kings signify interior truths, which they perverted by such reasonings,—chambers are the interiors, and kings truths. Similar things are signified by the frogs coming up into the house of Pharaoh, into his bed-chamber, and upon his bed. From these explanations it is plain what is signified by the three unclean spirits like frogs, which came forth out of the mouth of the dragon, of the beast, and of the false prophet (Rev. xvi. 13, 14). (A. E. n. 1000.)

Apparent Contradiction as to the Number of Years which the Israelites dwelt in Egypt.

It is said that "The sojourning of the children of Israel, which they sojourned in Egypt, was thirty years and four hundred years;" and further, that "At the end of the thirty years and four hundred years, in this same day, all the armies of Jehovah went forth from the land of Egypt" (Exod. xii. 40-42). And yet the sojourn of the children of Israel, from the going down of Jacob into Egypt to the departure of his posterity at this time, was not more than half that time, namely, 215 years; as is very manifest from the chronology of the Sacred Scriptures. For Moses was born of Amram, Amram of Kohath, and Kohath of Levi; and Kohath, together with his father Levi went into Egypt (Gen. xlvi. 11). The period of the life of Kohath was a hundred and thirty-three years (Exod. vi. 18); and the period of the life of Amram, from whom came Aaron and Moses, was 137 years (ib. ver. 20); and Moses was a man of eighty years when he stood before Pharaoh (Exod. vii. 7). It is not mentioned in what year of the age of Kohath Amram was born, nor in what year of the age of Amram Moses was born; but that there were not 430 years is manifest, for the years of their ages do not amount to 430, but to 350. This will be seen, if the years of the age of Kohath, 133, be added to the years of the age of Amram, 137, and these to the 80 years of Moses when he stood before Pharaoh. It is less if the years are added from their nativities; it may be seen from the chronology that they were 215 years. But from the descent of Abraham into Egypt to the departure of the children of Israel were four hundred and thirty years; see also the chronology. It is plain therefore that by 430 years the entire period of time from Abraham is here meant, and not from Jacob. That these years were taken, and called the years of the sojourn of the children of Israel in Egypt, was on account of the internal sense, in which they signify the full state and duration of the vastation of those who were of the spiritual church; and who were detained in the lower earth until the Lord's coming, and then liberated. (A. C. n. 7985.)

Divine Truth pacific and tumultuous.

"And there was the voice of a trumpet, going and strengthening itself exceedingly" (Exod. xix. 19). This signifies the general [truth] of revelation through the angelic heaven. This appears from the signification of the voice of a trumpet, which is heavenly or angelic truth conjoined with Divine, thus the general truth of revelation. For truth Divine is revelation; and that which is manifested through the medium of heaven is general relatively to the very truth Divine in heaven; for it is without or around, and what is around and without is general relatively to that which is in the midst or which is within. It appears also from the signification of going and strengthening itself, which is its increase. For the case is like that of sound at a high elevation where the atmosphere is purer, which is tacit; but when it descends to lower altitudes where the atmosphere is denser it becomes louder and more sonorous. So is it with Divine truth and Divine good, which in their supremest heights are pacific and entirely without commotion; but as they pass down to lower heights, by degrees they become impacific, and at length tumultuous. These things were thus described by the Lord to Elijah when he was in Horeb, in the first book of the Kings: "Go forth and stand upon the mountain before Jehovah. Behold Jehovah passed by; so that a great and strong wind rent asunder the mountains, and brake in pieces the rocks before Jehovah: Jehovah was not in the wind; and after the wind an earthquake; yet Jehovah was not in the earthquake; after the earthquake a fire; Jehovah was not in the fire; and after the fire a still small voice" (xix. 11, 12). (A. C. n. 8823.)

Boring the Ear with an Awl.

"Then his master shall bring him to God, and shall bring him to a door or to a post, and his master shall bore his ear with an awl; and he shall serve him for ever" (Exod. xxi. 6). Who cannot see that this ritual concerning men-servants who were to remain contains within it a mystery? and indeed a Divine mystery, for it was dictated and commanded by Jehovah from Mount Sinai They who do not believe that there is anything more holy or Divine in the Word than what appears in the letter, must wonder that these and many other things contained in this and the following chapters were dictated viva voce by Jehovah; for they appear in the letter to be just such things as are contained in the laws of nations. Thus this law concerning men-servants, that such of them as were not willing to go forth from service should be brought to a door or to a post, and should have an ear bored through with an awl by their master; in the sense of the letter this does not savour of the Divine, and yet it is most Divine. But this does not appear except by the internal sense. The internal sense is, that they who are in truths alone and not in corresponding good, but yet are in the delight of the remembrance of spiritual goods, have some communication and conjunction with spiritual good. This was represented by the ear of the man-servant being bored through at a door or a post by his master; for a door is communication; a post is conjunction; the ear is obedience; and to bore it through with an awl is representative of the state in which he was to remain. Thus the angels who are with man while he reads this Word perceive these things. For the angels do not think of a door, or of a post, or of an ear and of its being bored, or even of a man-servant; but instead of these they think of the aforesaid communication and conjunction. For the angels are intelligent in such things, because they are in the light; and they only occur to their minds as spiritual and celestial, and not as natural and worldly, which the things in the literal sense of the Word are. For the literal sense of the Word is natural and worldly, and its internal sense is spiritual and celestial. That is for men; this for angels; and hence there is communication and conjunction of heaven with man by means of the Word. That the mysteries involved in this procedure with men-servants remaining with their master may be further laid open, it must be told whence it is that a door and post signify communication and conjunction. Angels and spirits have habitations which appear quite like those that are in the world; and what is a mystery, each and all things that appear in their habitations are significative of spiritual things. They flow forth also from the spiritual things that are in heaven, and which are from heaven in their minds. Communications of truth with good are represented there by doors, and conjunctions by posts; and other things by the rooms themselves, by the courts, by the windows, and by the various decorations. That this is so men at this day cannot believe, especially those who are merely natural; because such things do not lie open to their bodily senses. And yet it is evident from the Word that such things were seen by the prophets when their interiors were open into heaven; they have also been apperceived and seen by me a thousand times. I have frequently heard them say, too, that the doors of their apartments were open when their thoughts were communicated to me, and that they were shut when they were not communicated. Hence it is that doors are mentioned in the Word where it speaks of communication, as in Isaiah: "Go away, My people, enter into thy chambers, and shut thy door after thee, hide thyself as it were for a little moment, until the anger be overpast" (xxvi. 20). To shut the door after them until anger is overpast denotes non-communication with the evils which are [meant by] anger. . . . And in John: "Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber; but he that entereth in by the door is the shepherd of the sheep. . . . I am the door; by Me if any man enter in he shall he saved" (x. 1, 2, 9). To enter in by the door is to enter in by the truth which is of faith to the good of charity and love, and so to the Lord; for the Lord is Good itself. He is likewise the Truth which leads in; so also the door, for faith is from Him. That communication is signified by a door appears like a metaphorical way of speaking, or comparison; but there are no metaphors or comparisons in the Word, but actual correspondences. Even the comparisons therein are made with such things as correspond. This is evident from what has been said of a door; namely, that doors actually appear in heaven to angels and spirits, and the opening and shutting of them is according to communications. So too with other things.

"And his master shall bore through his ear with an awl," signifies a representative of obedience. This appears from the signification of the ear, which is obedience; and from the signification of the boring through with an awl,—that is, at a door or at a post,—which is to attach; here, because it concerns obedience, it signifies to devote [i.e. to service]. The injunction follows therefore that "he shall serve him," that is, obey, "for ever." From this it is plain that boring through the ear of the servant with an awl at a door or at a post by his master, is a representative of obedience. How these things are may be seen from what has preceded; namely, that those who are in truths only and not in corresponding good, that is who are in faith and not in charity, are not free but servants. On the other hand, those who act from good or charity are free, since they act from themselves; for to act from good or charity is to act from the heart, that is from the will, and thus from what is man's own. For that which is of the will is of the man; and what is done from the will is said to go forth from the heart. But those who are only in truths of faith, and not in the good of charity, are relatively servants; for they do not act from themselves,—because they have not the good within themselves from which to act, but out of themselves; and they do it as often as they think of it. Those who remain such to the end of life continue in that state after death; nor can they be brought to such a state that they may act from an affection of charity, thus from good; but they act from obedience. . . . They who actually, that is in very life, put the doctrine of faith in the first place and charity in the second, are Hebrew servants in the representative sense. . . . That the boring of the ear with an awl by his master is representative of obedience, is evident too from the consideration that to fix the ear to a door was to effect that attention should be paid to those things which his master who is in the chamber commands; thus to cause to hear continually, and accordingly obey; here, in the spiritual sense, to cause to obey the things which good wills and commands, for by the lord of the servant spiritual good is represented. As the ear signifies the hearing which is of obedience, therefore from an origin out of the spiritual world there has passed into human speech the expression to pull the ear, for to make to give heed and to remember;[3] and likewise the words hear and hearken in the sense of to obey. For the interior sense of very many expressions has flowed from correspondences from the spiritual world; as when we speak of spiritual light, and of sight from it, which are things belonging to faith; also of spiritual fire and of life therefrom, which things pertain to love.

"And he shall serve him for ever." . . . In the literal sense for ever here signifies service with his master to the end of his life. But in the internal or spiritual sense it signifies to eternity, because it refers to the state after death. It is said to eternity, for the reason that they who do good from the obedience of faith, and not from an affection of charity,—who are represented by men-servants,—can never be brought to a state of good, that is to such a state that they act from good, in the other life. For the life of every one remains after death. Such as a man is when he dies, such he remains; according to the common saying, "As the tree falleth so it lies." Not that he is such as he was about the hour of death; but such as from the whole course of his life he is when he dies. They therefore who during their life in the world have been accustomed to do good only from obedience, and not from charity, remain so to eternity. These are perfected indeed in respect to obedience, but do not attain to anything of charity. (A. C. n. 8989-8991.)

The Urim and Thummim.

The breastplate of Aaron, which was called the Urim and Thummim, was composed of twelve precious stones, on which were engraven the names of the twelve tribes, or of the twelve sons of Israel (Exod. xxviii. 15-30; xxxix. 8-29). It is well known that responses from heaven were given by this, but from what origin has not as yet been revealed. It shall therefore now be told. All light in the angelic heaven proceeds from the Lord as a sun; that light therefore in its essence is Divine truth, from which comes all the intelligence and wisdom of the angels, and also of men, in spiritual things. This light in heaven is modified into various colours, according to the truths from good which are received; hence it is that colours in the Word, from their correspondence, signify truths from good. And by this means the responses were given, through a resplendency from the colours of the stones which were in the Urim and Thummim, and then at the same time either by a living voice or by a tacit perception, corresponding to the resplendence. (A. E. n. 431.)

The Breaking of the Tables of the Decalogue by Moses, and his Hewing out other Tables.

"And Moses' anger waxed hot, and he cast the tables out of his hands, and brake them beneath the mount" (Exod. xxxii. 19). The external of the Word is its literal sense. This sense is signified by the tables, because this sense is as a table, or as a plane, on which the internal sense is inscribed. That the tables which were the work of God were broken by Moses when he saw the calf and the dances, and that at the command of Jehovah other tables were hewn out by Moses, and on them were afterwards inscribed the same words, and thus that the tables were no longer the work of God, but the work of Moses, while the writing was still the writing of God, involves a mystery as yet unknown. The mystery is, that the literal sense of the Word would have been different if the Word had been written among another people, or if this people had not been of such a character. For, because the Word was written among them the literal sense of the Word is concerning that people, as is plain both from the historical and the prophetical parts of the Word; and that people were in evil, because in heart they were idolaters. And yet, that the internal and external sense might agree, this people was to be commended, and to be called the people of God, a holy nation, and peculiar. The simple therefore who were to be instructed by the external sense of the Word were to believe that such was the character of that nation, as that nation also itself believes, and likewise the greater part of the Christian world at this day. And besides, many things were permitted them on account of the hardness of their heart, which stand forth in the external sense of the Word, and constitute it. As for example what is mentioned in Matt. xix. 8, and other things also which are here passed by. Since therefore the literal sense of the Word was made such for the sake of that people, those tables which were the work of God were broken, and by command of Jehovah others were hewn out by Moses. But as the same holy Divine was still within, therefore the same words which were upon the former tables were inscribed by Jehovah upon these, as is plain from these words in Moses: "Jehovah said unto Moses, Hew thee out two tables of stones, like unto the first, that I may write upon the tables the words that were on the former tables, which thou hast broken: And Jehovah wrote upon those tables the words of the covenant, ten words" (Exod. xxxiv. 1, 4, 28). (A. C. n. 10,453.)

To make this subject more clear, it may be here explained how the external or literal sense was changed for the sake of that nation. For the sake of that nation altars, burnt-offerings, sacrifices, meat-offerings, and libations were commanded; and on this account, both in the historical and prophetical Word, these are mentioned as the most holy things of worship, when in fact they were merely allowed because they were first instituted by Eber. But in the Ancient representative church they were entirely unknown. For the sake of that nation also it came to pass that Divine worship was performed in Jerusalem alone, and that on this account that city was esteemed holy, and was also called holy, both in the historical and prophetical Word. The reason was because that nation was in heart idolatrous; and therefore unless they had all met together at that city on each festival, every one in his own place would have worshipped some god of the Gentiles, or some graven and molten thing. For the sake of that nation too it was forbidden to celebrate holy worship on mountains and in groves, as the ancients had done. This was done lest they should place idols there, and should worship the very trees. For the sake of that nation also it was permitted to marry several wives; which was a thing entirely unknown in ancient times; and likewise to put away their wives for various causes. Hence laws were enacted concerning such marriages and divorces which otherwise would not have entered the external of the Word. This external is therefore called by the Lord that of Moses, and is said to have been "suffered for the hardness of their heart" (Matt. xix. 8). It was for the sake of that nation that Jacob, and also the twelve sons of Israel, were so often mentioned as the only elect and heirs; as in the Apocalypse, vii. 4-8, and elsewhere,—although their character was such as is described in the song of Moses (Deut. xxxii. 15-43), and in the prophets also throughout, and by the Lord Himself. Besides other things of which the external of the Word was composed for the sake of that nation. It is this external which is signified by the two tables hewed out by Moses. That within this external there is yet the Divine internal, unchanged, is signified by Jehovah writing on these tables the same words which were on the former tables, (ib. n. 10,603.)

Signification op the Jewish Sacrifices.

The animals which were offered up in the sacrifices and burnt-offerings were oxen, bullocks, he-goats, rams, she-goats, he-kids; and he-lambs, ewe-lambs, and kids of the she-goats. He who does not know what these animals signify cannot know at all what is signified in particular by the sacrifices and burnt-offerings of them. It should be known that all the animals on earth signify such things as pertain to man; which in general refer to the affections which are of his will, and to the thoughts which are of his understanding, and therefore to goods and truths; for goods are of the will, and truths are of the understanding. And as they refer to goods and truths, they also refer to love and faith; for all things that pertain to love are called goods, and all things that pertain to faith are called truths. The fact that animals of different kinds have such a signification has its cause in representatives in the other life; for animals of many kinds, and of innumerable species, appear there. Such animals there are appearances, exactly to the life, corresponding to the affections and the thoughts in spirits and angels. That this is so is in fact evident from the prophetic visions in the Word throughout; for the things seen by the prophets were all such as appear in heaven before the angels. It is for this reason that beasts are so frequently mentioned in the Word; and by every one of them something is signified which relates to such things in man as are spoken of above. Nor is man anything but an animal as to his external man; but he is distinguished by the internal, by which both that and this can be elevated towards heaven and to God, and thence receive faith and love. Hence it is that beasts were devoted to sacrifices and burnt-offerings. He who does not know these things cannot know at all why it was commanded at one time to offer bullocks, rams, and he-lambs; at another, oxen, she-goats, and ewe-lambs; and at another time, he-goats, he-kids, and kids of the she-goats; for otherwise to what purpose would be such distinctions? . . . The sacrifices and burnt-offerings, in general, signified the regeneration of man, and in the highest sense the glorification of the Lord's Humanity. The whole of worship was also represented by the sacrifices and burnt-offerings, according to the various things pertaining to it, thus with every variety; and therefore were the various kinds of animals commanded. . . . That the sacrifices and burnt-offerings, in general, signified the regeneration of man by the truths of faith and the goods of love to the Lord from the Lord, is evident from this fact, that all things of worship have reference to purification from evils and falsities; to the implantation of truth and good; and to their conjunction,—and so to regeneration; for by these three things man is regenerated. Hence it is that sacrifices and burnt-offerings were offered for every sin and for all guilt; and when they were offered it is said that expiation was made, and that it was pardoned (Lev. iv. 20, 26, 31, 35; v. 6, 10, 13, 16, 18; vi. 7; vii. 7; x. 17; xiv. 18, 19; xv. 30, 31; xvi. 6, 24; xvii. 11). The pardon of sins, expiation, propitiation, and redemption, are nothing else than purification from evils and falsities, the implantation of good and truth, and their conjunction, thus regeneration. The whole process of regeneration is also described by the particular rituals of each sacrifice and burnt-offering, and is explained when the representatives are unfolded by the internal sense. . . . By the sacrifices and burnt-offerings of the bullock, the ox, and the he-goat, the purification and regeneration of the external or natural man was represented; by those of the ram, the she-goat, and the he-kid, the purification and regeneration of the internal or spiritual man was represented; and by those of the he-lamb, the ewe-lamb, and the kid of the she-goats was represented the purification or regeneration of the inmost or celestial man. Because there are three degrees in man in succession [from this inmost], the celestial, the spiritual, and the natural; and because, in order that he may be regenerated, man must be regenerated both as to internals and as to externals. . . . The reason why in the highest sense the sacrifices and burnt-offerings signify the glorification of the Lord's Humanity is that all the rituals of the worship instituted among the Israelitish and Jewish nation had reference to the Lord alone; and so the sacrifices and burnt-offerings by which in general the whole of worship was represented, referred principally to Him. And besides, the regeneration of man is from no other source than the Lord: and therefore, wherever in the Word the regeneration of man is referred to, in the highest sense it refers to the glorification of the Lord's Humanity. For man's regeneration is an image of the Lord's glorification. To glorify the Human was to make it Divine; and to regenerate man is to make him heavenly, that the Divine of the Lord may dwell in him. (A. C. n. 10,042).

Balaam's Ass speaking.

The mystery of the ass upon which Balaam rode, which turned three times out of the way on seeing an angel with a drawn sword, and the circumstance of its speaking to Balaam, I will here briefly explain. While Balaam was riding upon the ass he continually meditated sorcery against the children of Israel. The gain with which he should be honoured was in his mind; as appears from these words concerning him; "He went not as at other times to seek for enchantments" (Numb. xxiv. 1). He was in truth a soothsayer in heart; and therefore he thought of nothing else when he thought from himself. By the ass upon which he rode is signified, in the spiritual sense of the Word, an enlightened intellectual [faculty]. Therefore to ride upon an ass or mule was among the insignia of a chief judge and of a king. The angel with the drawn sword signifies Divine Truth enlightened, and contending against what is false. Hence by the ass turning three times out of the way, it is signified that the understanding when enlightened did not agree with the thought of the sorcerer; and this also is meant by what the angel said unto Balaam: "Behold, I went out to withstand thee, because thy way is perverse before me" (Numb. xxii. 32). By a way in the spiritual sense of the Word, that which a man thinks from his intention is signified. It is evident too from what the angel said to him that he was held from the thought and intention of using sorceries by the fear of death: "Unless the ass had turned from me, surely now also I had slain thee" (Numb. xxii. 33). It sounded in the ears of Balaam as if the ass spoke to him; and yet she did not speak, but the speech was heard as if proceeding from her. That this is so has often been shown me by living experience. It has been given me to hear horses as it were speaking; and yet the speech was not from them, but as if from them. This was actually the case with Balaam; to the intent that that history might be described in the Word, for the sake of the internal sense which every single expression of it contains. In that sense it is described how the Lord defends those who are in truths and goods, lest they should be injured by those who speak as if from enlightenment, and yet have the disposition and intention to lead astray. (A. E. n. 140.)

The Sun and Moon standing still at the command op Joshua.

It is written in Joshua: "Then spake Joshua to Jehovah in the day when Jehovah delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; and thou, moon, in the valley of Ajalon. And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the nation was avenged upon its enemies. Is not this written in the took of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day" (x. 12, 13). The saying that the sun stood still upon Gibeon and the moon in the valley of Ajalon, signified that the church was entirely vastated as to all good and truth. For a battle was then fought against the king of Jerusalem and the kings of the Amorites; and by the king of Jerusalem the truth of the church entirely vastated by falsities is signified, and by the kings of the Amorites is signified the good of the church vastated by evils. Therefore those kings were smitten with hailstones, by which were signified the horrible falsities of evil. It is said that the sun stood still and the moon stayed, that is in the sight of the children of Israel, that they might see their enemies; but this was prophetical, although historically related; as may appear from the circumstance that it is said, "Is not this written in the book of Jasher?" which was a prophetical book, out of which these words were taken. From this same book therefore it is said too, "until the nation was avenged upon its enemies" and not "until the children of Israel were avenged upon their enemies;" for the word "nation" is said prophetically. The same is evident moreover from the consideration that this miracle, if it had been just so accomplished, would have inverted the whole order of nature; which the other miracles in the Word would not have done. That it might be known therefore that this was said prophetically, it is added, "Is not this written in the book of Jasher?" But yet that there was a light to them out of heaven, like the light of the sun in Gibeon, and a light as of the moon in the valley of Ajalon, is not to be doubted. (A. E. n. 401.)

Magic Sorcery and Enchantments.

By the Egyptians the representatives and significatives of the Ancient church, which church had also existed among them, were turned into magic. For by the representatives and significatives of the church at that time there was communication with heaven; which communication was among those who lived in the good of charity, and with some of them was open. But with those who did not live in the good of charity, but in the opposites of charity, there was sometimes open communication with evil spirits, who perverted all the truths, and destroyed together with them the goods of the church. Thence magic originated. This may even be seen from the hieroglyphics of the Egyptians, which they also employed in sacred things; for they signified spiritual things by them, and perverted Divine order. Magic is nothing else than a perversion of order; especially it is the abuse of correspondences. (A. C. n. 6692.)

In ancient times many kinds of infernal arts called magic were practised, of which some are enumerated in the Word; as in Deut. xviii. 9-11. There were also enchantments among them, whereby they induced affections and pleasures which another could not resist. This was effected by sounds and secret voices, which they either produced or murmured, and which by analogous correspondences had communication with the will of another, and excited his affection and fascinated him to will, think, and act in a certain manner and not otherwise. Such enchantments indeed the prophets had a knowledge of, and also practised, and excited good affections, hearing, and obedience, by them; and these enchantments in a good sense are mentioned in the Word by Isaiah iii. 1-3, 20; xxvi. 16; Jer. viii. 17; and by David, in Psalm lviii. 4, 5. But because by such speakings and murmurings evil affections were excited by the evil, and enchantments thus became magical, they also are enumerated among the magical arts, and severely prohibited; as in Deut. xviii. 9-11; Isaiah xlvii. 9, 12; Rev. xviii. 23; xxii. 15. (A. E. n. 590.)

Sorcerers are those who pervert Divine order, that is the laws of order. Sorcery and magic are nothing else, as is evident from sorcerers; and especially in the other life, where they abound. For they who have practised cunning in the life of the body, and have contrived various arts of defrauding others, and at length, in consequence of success, have attributed all things to their own prudence, in the other life learn in addition magical arts, which are nothing else than abuses of Divine order, especially of correspondences. For it is according to Divine order that each and all things correspond. As for example, the hands, the arms, and the shoulders, correspond to power; and thence a staff also has the same correspondence. Therefore they form to themselves staffs, and also representatively present shoulders, arms, and hands, and thereby exercise magical power. So in a thousand and a thousand other ways. The abuse of order and of correspondences is when those things which are of order are not applied to good ends, but to evil ends; and to the end of ruling over others, and to the end of destroying; for the end of order is salvation, thus to do good to all.

Where sorceries and enchantments are mentioned in the Word they signify also the art of so presenting falsities that they appear as truths, and of so presenting truths that they appear as falsities; which is done chiefly by fallacies. . . . Such is the signification of enchantments in this passage, "By thy enchantments were all nations seduced" (Rev. xviii. 23); which is said of Babylon. . . . From this it may now be known what is signified by the sorceries which were to be cut off out of the hand, in Micah v. 12; namely, the arts of presenting truths as falsities, and falsities as truths. These arts also correspond to the fantasies by which the evil in the other life present beautiful things before the eyes as ugly, and ugly things as beautiful; which fantasies are in truth a species of sorcery, for they also are abuses and perversions of Divine order. (A. C. n. 7296, 7297.)

By witchcraft in the Word nearly the same is signified as by enchantment, and enchantment signifies such persuasion that a man does not at all perceive but that the thing is so. Such a kind of persuasion exists with certain spirits that they as it were obstruct the understanding of another, and suffocate the faculty of perceiving. And as the upright men in the Babylonish nation[4] are compelled and persuaded to believe and to do what the monks say, therefore it is said they are seduced by their enchantments (Rev. xviii. 23). The enchantments mentioned by Isaiah, xlvii. 9, 12, where also Babylon is treated of, have a similar signification. So by David in Psalm Iviii. 5, 6. Enchantment is also among the arts approximating to magic which were prohibited to the children of Israel (Deut. xviii. 10, 11). (A. E. n. 1191.)

Destruction of Children by the Bears.

"When Elisha went up into Bethel, as he was going up on the way, there came forth little children out of the city and mocked him, and said unto him, Go up thou bald head! Go up thou bald head! And he looked back behind him, and saw them, and cursed them in the name of Jehovah. And there came forth two she bears out of the wood, and tare in pieces forty and two children of them" (2 Kings ii. 23, 24). It cannot be known why the little children were cursed by Elisha, and therefore torn in pieces by two bears because they called him bald head, unless it be known what Elisha represented, and what a bald head signifies, and also what is signified by the bears. That this was not done by Elisha from immoderate anger and without just cause might appear from the consideration, that he could not be so cruel to little children for only saying, "Go up thou bald head." It was indeed an offence against the prophet; but not such that they should be torn in pieces by bears on account of it. But it thus came to pass because Elisha represented the Lord as to the Word, and so the Word which is from the Lord. By a bald head the Word deprived of the natural sense was signified, which is the sense of the letter; and by the bears out of the wood was signified power from the natural or literal sense of the Word; and by those children they were signified who blaspheme the Word on account of its natural sense because it is such as it is; by forty-two blasphemy is signified. Hence now it is plain that the punishment of blaspheming the Word was represented, and therefore signified, by these things. For all the power and holiness of the Word resides concentrated in its literal sense. Indeed if this sense were not there would be no Word; for without this the Word would be like a house without foundation, which would tremble in the air, and then fall to the ground and go to pieces; and it would be like a man without the skin which envelopes and holds together the included viscera in their position and order. And because such a condition is signified by a bald head, and the Word was represented by Elisha, for this reason the children were torn in pieces by bears; which signified power from the natural sense of the Word, which is the literal sense, both with the good and with the evil. From all this, moreover, it is clear that the historical particulars of the Word equally with its prophetical contain a spiritual sense. (A. E. n. 781.)

Spiritual Drunkenness.

They are called drunkards who believe nothing but what they comprehend, and therefore inquire into the mysteries of faith; for, as this is done by means of things sensual, known, or philosophical, man is so constituted that he cannot but fall into errors. The thought of man is merely worldly, corporeal, and material; because it is from worldly, corporeal, and material things, which continually cleave to it, and upon which the ideas of his thought are founded and in which they are terminated. To think and reason therefore from these concerning things Divine is to rush into errors and perversions; and it is as impossible for a man thence to obtain faith as it is for a camel to go through the eye of a needle. The error and unsoundness of mind that come from this are called in the Word drunkenness. Indeed souls or spirits in the other life who argue about the truths of faith and against them even become as drunkards, and act like them. . . . Spirits who are in the faith of charity are clearly distinguished from those who are not. Those that are in the faith of charity do not argue about the truths of faith, but say that they are thus; and they also confirm them as far as they can by matters of sense, of knowledge, and the analysis of reason. But as soon as anything obscure arises which they do not understand they set it aside, nor do they ever suffer it to bring them into doubt; saying that there are very few things which they comprehend, and therefore to think a thing is not true because they do not comprehend it would be insane. These are they who are in charity. But those on the contrary who are not in the faith of charity desire nothing but to argue whether it is so, and to know how it is; saying that unless they know how it is they cannot believe it is so. From this merely it is instantly known that they have no faith; and the indication of it is that they not only doubt about everything, but in their heart deny; and when instructed how things are they still persist, and move all manner of scruples against them, and are never at rest, even though it were to eternity. It is these, or such as these, who in the Word are said to be drunk with wine or strong drink. As in Isaiah: "They also have erred through wine, and through strong drink have gone out of the way; the priest and the prophet have erred through strong drink; they are swallowed up of wine, they are out of the way through strong drink, they err in vision. . . . All tables are full of vomit of filthiness. . . . Whom shall He teach knowledge? And whom shall He make to understand what is heard? Them that are weaned from the milk, and torn away from the breast" (xxviii. 7-9). Again in the same prophet: "How say ye unto Pharaoh, I am the son of the wise, the son of ancient kings? . . . Where now are thy wise men? and let them tell thee now. . . . Jehovah hath mingled a spirit of perversities in the midst thereof, and they have caused Egypt to err in every work thereof as a drunken man staggereth in his vomit" (xix. 11, 12, 14). A drunken man here stands for those who desire by means of knowledges to search into things spiritual and celestial. Egypt signifies knowledges, and therefore he calls himself the son of the wise. . . . They who believe nothing but what they comprehend by things sensual and things known were also called "mighty to drink;" as in Isaiah: "Woe unto them that are wise in their own eyes, and intelligent in their own sight! Woe unto them that are mighty to drink wine, and men of strength to mingle strong drink!" (v. 21, 22.) They are said to be wise in their own eyes and intelligent in their own sight, because those that argue against the truths of faith deem themselves wiser than others. But those that care nothing for the Word and the truths of faith, and thus have no desire to know anything about faith, denying its principles, are called "drunken without wine;" as in Isaiah: "They are drunken, but not with wine, they stagger, but not with strong drink; for Jehovah hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed your eyes" (xxix. 9, 10). (A. C. n. 1072.)


As regards prodigies and signs, it should be known that they were produced among such as were in external worship and did not desire to know anything of internal; for those who were in such worship were to be constrained by external means. Hence it is that miracles were performed among the Israelitish and Jewish people. For they were solely in external worship, and in no internal; and external worship was also what they ought to be in when they were not willing to be in internal worship,—to the intent that in externals they might represent holy things, and that so communication might be given with heaven, as by something of a church; for correspondences, representatives, and significatives conjoin the natural world to the spiritual. It was then for this reason that so many miracles were performed among that nation. But miracles were not performed among those who were in internal worship, that is in charity and faith; for they are hurtful to them, since miracles compel belief, and what is of compulsion does not remain, but is dissipated. The internal things of worship, which are faith and charity, are to be implanted in a state of freedom; for then they are appropriated, and things which are so appropriated remain. But things which are implanted in a state of compulsion remain outside of the internal man in the external; for nothing enters into the internal man but by means of intellectual ideas, which are reasons, for the ground which receives there is an enlightened rational. Hence it is that no miracles are wrought at this day. That they are also hurtful is therefore evident; for they compel belief, and fix in the external man the idea that it is so; if afterwards the internal man denies what miracles have confirmed, there arises an opposition and collision between the internal and external of man; and at length, when the ideas derived from miracles are dissipated, a conjunction of the false and the true takes place, which is profanation. Hence it appears how hurtful are miracles at this day in the church, when the internals of worship are made known. These things are signified too by the Lord's words to Thomas, "Thomas, because thou hast seen Me, thou hast believed; blessed are they that do not see, and yet believe" (John xx. 29). So also they are blessed who believe and not by miracles. But miracles are not hurtful to those who are in external worship without internal, for with such there is no opposition between the internal and external of man; therefore no collision, and so no profanation. That miracles do not contribute anything to faith is sufficiently manifest from the miracles wrought among the people of Israel in Egypt and in the wilderness; in that they had no effect at all upon them. For that people, although a little time before they had seen so many miracles in Egypt, and afterwards the Red Sea divided and the Egyptians overwhelmed, the pillar of cloud going before them by day and the pillar of fire by night, and the manna daily showering down from heaven; and although they had seen Mount Sinai in smoke, and heard Jehovah speaking thence, besides other miracles, yet even in the midst of such things that people declined from all faith, and from the worship of Jehovah to the worship of a calf (Exod. xxxii). It is evident from this what is the effect of miracles. They would be of still less effect at this day, when it is not acknowledged that anything exists from the spiritual world, and when everything of the kind that takes place, and is not attributed to nature, is denied. For there universally reigns a spirit of denial against the Divine influx and government in the earth. Therefore, if at this day the man of the church were to see the veriest Divine miracles, he would first drag them down into nature and defile them there, and then reject them as phantasms, and finally would laugh at all who attributed them to the Divine and not to nature. That miracles are of no effect is also evident from the Lord's words in Luke: "If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded though one rose from the dead" (xvi. 31). (A. C. n. 7290.)

It should be known that all the miracles which were wrought by the Lord always involved, and therefore signified, such things as are meant by the blind, the lame, the leprous, the deaf, the dead, and the poor, in the internal sense. The miracles of the Lord were therefore Divine; as were also those wrought in Egypt and in the wilderness, and others recorded in the Word. (A. C. n, 2383.)

Why Fishermen were chosen to be the Lord's Disciples.

There was a diligent inquiry among spirits respecting the disciples,—that they might instruct those who were from the earth Jupiter,—for what reason men of inferior condition like fishermen were chosen, and not any from among the learned: and as I heard them, it may here be related that very many [at that time] were steeped in vanities and the like, so that they could not receive those things which belong to faith, like the unlearned who more easily received and believed them. Therefore they in preference to the learned were chosen. (S. D. n. 1216.)

Love to Enemies.

Internal men, such as the angels of heaven are, do not desire the retaliation of evil for evil; but from heavenly charity forgive. For they know that the Lord protects all who are in good against the evil, and that He protects according to the good that is in them; and that He would not protect if they were inflamed with enmity, hatred, and revenge, on account of evil done to them; for these avert protection. (A. E. n. 556.)

Spiritual Fermentations.

Spiritual fermentations take place in many ways, both in the heavens and on earth; but in the world it is not known what they are, and how they are effected. There are in truth evils and attendant falsities, which admitted into societies act as the ferments put into meal and new wine; by which heterogeneous things are separated and the homogeneous are united, and it becomes pure and clear. These are the fermentations which are meant by these words of the Lord: "The kingdom of the heavens is like unto leaven which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened" (Matt. xiii. 33; Luke xiii 21). (D. P. n. 25.)

Prayer and Worship.

"All things whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer believing ye shall receive" (Matt. xxi. 22.) By these words the power is described of those who are in the Lord. They desire nothing, and so ask nothing but from the Lord, and whatsoever they from the Lord desire and ask the same is done; for the Lord says, "Without Me ye can do nothing; . . . abide in Me and I in you." The angels in heaven have such power that if they only desire a thing they obtain it; but they do not desire anything but what is of use, and they desire it as if of themselves but yet from the Lord. (A. R. n. 951.)

Prayer in itself considered is discourse with God; and there is then a certain internal intuition of those things which are objects of prayer, corresponding to which there is a something like influx into the perception or thought of the mind of him who prays; so that there is a kind of opening of man's interiors towards God. But this with a difference according to the man's state, and according to the essence of the thing which is the object of prayer. If it be from love and faith, and only for celestial and spiritual things that he prays, then there exists a something resembling revelation in the prayer, which is manifested in the affection of him who prays, in respect to hope, consolation, or some internal joy. Hence it is that prayer in the internal sense signifies revelation. (A. C. n. 2535.)

By alms [in the Word], in the universal sense, all the good is meant that a man wills and does; and by prayer, in the same sense, is meant all the truth that a man speaks and utters. . . . They that do good and speak truth not for the sake of themselves and the world, but for the sake of good itself and of truth itself, are meant by those that do alms in secret and pray in secret; for such act and pray from love or affection, and so from the Lord. This then is to love good and truth for the sake of good and truth. It is therefore said of them that their Father in the heavens will reward them openly (Matt. vi. 4-6). (A. E. n. 695.)

Worship does not consist in prayers and in outward devotion, but in a life of charity. Prayers are only its externals, for they proceed out of the man by his mouth, and are therefore such as the character of the man is in respect to his life. It matters not that he assumes a humble deportment, and kneels and sighs when he prays; these are outward things, and unless outward things proceed from inward they are but gestures and sounds without life. In all that a man utters there is an affection, and every man spirit and angel is his own affection, for their affection is their life. It is the affection itself that speaks, and not the man without it. Wherefore, according to the quality of the affection, such is the prayer. Spiritual affection is what is called charity towards the neighbour. True worship is to be in this affection; prayer is its going forth. It is plain then that the essential of worship is a life of charity, and that its instrumental is gesture and prayer; or that the primary part of worship is a life of charity, and its secondary is praying. From which it is clear that they who place all Divine worship in oral piety and not in actual piety err exceedingly. Actual piety is to act in every work and in every function from sincerity and rectitude, and according to what is just and equitable, and this because it is commanded by the Lord in the Word; for thus in every work man looks to heaven and to the Lord with whom he is thus conjoined. . . . It is written in David:—"I cried unto God with my mouth. . . . If I regard iniquity in my heart the Lord will not hear. Verily God hath heard; He hath attended to the voice of my prayer" (Psa. lxvi. 17-19). It is said, "If I regard iniquity in my heart the Lord will not hear," because the quality of prayer is according to that of the man's heart, and therefore they are not prayers of any worship if the heart is evil. The heart of man is his love, and the love of man is his very life; consequently his prayers have the quality of his love or the quality of his life. It follows therefore that the prayers signify the life of his love and charity, or that his life is meant by prayers in the spiritual sense. . . . Moreover, when a man is in the life of charity he continually prays, though not with the mouth yet with the heart; for that which is of the love is continually in the thought, even when he is unconscious of it. (ib. n. 325.)

But a man ought not while he lives in the world to omit the practice of external worship also, for by external worship internal things are awakened; and external things are kept by external worship in a state of sanctity, so that the internal can flow in. Besides which a man is thus caused to imbibe knowledge, and prepared to receive celestial things, that he may be endued also with states of sanctity of which he is unconscious; which states of sanctity are preserved to him by the Lord, for the use of eternal life. For in the other life all man's states of life return. (A. C. n. 1618.)

In all worship there must be humiliation. If there is no humiliation there is nothing of adoration, and therefore nothing of worship. That a state of humiliation is essential to worship is for this reason, that in the degree that the heart is humbled in the same degree self-love and every evil therefrom ceases, and so far as this ceases good and truth, that is charity and faith, flow in from the Lord. For self-love is what chiefly opposes the reception of these, because in this there is contempt of others in comparison of one's self, together with hatred and revenge if he is not worshipped. (ib. n. 2327.)

By worship according to the order of heaven is meant all practice of good according to the Lord's precepts. The worship of God at this day means principally the worship of the lips in a temple morning and evening. But the worship of God does not consist essentially in this, but in a life of uses. This is worship according to the order of heaven. The worship of the lips also is worship, but it is entirely without avail unless there be worship of the life; for this worship is of the heart, and that, in order that it may become worship, must proceed from this. (ib. n. 7884.)

The man who is in the course of purification from evils and falsities, and in good and truth, is in genuine worship. For purification from evils and falsities consists in desisting from them, and in shunning them and holding them in aversion; and the implantation of good and truth consists in thinking and purposing what is good and true and speaking and doing them. And the conjunction of the two is life from them; for when good and truth are conjoined in a man he has a new will and a new understanding, and therefore new life. When a man becomes of such a character, in every work that he does there is Divine worship; for he then looks to the Divine [Being] in everything, venerates Him, loves Him, and accordingly worships Him. This is genuine Divine worship, (ib. n. 10,143.)

It is believed by those who do not know the mysteries of heaven that worship is from man, because it goes forth from the thought and from the affection that are in him. But the worship which is from man is not worship, consequently the confessions, adorations, and prayers which are from man are not confessions, adorations, and prayers which are heard and received by the Lord, But they must be from the Lord Himself in man. The church knows that this is so; for she teaches that no good proceeds from man, but that all good is from heaven, that is from the Divine there. Therefore all good is worship also, and worship without good is not worship. The Church, accordingly, when she is in a holy [state], prays that God may be present and lead their thoughts and discourse. The case is this: When man is in genuine worship the Lord flows into the goods and truths that are in him, and He raises them up to Him, and with them raises the man according to the degree and manner that he is in them. This elevation does not appear to a man unless he is in the genuine affection of truth and good, and in the knowledge, acknowledgment, and faith that all good comes from above, from the Lord. That this is so may be apprehended even by those who are wise from the world; for they know from their erudition that there is not natural influx, which is called by them physical influx, but spiritual influx; that is, that nothing can flow in from the natural world into heaven, but the reverse. From these considerations it may appear how it is to be understood that the influx and operation of the Divine of the Lord is into all and everything of worship. That in truth it is so it has been granted me frequently to experience; for I was permitted to perceive the very influx, the calling forth of the truths which were with me, the application to the objects of prayer, the affection of good adjoined, and the elevation itself. But although this is so, yet a man ought not to hang down his hands and wait for influx, for this would be to act the part of an image without life. He ought still to think, to purpose, and to act, as if from himself, and yet ascribe to the Lord every thought of truth and every effort of good; thereby there is implanted in him by the Lord the capability of receiving Him and influx from Him. (ib. n. 10,299.)

Why it is the Lord's will to be Worshipped.

The essence of spiritual love is to do good to others, not for the sake of self, but for their sake. Infinitely more is this the essence of Divine love. It is like the love of parents for their children, in that they do them good from love to them, not for the sake of themselves, but for their sakes. This is plainly seen in the love of a mother towards infants. Because the Lord is to be adored, worshipped, and glorified, it is believed that He loves adoration, worship, and glory, for His own sake; but He loves them for man's sake, because by means of them man comes into such a state that the Divine can flow into him and be perceived; for by means of them man removes his own [proprium] which prevents the influx and reception; for what is his own, which is the love of himself, hardens and closes the heart. This is removed by the acknowledgment that nothing but evil comes from himself, and nothing but good from the Lord. Hence comes a softening of the heart and humiliation, from which flow forth adoration and worship. It follows from this that the uses which the Lord renders to Himself through man are in order that He may do good to him from love; and as it is His love [to do this], reception [by man] is the joy of His love. Let no one therefore believe that the Lord is with those who adore Him merely; but that He is with those that do His commandments, thus who perform uses. He has His abode with these, but not with those. (D. L, W. n. 335.)

The Lord's Prayer.

In the Word those things which precede govern in those that follow, and so in a series. This is evident from everything that the Lord spake; and especially from His prayer, which is called the Lord's Prayer. In this prayer all things follow in such a series that they constitute as it were a column increasing from the highest part to the lowest. In the interiors of this are those things which precede in the series; what is first [or highest] is inmost, and what follows in order adds itself in succession to the inmost, and thus it increases. What is inmost governs universally in those things which are round about it, that is in each and all things, for hence is the essential of the existence of all. (A. C. 8864.)

That there are innumerable things within the ideas of thought, and that they are within them in order from the interiors, has been evident to me when in the morning and evening I have been reading the Lord's Prayer. The ideas of my thought were then constantly opened towards heaven, and innumerable things flowed in, so that I clearly observed that the ideas of thought received from the contents of the Prayer were made full from heaven. And such things were poured in, too, as cannot be uttered, and such also as I cannot comprehend; I was only sensible of the general affection thence resulting. And it is wonderful that the things which flowed in were varied every day. From this it was given me to know that there are more things in the contents of that Prayer than the universal heaven has capacity to comprehend; and that to man there are more things in it in proportion as his thought is more opened towards heaven; and on the other hand that there are fewer things in it in proportion as his thought is more closed. To those indeed whose thought is closed nothing more appears therein than the sense of the letter, or the sense which is nearest to the words, (ib. n. 6619.)

The Lord's Prayer is daily read in heaven, as it is by men on earth. And the angels do not then think of God the Father, because He is invisible; but they think of Him in His Divine Human, because in this He is visible. And in this Human He is not called by them Christ, but Lord; and thus the Lord is their Father in heaven. . . . In that prayer it is said, "Hallowed he Thy name" and "Thy kingdom come." The name of the Father is His Divine Human; and the Kingdom of the Father comes when the Lord is immediately approached, and by no means when God the Father is approached immediately. (A. R. n. 839.)

The Transfiguration; and the Parting of the Lord's Raiment.

Concerning the Lord's transfiguration, we read: "Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up into an high mountain apart, and was transfigured, before them; and His face did shine as the sun, and His raiment was white as the light. And behold there appeared unto them Moses and Elias talking with Him. . . . And behold a bright cloud overshadowed them, and behold a voice out of the cloud, which said, This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye Him" (Matt. xvii. 1-5; Mark ix. 2-8; Luke ix. 28-36.) The reason why the Lord took Peter, James, and John, was because the church was represented by them in respect to faith, charity, and the works of charity; that He took them into a high mountain was because by a mountain heaven was signified; that His face did shine as the sun was because the face signifies the interiors,—it shone as the sun because His interiors were Divine, for the sun is Divine love; His raiment was white as the light, because raiment signifies Divine truth proceeding from Him; the same is signified, too, by light. The reason why Moses and Elias appeared was because they both signify the Word, Moses the historical Word, and Elias the prophetical Word; a bright cloud overshadowed them, because a bright cloud signifies the Word in the letter within which is the internal sense; the voice out of the cloud said, "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye Him," because a voice out of the cloud signifies Divine truth from the Word, and beloved Son, the Lord's Divine Human. And because Divine truth is from Him, and hence all the truth of the church, it was said out of the cloud, "In whom I am well pleased; hear ye Him." It is clear that the Divine Human of the Lord was thus seen, because the very Divine cannot appear to any one except by the Divine Human. This indeed the Lord teaches in John: "No man hath seen God at any time; the only-begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He hath manifested Him" (i. 18). And in another place: "Ye have neither heard His voice at any time, nor seen His shape" (John v. 37). . . . From the fact that the Lord's garments signify Divine truth it may be known what is signified by the soldiers dividing the Lord's garments among them, and casting lots upon His vesture; of which it is thus written in John: "The soldiers took His garments, and made four parts, to each soldier a part, and also His coat; now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout. They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be. That the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted My raiment among them, and for My vesture they did cast lots. These things therefore the soldiers did" (xix. 23, 24). He who does not know that in every particular of the Word there is an internal sense which is spiritual, cannot see any mystery in these things. He knows only that the soldiers divided the garments and not the coat, and perceives nothing more than this; and yet there is a Divine secret not only in this circumstance, but also in every least particular of the things recorded concerning the Lord's passion The secret in this circumstance is, that the garments of the Lord signified Divine truth, and so the Word, because the Word is Divine truth; the garments which they divided signified the Word in the letter; and the coat, the Word in the internal sense. To divide them signifies to disperse and falsify; and the soldiers signify those that are of the church who fight for Divine truth; for this reason it is said, "These things therefore the soldiers did." It is plain then that the meaning of these words in the spiritual sense is that the Jewish church dispersed the Divine truth which is in the sense of the letter; but that they could not disperse the Divine truth which is in the internal sense. (A. E. n. 64.)


"And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes" (Rev. vii 17). This signifies a state of beatitude from the affection of truth after falsities are removed by temptations; as appears from the signification of to wipe away tears from the eyes, which is to take away grief of mind on account of falsities and arising from falsities. And because on the cessation of that grief, after the temptations which they have undergone, beatitude succeeds by means of truths from good, this also is therefore signified; for all the beatitude which the angels enjoy is through truth from good, or through the spiritual affection of truth. The spiritual affection of truth is derived from good, for good causes it. That all the beatitude of the angels comes from this is because Divine truth proceeding from the Lord is what constitutes heaven in general and in particular, and therefore those who are in Divine truths are in the life of heaven, and of course in eternal beatitude. The reason why tears from the eyes signify grief of mind on account of falsities and arising from falsities, is that by the eye the understanding of truth is signified; and therefore tears from the eyes signify grief on account of the non understanding of truth, that is on account of falsities. The same is also signified by tears in the following passage in Isaiah: "He will swallow up death in victory, and the Lord Jehovah will wipe away tears from off all faces" (xxv. 8). This signifies that the Lord by His coming shall remove evils and falsities from those who live from Him, so that there shall be no grief of mind on account of them or from them. Death signifies evil, because evil is the cause of spiritual death; and tears are predicated of what is false. It is to be observed that shedding tears and weeping signify grief on account of falsities and from falsities; but shedding tears signifies grief of mind, and weeping grief of heart on account of them.[5] Grief of mind is grief of the thought and understanding, which are of truth; and grief of heart is grief of the affection and will, which are of good; and because there is everywhere in the word a marriage of truth and good, therefore both weeping and tears are mentioned in the Word when grief is expressed on account of falsities of doctrine or of religion. That weeping is grief of heart may appear from the consideration that it bursts forth from the heart, and breaks out into lamentation through the mouth; and that shedding tears is grief of mind may appear from the fact that it issues forth from the thought through the eyes. In both weeping and shedding tears water comes forth, but bitter and astringent; which is occasioned by influx into the grief of man from the spiritual world, where bitter water corresponds to defect of truth because of falsities, and to grief on account of them. (A. E. n. 484.)

The Dragon.

By the dragon in general they are meant who are more or less natural, and yet in the knowledge of things spiritual from the Word. The reason is that serpents in general signify the sensual things of man, and thence sensual men; and therefore the dragon which is a flying serpent signifies the sensual man, who though sensual yet flies towards heaven, in that he speaks and thinks from the Word, or from doctrine derived from the Word. (A. E. n. 714.)

The Spiritual Sense of Numbers.

Number and measure are mentioned in many places in the Word, and it is supposed that in either case number and measure is meant; but by number and measure in the spiritual sense the quality is meant of the thing treated of. The very quality is determined by the numbers which are expressed. . . . The reason why number signifies the quality of the thing treated of is that the Word is spiritual, and therefore each and all things therein contained are spiritual; and spiritual things are not numbered and measured, and yet they fall into numbers and measures as they descend out of the spiritual world, or out of heaven where angels are into the natural world or the earth where men are. And in like manner when they descend out of the spiritual sense of the Word, in which the angels are, into the natural sense of the Word in which men are. (The natural sense of the Word is the sense of its letter.) This is the reason why there are numbers in this sense, and why they signify things spiritual, or such things as relate to heaven and the church. That the spiritual things of heaven, and such things also as angels think and say, fall into numbers has been often shown to me. When they have been talking with each other their conversation has been determined into mere numbers, which were seen upon paper; and they afterwards said it was their conversation determined into numbers, and that those numbers contained in a series all that they had said. I was also told what they signified, and how they were to be understood.

There are simple numbers which are significative above others, and from which the greater numbers derive their significations; namely, the numbers two, three, five, and seven. The number two signifies union, and is predicated of good; the number three signifies full, and is predicated of truths; the number five signifies much and some; and the number seven signifies what is holy. From the number two arise the numbers 4, 8, 16, 400, 800, 1600, 4000, 8000, 16,000; which numbers have a similar signification to that of the number two, because they arise from the simple number multiplied into itself, and by multiplication by 10. From the number three arise 6, 12, 24, 72, 144, 1440, 144,000; which numbers also have a similar signification to that of the number three, because they arise from this simple number by multiplication. From the number five arise 10, 50, 100, 1000, 10,000, 100,000; which numbers also have a similar signification to that of the number five, because they arise from it by multiplication. From the number seven arise 14, 70, 700, 7000, 70,000; which numbers have a similar signification too with seven, because they arise out of it. Since the number three signifies full, and full denotes all, from this the number twelve derives its signification of all things and all persons. It is predicated of truths from good; because it arises out of 3 multiplied into 4, and the number 3 is predicated of truths, and 4 of good, as was said above. He who does not know that the number twelve signifies all things, and that the numbers multiplied from it have a similar signification; and who does not know that each tribe signifies some universal and essential of the church, cannot but understand that only 12,000 out of every tribe of Israel were sealed, that is were received or were to be received into heaven, when yet the 12,000 there mentioned do not mean 12,000, nor the tribes there named the tribes of Israel; but by 12,000 all are meant, and by the tribes of Israel those that are in truths from good, and thus all, wheresoever on earth they are, who constitute the church of the Lord. (A. E. n. 429, 430.)

As respects numbers in the Word, the half and the double involve a similar signification; as for instance that of twenty is similar to ten, and that of four to two, that of six to three, of twenty-four to twelve, and so on. So also numbers further multiplied are similar in signification, as a hundred and also a thousand is similar to ten, and seventy-two, and a hundred and forty-four are similar to twelve. What therefore the compound numbers involve may be known from the simple numbers from which and with which they are multiplied. What the more simple numbers involve may also be known from the integral numbers; as what five involves may be known from ten, and what two and a half involves may be known from five, and so on. It should be known in general that numbers multiplied involve the same as the simple numbers, but more full; and that numbers divided involve the same, but not so full. As regards five specifically, this number has a double signification. It signifies a little and hence some; and it signifies remains. It signifies a little from its relation to those numbers which signify much; namely, to a thousand, and to a hundred, and therefore also to ten. When it has relation to ten, five signifies remains; for ten signifies remains. He who does not know that there is any internal sense of the Word which does not appear in the letter, will be quite amazed that even numbers in the Word signify things; especially, because he can form no spiritual idea from numbers; but yet numbers flow from the spiritual ideas which the angels have. What the ideas are, and what the things are to which numbers correspond, may indeed be known; but whence that correspondence is, still lies hidden. As for instance, whence is the correspondence of twelve with all things of faith; and the correspondence of seven with things that are holy; and the correspondence of ten, and likewise of five, with goods and truths stored up in the interior man by the Lord, and so on. But yet it is enough to know that there is a correspondence, and that from such correspondence all the numbers in the Word signify something in the spiritual world; consequently also that the Divine inspired into them lies stored up therein. For example, in the following passages where five is mentioned: In the Lord's parable concerning the man who "went into a far country, and delivered to his servants his goods, to one five talents, to another two, and to another one; . . . and he that received five talents, traded with the same and gained other five talents; and likewise he that had received two, gained other two; but he that received one, hid his Lord's silver in the earth" (Matt. xxv. 14, and following verses). One who does not think beyond the literal sense cannot know but that these numbers, five, two, and one, were assumed merely for composing the story of the parable, and involve nothing further; and yet even in these numbers themselves there is an arcanum. For by the servant who received five talents, they are signified who have admitted goods and truths from the Lord, that is who have received remains; by him who received two, they are signified who in advanced age have adjoined charity to faith; and by him who received one they who have received faith only, without charity, are signified. Of this one it is said that he hid his Lord's silver in the earth; for the silver, which is mentioned in connection with him in the internal sense signifies truth which is of faith; and faith without charity cannot make gain, or bear fruit. Such things are contained in these numbers. So in the other parables. . . . Likewise in these words of the Lord, "Think ye that I am come to give peace on the earth? I tell you nay, but rather division. For from henceforth there shall he five in one house divided, three against two, and two against three" (Luke xii. 51, 52). And also in these actual historical incidents, that the Lord fed five thousand men with five loaves and two fishes; and that at that time He commanded them to sit down by hundreds and by fifties; and that after they had eaten, they gathered of the fragments twelve baskets (Matt. xiv. 15-21; Mark vi. 38, and following verses; Luke ix. 12-17; John vi. 5-13). Because these incidents are historical it can scarcely be believed that the numbers in them are significative; as the number five thousand, which was that of the men; the number five, which was that of the loaves; and two, which was that of the fishes; and also the number a hundred, and the number fifty, which were those of the companies that sat down; and lastly twelve, which was that of the baskets containing the fragments. And yet in each number there is an arcanum; for each particular circumstance took place of Providence, to the end that Divine things might be represented. That the number five contains within it a heavenly mystery, and similar to that in the number ten, is plain from the cherubim of which we read in the first book of the Kings; "Within the oracle Solomon made two cherubim of olive wood; the height of each was ten cubits; five cubits was the wing of one cherub, and five cubits was the wing of the other cherub: it was ten cubits from the extremities of its wings to the extremities of its wings; thus ten cubits was the cherub; both cherubim had one measure and one proportion" (vi. 23-25). It is also evident from the lavers about the temple, and from the candlesticks, of which we read in the same book that "five bases of the lavers were set near the shoulder of the house to the right, and five near the shoulder of the house to the left" . . . and that "five candlesticks were set on the right, and five on the left, before the holy place" (vii. 39, 49). That "the brazen sea was ten cubits from brim to brim, and five cubits in height, and thirty cubits in circumference" (vii. 23), was that holy things might be signified both by the numbers ten and five, and by thirty; which number of the circumference in fact does not geometrically answer to the diameter, but it spiritually involves that which is signified by the compass of that vessel. That all numbers signify things in the spiritual world, is very evident from the numbers in Ezekiel where the new earth, the new city, and the new temple are treated of, which the angel measured as to all its particulars (see chapters xl. xli. xlii. xliii. xlv. xlvi. xlvii. xlviii. xlix.), A description of almost all the holy things therein is exhibited by numbers; and therefore one who does not know what those numbers involve can know scarcely anything of the arcana contained therein. The number ten and the number five occur there (xl. 7, 11, 48; xli. 2, 9, 11, 12; xlii. 4; xlv. 11, 14), besides the multiplied numbers; namely, twenty-five, fifty, five hundred, five thousand. It is manifest from the particulars that the new earth, the new city, and the new temple there signify the Lord's kingdom in the heavens, and His church therefrom on the earth. (A. C. n. 5291.)

A greater and lesser number, or a multiplied and divided number, involves a similar signification to that of the simple numbers from which it is derived. This is very manifest from the number twelve, which has a similar signification, whether it be divided into six or multiplied into seventy-two or into 144; that is twelve into twelve, or into 12,000, or into 144,000. As for instance 144,000 in the Apocalypse: "I heard the number of them that were sealed, a hundred forty four thousand, they were sealed out of every tribe of Israel; out of each tribe twelve thousand" (vii. 4, 5, and following verses). In this passage the sons of Israel are not meant by the sons of Israel, nor the tribes by the tribes, nor number by number, but such things as are in the internal sense are meant; namely, all things of faith and charity; and so by each tribe specifically one genus or one class, as has been explained at Genesis xxix. and xxx. So again in the Apocalypse: "Lo, a Lamb standing upon mount Zion, and with Him 144,000 having His Father's name written upon their foreheads. . . . They sung a new song before the throne, . . . and no one could learn the song but the 144,000 bought from the earth. . . . These are they that follow the Lamb whithersoever He goeth. These were bought from among men, the first-fruits to God and the Lamb" (xiv. 1, 3, 4). It is evident from this description, that they who are in charity are meant by the 144,000; and it is also evident that that number merely designates their state and quality. For that number denotes the same as twelve, since it arises from 12,000 and 12 multiplied into each other; in Like manner as the lesser number 144, which is twelve times twelve, in the same book, "He measured the wall of the Holy Jerusalem coming down from God out of heaven, 144 cubits, which is the measure of a man, that is of an angel" (Apoc. xxi. 2, 17). In the spiritual sense the wall of the Holy Jerusalem is not a wall, but the truth of faith defending the things which are of the church; for this reason too it is said that it was 144 cubits. It is very plain that this is so, for it is said that it is the measure of a man, that is, of an angel. By a man and by an angel, all of the truth and good of faith is signified. And it is plain also from the twelve precious stones which formed the foundation of the wall, and from the twelve gates, each of which was one pearl (ver. 19-21); for by precious stones truths of faith which are from the good of charity are signified; likewise by a gate, and also by a pearl. Hence now it is evident, that a lesser and greater number involves a similar signification to that of the simple number from which it is formed. From all this it may now be seen that the number of six hundred thousand men going forth out of Egypt also signifies such things. Scarcely any one can believe that this number has such a signification, because it is an historical fact, and everything historical keeps the mind continually in the external sense, and withdraws it from the internal sense. But this number, too, has such a signification; for there is not even the least word, nay not one jot nor a single point in the Word which is not in itself holy, because it involves within it what is holy. That in the historical fact alone there is nothing holy every one must see. (ib. n. 7973. See also p. 127.)

Measures and Weights.

"And he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand" (Rev. vi. 5). This signifies the estimation of good and truth, of what kind it was with those referred to. The estimation of good and truth is signified by the balances in his hand; for all measures as well as weights, in the Word, signify estimation of the thing treated of. That measures and weights have such a signification is plain from the following in Daniel: "There was a handwriting before Belshazzar the king of Babylon, when he was drinking wine out of the vessels of gold and of silver which were taken out of the temple in Jerusalem, 'Mene, mene, tekel, upharsin,' which is, numbered, weighed, and divided; wherefore this is the interpretation; 'mene, God hath numbered thy kingdom and finished it; tekel, thou art weighed in the balance and found wanting; peres, thy kingdom is divided and given to the Medes and Persians'" (v. 1, 2, 26-28). By drinking out of the vessels of gold and silver of the temple in Jerusalem, and at the same time worshipping other gods, the profanation of good and truth is signified; so also by Babel; mene, or to number, signifies to know his quality as to truth; tekel, or to weigh, signifies to know his quality as to good; peres, or to divide, signifies to disperse. That the quality of truth and good is signified by measures and balances in the Word, is evident in Isaiah: "Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of His hand, and meted out the heavens with the span, and comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, and weighed the mountains in scales and the hills in a balance?" (xl. 12). And in the Apocalypse: "The angel measured the wall of the Holy Jerusalem, an hundred and forty and four cubits, which is the measure of a man, that is of an angel" (xxi. 17). (A. E. n. 313.)

Alpha and Omega.

The Lord is called the Alpha and the Omega, because Alpha is the first and Omega the last letter in the Greek alphabet, and from this circumstance signify all things in the complex; the reason is that each letter of the alphabet in the spiritual world signifies something; and a vowel, because it is used for sound, signifies something of affection or love. From this origin is spiritual and angelic language, and also that of the Scriptures. But this is an arcanum hitherto unknown. . . . The Lord describes His Divinity and infinity by Alpha and Omega; which signify that He is the All in all of heaven and the church. Because in the spiritual world, and therefore in angelic language, each letter of the alphabet signifies something, David wrote the 119th Psalm, in order according to the letters of the alphabet, beginning with Aleph and ending with Thau, as may be seen from the initials of the verses. Something similar to this appears in Psalm cxi., but not so evidently. On this account also Abram was called Abraham, and Sarai was called Sarah. This was done in order that in heaven not they but the Divine should be understood by Abraham and Sarah. And it is so understood; for the letter H involves infinity, because it is only an aspirate. (A. R. n. 29, 38.)

  1. In the common English version of the Bible the nearly synonymous word "remnant" is used.
  2. Lux is used by the author to designate the light of the spiritual man; and lumen to denote the light of the natural man, and of man in the earlier stages of regeneration.
  3. This expression, though not unknown in English parlance, is less common than perhaps in some of the other modern languages, and than it appears to have been anciently, at least in the spoken Latin language. (Virg. Eel, vi. 3.)
  4. That is, the Papal Church. Babylon is the Scriptural type of that spiritual dominion which in the Christian age has had its most remarkable and characteristic embodiment in that religion.
  5. In modern usage "weeping" has become synonymous with "shedding tears;" but the original and more exact meaning of "weep" is to bewail, or to express sorrow, grief, or anguish by outcry or other manifest outward sign. It is necessary to mark this distinction here, for a proper understanding of the author's language. Weeping in this sense it is true is generally accompanied by the shedding of tears, because the understanding acts in sympathy and unison with the will; but according to the author the tears even then proceed from and therefore correspond relatively to the action of the thought, and the weeping or bewailing to that of the affection. A good example of this distinction between the terms occurs in the passage, "Refrain thy voice from weeping and thine eyes from shedding tears" (Jer. xxxi. 16).