A Concise Grammar of the Malagasy Language/Interjections and Syntax

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INTERJECTIONS.

Table of the chief Interjections.

emotion expressed. interjections. meaning.
Surprise
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
endrày, endrè, àdrè, òdrè, (pronounced oh-dray) hày, hànky
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ah! oh!
Denial
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ìsy (pronounced ishy), eìsy, àoè, sànatrìa (forbid that)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Desire
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
anìe, ènga kà, èndra, ànga
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
may—! oh that—! would that—!
Exclamation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
è, ò (pronounced oh!), rỳ, rày, rèy
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
eh! ho! ha!
or calling
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sorrow
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
indrìsy
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
alas!
Regret
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
inày, injày
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
oh that—! would that—!

Note.—With regard to the interjection sànatrìa forbid that—!), perhaps it had the following mode of origin:—

'Sanàtry' is the name of a plant used medicinally by the Malagasy; it is also the name given to an earthen pot when it has been daubed with streaks of coloured earth or paint in accordance with the directions of the 'diviner' or 'incantation-worker'. "When so prepared, the pot is carried to the place where the disease to be removed is said by the 'diviner' to have had its origin; the pot is believed to attract the disease to itself, and is consequently left there, the person who leaves it exclaiming 'Sànatrìa,' May it (i.e., the disease) be sanàtry!

In this custom of the Malagasy (whatever its origin) there is the same idea of vicarious suffering which is so familiar to readers of the Bible, in connection with the scapegoat, &c. of the Mosaic Dispensation.

General Rules for the arrangement of words in a sentence.

1. As regards the predicate, its usual place is at the beginning of a simple sentence, before the subject. But it may follow the subject, (a) indicated only by the sense; (b) indicated more closely by dìa before it; or (c) indicated by before it, when it applies exclusively to the subject.

2. As regards the object of an active verb, it immediately follows its verb; as, nanànatra àzy màfy àho, 'I reproved him sharply'. Unless (as is the case sometimes) an adverb closely connected with the verb intervene; as, àza mamàly sàrotra àzy hìanào, 'do not answer him roughly'.

3. With a passive verb, the adverb and the object (if there be one), together with all connected words unless too long, come near the verb, the subject following last, at the end of the sentence; as, natòlotro àzy omàly nỳ vòla, 'I gave them the money yesterday', or, the money was given to them by me yesterday; nanàriko màfy tèo imàsondraìny ìzy miràhalàhy, I reproved the brothers (or, the brothers were reproved by me) sharply in the presence of their father'.

N.B.—When desired, the subject can be put into a more prominent place, in accordance with exceptions (a), (b), and (c) to Rule 1. above.

4. A qualifying adjective follows its noun; as, lèhilàhy tsàra, 'a good man'.

5. A possessive case follows its noun (whether nỳ precedes it or not). See Rules for Indications of Case. The exception to Rules (4) and (5) is when a word closely connected with the qualified noun intervenes; as, nỳ tànana ànkavanan-dRalàmbo, 'the right hand of Ralambo'; nỳ vahòa-dRànavàlona rehètra, 'all the subjects of Rànavàlona'.

6. In the case of a passive or a relative verb and its agent, the agent always comes next to its verb; as, nòvonòin' nỳ jìolàhy ìzy, 'he was killed by the highwaymen.'

Even in the case of compound verbs (as, mamìndra-fò, from ìndra and ), when the passive or the relative construction is used, the agent, and all words closely connected with it, must come next to the verb, the noun (in this case, ) being separated from its verb; as, (Active) namìndra-fò tàminào nỳ tòmpon-tròsa, 'the creditor showed mercy to you'. (Relative) nàmindràn' nỳ tòmpon-tròsa fò hìanào, 'you were shown mercy by the creditor'.


Short Specimen of Analysis.

Kà òhàbòlana kèly nò hatàoko hò èntiko handà nỳ hanàovanào àhy andrìambavènty.

Translation.—And so I will make a little parable (lit. a little parable shall be made by me), to be used by me in refusing (lit. to refuse) your making me a judge.


Grammatical Notes.

, final conjunction, 'and so'.

Òhabòlana, compound noun, from òhatra, 'measure', 'figure', and vòlana, 'word', meaning a figure of speech, parable, proverb. It is a contraction for òhatra-vòlana, -na being rejected and v changed into b; here it is the nominative case to hatào. The root vòlana (a word) is used by the Hovas only in the phrase tsỳ mitèny tsỳ mivòlana, 'to be silent', 'speechless'; but one or two of the other tribes still use mivòlana as synonymous with mitèny.

Òha-tèny is used as a synonym of òhabòlana.

Kèly, adjective, qualifying òhabòlana. It means little; its past tense is the same as the present, but its future is hò kèly.

, discriminative particle. Its force here is, "I will answer you, not by a simple denial, but by making a parable".

Hatàoko, passive verb in a- (future tense), from root tào, which is seen in the noun tào-zàvatra, 'manufactures'; -ko is the suffixed pronoun, first person singular, denoting the agent of the passive verb hatào.

Hò èntiko, passive verb in -ina, root unknown; a verbal noun in -ana (èntana, luggage, a load) also exists. Èntina makes past nèntina, like passives in -ina; but future, hò èntina, like root-passives. Hò èntina is here dependent upon hatào, one future passive following another. Èntina literally 'borne, carried'; but often translated by 'used', as in ènti-manào, 'used in making'.

Handà, active verb in man-, from root , I being changed into d for the sake of euphony (future tense); it means to deny, refuse, and is here used as an infinitive dependent on hò èntiko, a future active following a future passive.

Nỳ, definite article, here used to turn the phrase nỳ hanàovanào àhy andrìambavènty into a noun.

Hanàovanào, relative verb from active verb manào, root tào; here used of the act, taken in connection with all its circumstances; -nào, suffixed pronoun, second person singular, showing the agent of the relative verb hanàovana.

Ahy, separate form of personal pronoun, first person singular, objective case.

Andrìambavènty, compound noun, composed of the noun andrìana, 'a noble', and the adjective vavènty, 'substantial, large'. It means 'a judge': its root is vènty, 'substance', the prefix va- being either a substitute for the usual adjectival prefix ma- (mavènty is used among some of the tribes other than the Hova), or a monosyllabic prefix. Both àhy and andrìambavènty are accusative cases governed by the relative verb hanàovana. The relative follows the government of the active construction, which would be manào àhy andrìambavènty.