A Dictionary of All Religions and Religious Denominations/dump4

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♦MONKS, fnionachUJ cer- tain persons who secluded themselves from the world to make the stricter profession of i-eligion ; they were distin- guished anciently into three classes. 8oUUaries are tliose which lived alone, and remote

• Mosheim, voL i. p. 475, 4i76» i Scotch Theoi Diet

from to\^7i and from human 90«  ciety. CanMtes lived in com- munity with others in monas^ teries and convents. 8ara3ba^ ites were strolling monks, who lived without any fixed rule or settled residence; whence fhe' Mendicants, or begging frianf, which are divided into Ca^-* chins and Franciscans. ^

Monks are distinguished b^ their habits, as black, whill^ grey, &c. or by the saint inlidi they take for their patroti.'tf model, as Benedictines, Bie^ nardines, Francisca^iis, S& Before the reformation, and'tt Popish countries since, fh^ Monks have been extnnidf

numerous.:!: * ^


from believing one persoii^'ihiHf

in the godhead. See J*^

passians, " '^'"

M0N0PHTSITE8 iia^ tained, that the divine and^hii^ man natures of Christ wer^M united, as to form oidy on^ iriii hirdf yet without any cfaangi)| confusion, or mixture of^tii two natures. They flouridiiU in the fifkh century .§

MONOTHELITES, a nomination so called, iriMii teaching, that two natuiSsifln Christ's person had but dm tciU. Their founder was TSSJi dore, bishop of Fharan, in AM^ bia, in the .seventh century^ who maintained the fUnoWiil^ positions : (1.) That in Clttttl there were two distinct natuMiy^ which were so united, (thon^ without the least mixture *< been generally given to thoseiy ' i who maintain tiiat the scrip-^ tures have a mystical seme, which must be sought after }> andwho, laying but little stress : on outward forms, profess to t aspire after a pure and sublims devotion — an infused and pas- ' sive contemplation, throu^ m - silent and inward attention to the operations of the spirit of God upon the mind. They are^ «  said to derive their origin bamiJ Dionysius, the Areopagitey who was converted to chnstiiiDitgr • in the first century, by ths^ preaching of Paul at AthraBi * To support this idea, they at^ «  tributed to this great man va^; nous treatises, which others aa«' cribe to a Gi'ecian Mystic of much later date, who is snppos-? ed to have written under Ips-

ing of Christ, and the end of venerable name.

the world. Reeves was to act the part of Moses, and Muggle- ton to be his mouth. Among other things, they denied the doctrine of the trinity; and affirmed that Grod the father came down from heaven and suffered in a human form ; and

Mysticism is, however, of m) much earlier date, and siAsiBt^ ed both in the East and among the Jews, assuming a variety of forms according to the gemus and temper of its disciples. In the christian church this denom- ination appeared in the third

• Mosheim's Eccles. Hist. vol. i. p. 192, 193. Fonney's Eccles. Hist, vot L p. 48. Ppiestley*8 Eccles. Hist. voL i. p. 254.

t Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, vol. iii. p. 2,149. Reeves and Mu^lc- ton's Spiritual Treatise, p. 3—23.




[Tjf increased inthefourth^ n the fifth spread into the m provinces. In the year the supposed works of ysius kindled the flame of idsm in the western prov- • In tlic twelfth century^ took the lead in expound- he scriptures ; in the thir- h^ they were the most for- ble antagonists of the dmen; towards the close to fourteenth, they propa- 1 their sentiments in al- every part of Europe $ 16 fifteenth and sixteenth, r persons of distinguished t embraced their tenets; n the seventeenth, the rad- irinciple of Mysticism was ted by the Behmenists, "ignonists, Quietists, and Lers»

le ancient Mystics were nguished by their profess- )iire, sublime, and perfect iion, with a disinterested of Gt)d ; and by their as- ig to a s^te of passive con- lation.

he first principles of these ments have been supposed ?oceed from the well known tine of the Platonic school, Lch was adopted by Origen his disciples,) that the di- natnre was diffused through human souls, or in other iSf that the faculty of rea- from which proceeds the th and vigour of the mind, an emanation from God in- le human soul, and compre- led in it the principles and \enis of all truths human

and divine. They denied, that men could by labour or study^ excite this celestial flame in their own breast ; and therefore disapproved of the attempts of those who, by abstract reason- ingSy endeavoured to discover the hidden nature of truth. On the contrai*y, they main- tained, that silence, tranquillity, repose, and solitude, accompa- nied with such acts of mortifi- cation as might tend to ex- tenuate and exhaust the body, were the means by which the hidden and internal word was excited, and of instructing men in the knowledge of divine things. *<< tlic Sjpirit makes irUercession for us. Now if the Spirit pray in us, we must resign ourselves to its impulses, by remaining in a state of mere inaction.


As the late Rev. William ion of this oatward woridj and

Law* \^o was born in 1687, stctod onlj in the highest ranic

makes a distingaished figure of animals. But the goodness

among the modern TSiystics, a of Gad would not leave outi in

brief account of the outlines of this condition: redemption &qa|i

hisBysieiamaybe acceptable. — it was immediately graiited,^

He supposed that the material and the bruiser of the serp^

world was thr: re^on which brought the life, light, and »wij;

sriginally belonged to the fallen it of hcaven> once more i^

angels. At length the light the human nature. All ipeib,

and spirit of God entered into in consequence of the. redeinp^

the cbaoBt and turned the an- tion of Christ, have in them i^e

gels' ruined kingdom into a first spark, or seed, ofthc divine

paradise on earth. God then life, aa a treasure hid |n me

created man, and placed him centre of our souls, to bri^

there. He was made in the forth, by degrees, a new birth^

image of the triune God,* a that life which was lost in pani-

living mirror of the divine na- dise. No son of Adam canly^

tare, formedtfl enjoy commun- lost, except by turning aw^,

ion with the Father, Son, and from the Saiiour witliio Iui%

HoIyGhoBt,andtoliveoneartIi The only religion, which cm

as the angels da in heaven, save us, must bo that whicb.c^

He was endowed with immor- raise the light, life, and spirit^

tali!?, so that the elements of God in our souls. Nothing qa^

this outward world could not enter into the vrgctablc kin^

bare any power ofacting on his dom, till it have the vcgetablei^

body: but by his fall he in it* or be amembernftjiea^

changed the light, 1ife,jand8pir< imal kingdom, till it have th&uif

it of God, fiirthe light,' life, and imal life. Thus all naturejo^

spirit of the world. He died with the gospel in affirmi^

the very di^ of hia transgres- that no man can cuter into,^

sion to an the influences and kingdom of heaven, till, /(h^

iterations of the Spirit of God heavenly life is born in.bia)^

upon him, as we die to the in- Nothing can bo our rightc^i^^

flucnces of this world when the ness or recovery, but the di^iip

soul leaves tlicbndy; and all natui-e of Jesus Christ derived

the influences and operations from our souls.f ,,,'

of the elements of this life wore The excellent Fenclon, ai^-

open in him, as they are in any bishop of Cambray, held an

animal, at hia birth into this eminent rank among the Mys-

world : he became an eartMy tics. See ^ietitU.

creature, subject to the domin- :.

• " Nature (layi Mr. Law) Is the inviiFeKtation of the holy trin'i^ in a tti- une life otfire, light, and tpiritf

f Mo^heim's tlccles. Ilisti voL i. p. 393, 323. Dictionaif of ArU and Sc^


19 1



■ NaZARENES, a name o- riginally given to diiistians in

Ssiieraly on acconnt of Jesus hrist's being of the city of Na- i&reth ; bat was afterwards re- itrained to a denomination in HIId" first and second centuries^. Ich blended Christianity and tm together. They held Christ was born of a vir^n^ it^ was also in a certain man- w^^ tinited to the divine nature. Itu^' refused to abandon the efiVidionies prescribed by the EKw^'bf Moses; but were far fMi^* attempting to impose the dlMorvahce of these ceremonies liifbta ]^tile christians. They ted those additions that taade to the Mosaic insti- fUKyis by the Pharisees and GSt^ tjit the law; but ad- i£WMf the scriptures both of tkV %Vl and new testament. Vjfen^'aliso used a spurious gos- ^Hi^liich was called indiscrim- «*The gospel of the les or Hebrews ;*'* and _ >id supposed by some to Wthe' gospel St Paul refers to Hi'mX. i. 6. ?nt many think fliitt dt^Paul only referred to the gS^pH which he preached, aind that the gospel of the Naza- rhiiB W2& a Hebrew or Syriac ▼terfph of St. Matthew.t

NECESSARIANS^ or Nb- cBssiTAKiANs ; an appellation given to those who maintain* that moral agents act from ne- cessity. Some suppose this ne- ceissity to be meclianicaly and others moral. Mechanical ne- cessity follows materialism : moral necessiity results from the presumption, that there is a power existing distinct froja matter. Dr. Priestley's scheme of mechanical, or philosophical necessity, has been delineated under the article MateriaUstSf on account of its connexion with the doctrine of Material- ism.

The following is a sketch of the sentiments of some of the most celebrated advocates for moral necessity.

Mr. Leibnitz, an eminent German philosopher, who was bom in 1646, is a distinguish- ed writer on this subject He attempted to give Calvinism a more pleasing and philosophical aspect. He considered all the worlds which compose the uni- verse as one system, whose greatest possible perfection is the ultimate end of creating goodness. As he laid down this great end as the supreme object of God's government^

Regeneration, p.

lietteri, &c« 

  • Mosheim, vol. i. p. 173. Brougbton^ Tol. ii. p. 155.

.f mick'e Theolog. Diet.




and the scope to which all his dispensations were directed, he concluded tiiat it must be ac- complished : and hence the doctrine of necessity^ to fulfil the purposes of predestination ^ a necessity pliysical and me- chanical in the motions of ma- terial and inanimate things; but moral and spiritual in the voluntary determinations of in- telligent beings, in consequence of propellent motives which produce their effects with cer- tainty, though tliose effects are contingent, and by no means the offspring of an absolute and blind fatality.

Mr. Leibnitz obser\'es, that if it be said, that the world might have been without sin and misery, such a world would not have been the be«t ; for all things are linked together in each possible world. The uni- verse, whatever it may be, is all of a piece, like an ocean : the least motion produces its effect to any distance, though the effect becomes less sensible in propoi*tion to the distance. God having settled every thing beforehand, having foreseen all good and evil actions, &c. every thing did ideally contribute be- foi*e its existence to his creat- ing plan ; so that no alteration can be made in the univerae, any moi*e than in a number, without destroying its essence, or its numerical individuality : and thei'cfoiT, if the least evil which happens in the world were wanting, it would not be that world which, all things du-

ly considered, the all-wise Cre- ator has chosen and accounted the best. Colours are height- ened by shadows, and a disso- nance well placed, renders har- mony more beautiful. Does any one sufficiently prize die happiness of healthy who liai never been sick? Is it not generally necessary, that alik tie evil should render a good more sensible, and consequent- ly greater ? '*

President Edwards' scUme of moral necessity is as foUoifB: That the will is in every due necessarily determined by fte strongest motives, and thatflie moral necessity may be as ab- solute as natural necessity ; L c a moral effect may be as per- fectly connected with its jbos al cause, as a naturally nebei- sary effect is with its natonl cause. He rejects the noBoK of liberty, as implying any sdf- determining power in the wiDy any indifference or contingo- cy; and defines liberty to ke the power, oppoi-tunity, and id- vantage, which any one has to do as he pleases. Thislibcrtj is supposed to be consistnt with moral rxsrtainty, or nec«* sity. He supports bis scheiDe by the connexion between came and effect, by God's ceriain foreknowledge of the volitioiB of moral agents, which is sup- posed to be inconsistent with such a contingencc of those vo- litions as excludes all necessity. He shows that God's moratex- cellencc is necessary, yet vi^ tuous and praise-worthy ; that




(he acts of the will of the hu- man J9oul of Christ are necessa- rily holy, yet virtuous, praise- worthy, and rewardable ; and that the moral inahilily of sin- ners, consisting in depravity of heart, instead of excusing, con- stitutes their guilt. • Lord Kaims has the foUow- .. Big hypothesis : — ^That, com- paring together the moral and matenal world, every thing is as much the result of establish- ed laws in the one as in the other. There is nothing in the Whole universe which can pro- perly be called contingent ; but every motion in the material, and every determination and action in the moral world, are directed by immutable laws: 80 that, while those laws re- main in force, not the smallest link in the chain of causes and effbcts can be broken, nor any fme thing be otherwise than it is. That, as man must act with consciousness and spon- taneity, it is necessary that he should have some sense of things possible and contingent. Hence the Deity has wisely im- planted a ddtisroe sense of lib- erty in the mind of man, which fits him to fulfil the ends of action to better advantage than be could do, if he knew the ne- cessity which really attends him. Lord Kaims observes that, in the materia] world, it is found that the representations of ex- ternal objects and their quali- ties, conveyed by the senses, differ sometimes from whatphi- losophy discovers these objects


and their qualities to be. Were men endowed witii a micro- scopic eye, the bodies which surround him would appear as diiJTerent, from what they do at present, as if he were transport- ed into another world. His ideas, upon that supposition^ would be more agreeable to strict truth, but they would be far less serviceable in common life. Analogous to this in the moral world, the Deity has im- planted in mankind the ddustoc notion of the power of being in- different, that they may be led to the proper exercise of that activ- ity for which they were design- ed.

The Baron de Montesquieu^ in his Persian Letters, observes^ that as God makes his crea«  tures act just according to his own will, he knows every thing he thinks fit to know. But though it is in his power to see every thing, yet he does not always make use of that pow- er: he generally leaves his creatures at liberty to act or not to act, that they may have room to be guilty or innocent. In this view he renounces his right of acting upon his crea- tures, and directing their reso- lutions: but when he chooses to know any thing, he always does know it ; because he need only will that it shall happen as he sees it, and direct the resolu- tions of his creatures according to his win. Thus he fetches the ^ngs which shall happen, from among those which are merely possible, in fixing by his de-




creea the future determinations of the minds of his ci'catures, and depriving tliem of the pow- er of acting or not actings which he has bestowed upon them.

President Edwards makes the following distinction be- tween his and Lord Raims' ideas of necessity : — (1) Lord Kaims supposes such a neces- sity with respect to men's ac- tions, as is inconsistent with liberty. Pres. Edwai-ds thinks, that the moral necessity lie de- fends is not inconsistent with the utmost liberty which can be conceived. — (2.) Kaims sup- poses, that the terms uitaxtoida^ bUf impossible, &c. are equally applicable to the case of moral and natural necessity. Ed- wards maintains, that such a necessity, as attends the acts of the will, may with more pro- priety be called certainty, it be- ing no other than ttie certain connexion between the subject and predicate of the proposition which affirms their existence.-* (3.) Kaims supposes, that if mankind could clearly see the real necessity of their actions, they would not appear to them- selves or others praise-worthy, culpable, or accountable for them. Edwards asserts, that moral necessity is perfectly con- sistent with praise and blame, rewards and punishments. Last- ly, Lord Kaims agrees with President Edwards in suppos- ing that praise or blame i-ests ultimately on the disposition or frame of mind.

As, in the account of Dr^ Priestley's sentiments, the man* ner, in which he distinguishes philosophical necessity from the Calvinistic doctrine of predes- tination, is inserted 5 perhaps those, who are fond of specu- lating on this subject, will bcT gratified by viewing, on the other hand, the following dis- crimination made by Dr. Em- mons, of Fi'auklin, Mass. be- tween the Calvinistic idea of ne- cessity and Dr. Priestiey's.

It has long been a subject of controversy between Arminians and Calvinists, whether moral agents can act of necessity.- Upon this subject. Dr. P. labours to prove the doctrine of ne- cessity from the general prin- ciple, that no effect can exist without a cause. « Every vo- lition (he ai'gues) must be an effect, every effect must have a cause, every cause must neces- sarily produce its effect : there- fore every volition, as well as every other effect, must be ne- cessary." But though he agrees with the Calvinists in their first principles and general mode reasoning, yet in one point he differs from them totally: for he thinks that motives, which arc the cause of volitions, must operate mechanically, which, they suppose, totally destroys the freedom of the will. He is constrained to maintain the me- chanical operation of motives, by his maintaining the materi- ality of the soul. « Every thing (he says) belonging to the doc- trine of materialism is, in fact>




an argument for the docti*inc of necessity ; and consequently the doctrine of necessity is a direct inference from materi- alism.")^

" Whether man is a necessa- ry or a free agents is a ques- tion^ that has been debated by writers of the first eminence. Hobbesy Collins, Hume, Leib- nitz, Kaims, Hartley, Pricst- Iqr, Edwards, Grombie, Top- lady, and Belsham, have writ- ten on the side of Necessity : wlule Clarke, King, Law, Reid, Bnfler, Price, Bryant, Wollas- ttm,Hor8ley, Beattie, Gregory, and Butterwoilh, have written against it. To state all their arguments in this place would take up too much room ; suffice It to say, that the Anti-necessa- ^nans suppose that the doctrine of Necessity charges God as %he author of sin ; that it takes ^way the freedom of the will, ^renders man unaccountable, Snakes sin to be no evil, and "taorality or virtue no good ; forecludes the use of means, and is of the most gloomy tendency. The Necessarians deny these to be legitimate consequences ; and observe, that the Deity acts no more immorally in decree- ing vicious actions, than in per- mitting those irregularities, he could so easily have prevented. The difficulty is the same on each hypothesis. All necessity, say they, does not take away

freedom. The actions of a man may be, at one and the same time, free and necessaiy. It was infallibly certain, that Ju- das would beti-ay Ciirist, yet he did it voluntarily. Jesus Christ necessarily became man and died ; yet lie acted freely. That necessity does not i*cnder actions less morally good, Ls ev- ident ; for if necessai'y virtue be neither moral nor praise- worthy, it will follow that God himself is not a moral being, because a necessary one ; and the obedience of Christ cannot be good, because it was neces- sary. That it is not. a gloomy doctrine they allege, because nothing can be moi*e consoljito- ry than to believe that all things are under the direction of an all- wise Being; that his king- dom ruleth over all, and that he doth all things well.^'f

The texts of scripture refer- red to in favour of necessity are chiefly the following. Job xxiii. 13, 14. — xxxiv. 29. Prov.x^i. 4. Isaiah xlv. 7. Matthew x. 29, SO. — xviii. r. Luke xxiv. 16. John vi. 37. Acts xiii. 48. E- phesians i. 11. — 1 Thess. ii. 12. &c.

NEGROES, (The) natives of Africa, universally believe in a supreme Being, and have some ideas of a future state. They address the Almighty Be- ing by a/eftcAe,or charm, which is considci'cd as a suboinlinate.

• Mosheim*8 Eccles. Hist vol. v. p. 24 Leibnitz*s Essay on the Goodness of God, the Free-wUl of Man, &c. Letters between Clarke and Leibnitz Ed- wards on the Will, p. 17— 313. Kaims* Essays, p. 1 14— 155— Montesquieu's Persian Letters, p. 134—136. t flick's Theological Diet




feeble supplications of wretched mortals can reverse the de- crees, or change the purposes of unerring wisdom. If they be asked for what reason tlien do they offer up a pmyer on the appearance of the new moon ? the answer is, that custom has made it necessary ; they do it, because their fathers did it be- fore them. The concerns of the worid, they believe, ai-e committed by the Almighty to the superintendance and direc- tion of subordinate spirits, over whom they suppose certain magical ceremonies have great influence. A white fowl, sus- pended from the brancli of a particular tree, a snake's head, or a few handfuls of fruit, are offerings, which the Negroes often present, to deprecate the wrath, or to conciliate the fa- vour of these tutelary agents. But it is not often that they make their religious opinions the subject of conversation ; when interrogated in particu- lar concerning their idea of a future state, they express them- selves with great reverence ; but endeavour to sliorten the dis- cussion, by observing that no man knows anv thing about it."^

NEONOMIANS, from »*•«  nexVf and »•/««$ Uirc^ the advocates of a new layv. the condition whereof is imperfect, though sin- cere and persevering obedience.

Neonomianisni is supposed to be an essential ])art of the Arminian svstem. "The new

covenant of grace, whichi through the medium of Christ^ii death, the Father made witii men, consists, according to this system, not in our being justifi- ed by faith, as it apprehends the righteousness of Christ ; ^vt in this, that God, abrogi^r; the exaction of perfect legd obedience, imputes, or accc^^ of faith itself, and the mpkeL^ feet obedience of faith, insteiil of the perfect obedience of w law, and graciously accoattt^ them worthy of the reward'^ eternal life." This opinion wjb^ condemned at the synod dP Dort,f and has been canvasm between the CalvinistsandJb^' * minians on various occasioi Towards the end of the sei teenth century, a control was agitated amongtheEngli dissenters ; in which the otf side, who werepai*tial to theWr|9 tings of Dr. Crisp, were chai||i*'* ed with Antinomianism ; andtir other, who favoured those of Ifr.' Baxter, w^re accused of JV%oiH|^' mianism. Dr. Daniel WilliaxM^ who was a principal writer h. opposition to the former, giVtt' the following as a summaryof' his faith in reference to thesi^' subjects : — " 1. God has cte^^ nally elected a ceilain Aefimtf number of men, whom he vitf infallibly save. 2. These veif elect ai-e not ])ersonally justifi- ed, until they receive Christ and yield up themselves to him; but they remain condemned whilst unconverted. — 3. By the

  • Park's Travels, p. 509. f -Acta Synodi, p. 253.

i Sec Edwards on the Will, Lond. edit. p. 320.

  • »'




ry of the gospel there Ib ous offer of pardon and upon the terms of the, [, to all that hear it : and hereby requires them to y. — 4. Ministers ought to ese and other gospel ben- s motives^ assuring men f they believe they shall stificd ; if they repent^ < sins shall be blotted but whilst they neglect duties, they cannot have sonal interest in the ben- -5, It is hy the power of )irit of Christ freely ex- and not by the power of ^illji that the gospel be- \ effectual for conversion. When a man believes, yet that faith, much less any work, the matter of that ^usness for '^ hich a sin- justified ; it is the im- righteousness of Christ ► which gives the believer it to these and all saving ngs. By both this and fth head, it appears, that Elating is excluded, and we laved by IDrec grace. — 7. alone receives the Lord and his righteousness ; he subject of this faith is a needy penitent soul; hence e justified by faith alone, et the impenitent are not ren. — 8. G^d has freely ised, that all whom he pre- lated to salvation shall not savingly believe, but that • his power will preserve from a total, or a final asy. — 9. Yet the believer.

o«pcl Truth stated, p. 312, 313. f ^'^^ P* 3U

whilst he lives in this world, is to pass the time of his sojourn- ing here with fear, because his wsa*fare is not accomplished ; and it is true, that if he < draw back,' God * will have no pleasure in him.'— 10. The moral law is so in force stilly that every precept constitutes duty, even to the believer ; eve- ry breach thereof is deserving of death. This law binds death by its curse on every unbeliever : and the righteousriess, by which we are justified before God, is a righteousness adequate to that law, which is Christ's alone : and this is so imputed to the believer, as that God deals ju- dicially with him according thereto. — 11. Yet such is the grace of the gospel, that it prom- isetii in and by Christ, a free- dom from the curse, forgive- ness of sin, and eternal life, to every sincere believer 5 which promise God will certainly perform, notwithstanding the threatening of the law."*

Dr. Williams maintains the conditionality of the covenant of grace ; but admits with Dr. Owen, who also uses the term condition, that « Christ under- took, that those who were to be taken into this covenant should receive grace enabling them to comply with the terms of it, fulfil its conditumSf and yield the obedience which God re- quired therein*!

On this subject Dr. Williams further says, <* The question is not whether the first, (viz. rft-




generating") grace, by which we are enabled to perform the con- dition, be absolutely given. This I affirm ; though that [grace] be dispensed oniinarily in a due use of means.*

The following objection, a- mong others, was made by sev- eral ministers in 169S against Dr. Williams' Work, above quoted : << To supply the room of the moral law, vacated by him, he turns the gospel into a ntw law, in keeping of which we shall be justified for the sake of Christ's righteousness ;f making qualifications and acts of ours a disposing subordinate righteousness, whereby we be-

short of perfectionf to be thi omdi^toiu of our personal inter- est in the benefits pvrchaaed ta CAm^P This I deny. (5.) Nor whether the gospel be a laW| the promises whereof enti^B the performers of its conditioQi to the benefits as of deUi^ Tip I deny.

« The difference is :— (1,) jfl the gospel a law in this sense^I viz. Cic^ in Christ thereby caiit^ iitanifetA sinners to repent of aqb and receive Chnst by a tqie operative faith, promising liipi thereupon they shall be to him, justified by his eousness, pardoned, and ed; and that, perseveriiig.lfl


come capable of being justified faith and true holiness^ tkf

by Christ's righteousness4

To this he answers : " The difference is not, (1.) Whether the gospel be a new law in the Socinian, Popish, or Arminian sense ? This I deny. Nor (2.) is faith, or any other grace or acts of ours, any atonement for sin, satisfaction to justice, mer- iting qualification, or any part of that righteousness, for which we are justified at the bar of God ? This I deny in places innumei*able. Nor (3.) whether the gospel be a law more new than is implied in the first promise to fallen Ad- am, proposed to Cain, and o- beyed by Abel, to the differen- cing him from his unbelieving brother? This I deny. (4.) Nor whether the gospel be a law that allows sin, when it accepts such gi-aces as true, though

shall be finally saved; 9m threatening, that if any sh^ die impenitent rejecters of till grace, they shall perish witliQJrt relief, and endure sorer pim- ishments, than if these oflbs had not been made to them? (2.) Hath the gospel a sandiMf i. e. doth Christ therein enforce his commands of faiths repent- ance, and perseverance, by fiio foresaid promises and threatm- ings, as motives to our obedi- ence ? Both these I aflirm, and they deny ; saying, the goBfd in the largest sense is an abso- lute promise, without prec^ti and condition. ^4.) Do the gospel promises or benefits to cei*tain graces, and its threatSt that those benefits shall be with- held, and the contrary evils in- . flicted lor the neglect of such graces, render those graces the


Gospel Truth stated, p. 61. t Ibid. p. 44—210. 4 Ibid. p. 54—143.




CdnMHim of our personal title to those benefits 7 This they de- vj, and I affirm, kc.'**

It does not appear to have been a question in this contro- yrersjf whether God cofmnands rinncrs to repent and believe in Christ, nor whether he promis- u life to believers, and threatens death to unbelievers ; but whe- tilier it be the gospel, under the fcrm of a new law, that thus commands or threatens, or the moral law on its behalf; and irtiether its promises to believ- ing render such believing a con- mm of the things promised.— «  h another controversy 9 howev- er, about forty years afterwards, it became a question wheth- er God did by bis word (call it law or gospel) command iniregenerate sinners to repent Md believe in Chirst, or to do a- Hy thing else whicli is spiritually good. Of those who took the affirmative side of this question, 8ome attempted to maintain it on the ground of the gospel's Ikeing a new law, consisting of commands, promisees, and com- minations, the terms or condi- tions of which were repent- ance, faith, and sincere obe- dience. But those who first engaged in the controversy, though they allowed the encaiir" ageTmnt to repent and believe to arise merely from the grace of the gospel, yet considered the formal obligation to do so as

arising from the moral law^ which, re(j[uiring supreme love to God, re(|uii*cs acc^uiescencs in any revelation which he shall at any time make known.f

NESTOUIAMS, a denomi- nation which arose in the fifth centuiy, from Nestorius, bishop of Constantinople. They main- tain that the union of Christ's divinity witli his humanity, is a union of will, operation, and benevolence; for the divine Word is perfect in his nature and person. The human na- ture, united to him is likewise perfect humanity in his nature and person ; neither of them is changed, or undergoes any al- teration. Therefore, there are two persons in Jesus Christ, and two natures, united by one operation and wilL They con- ceived that, as there were two distinct natures in Christ, the divine and human, though both were united, as they express it, under one aspect, yet pro- perly, it was the liuman nature only which obeyed and suffer- ed, which was born and died. They tlierefore object to call- ing the virgin Mary the nwther of God, so warmly contended jor by the church of Rome; but which is equally objected to by protestants.

In the Nestorian controver- sv, the contending parties seem to have been all of one opinion as to the doctrine of the ti'inity,

• Compel Truth, p. 256—258.

f Williams* Gospel Truth slated and vindicated. Chauncey*s Neonomianism irnmasked. Maurice's Modern Question Aflirmed and I'roved. Witsius* Irenicum.





ill opposition to the Arians : and Jield the co-equality ot* the tlu'ee divine persons. TheNes- torians are a branch of the Gi'eek Chuixrh, and reside chief- ly in Mesopotamia, Syria^ and the Levant. Many also reside in India^ \\ hei-e they ai*o call- ed the. Syrian Christians, which see.*

♦NETOVTSCHINS, a sect of Russian dissentei*s, said to be very ignorant, and much divided in opinion; they go un- der the general name of Spaso- va Soglasiih or the Union for Salvation. They believe that Anticlirist is already come, (in the person of the pope perhaps,) and has put an end to every tiling holy in the Church.f

NEW JsnusiiLEM Church, a society founded by Emanuel Swedenborg, son of Jasper, a Lutheran bishop of West-Goth- ia. He was born at Stockholm in the year 1689, and died in London in 1772. He eai'ly en- joyed all the advantages of a liberal education, having studi- ed with great attention in the academy of Upsal, and in the universities of England, Hol- bmd, France, and Gei-many. His progress in the sciences was rapid and extensive $ and at an early period in life he dis- tinguished himself by vaiious publications in Latin on philo- sophical subjects. His studies led him to refer natural phe- nomena to spiritual agency, and

to suppose that there is a close connexion betvs'een the two worlds of matter and spirit. Hence his system teaches us to consider all the visible universe* with every thing that it con- tains, as a theatre and repre- sentation of the invisible world* fi-om which it firat derived its: existence, and by connexion with which it continually sub- sists.

Swedenborg's great genint- and learning, accompanied with the purity of his character, at* ti*acted the public notice. Hence he rec^^ived various literary and. political honours.. All tii^sc^ however, heconsidei'edofsiBatt- impoi'tance, compai*ed with the. distinguished privilege of hav- ing, as he declared, his spirit- ual sight opened, to conven#- with spirits and angels in ther spiritual world. He first be- gan to receive his re\ elations ift. London. He asserts that on a certain night, a man appeared to him in the midst of a stron|^> shinirg light, and said, « I am^ God the Loi-d, the Creator, and Redeemer; I have chosen thee, to explain to men the inteiiour and spiritual sense of the sacred, writings. I will dictate to thee what thou onghtcst to write.*'. He affirms tiiat after this peri- od, his siriritual sight was sq opened, that he could see in the most clear and distinct manner, what passed in the spiritual world, and converse with an-

  • Priestley's History of Early Opinions, vol. iv. p. 352. Jortin*s Remarks

on Eccles Hist veL iv. p. 378. Mosheim, vol. ii« p. 70, 7h new edition, t Finkerton's Greek Church, p. 332.




gels and spirits in the same manner as with men. Accord- ingly, in his treatise concern- ing lieaven and hell, he relates the wonders which he saw in the invisible worlds ; and gives an account of various, and here- tofore unknown particulars, re- lating to the peace, the happi- less, the light, the order of heaven; together with the forms, (he functions, the habitations^ and even the garments of the heavenly inhabitants. He re- lates his conversation with an- gds, and describes the condi- tbn of Jews, Gentiles, Mahom- etuis, and Gliristians of eve- ly denomination, in the other iv^rld.

Swedenborg called the prin- Gi^es which he delivered, *' The wavenly Doctrines of the New 'erosalem ; for, according to hifljsystem, the New Jerusa- lem signifies the new church n^n earth, which is now about to be established by the Lord, and which is particularly de- •cribed, as to its glory and ex- cellency, in Rev. xxi. and ma- ny other parts of the sacred word. The holy city, or New Jfsramlem, he interprets as de- scriptive of a new dispensation of heavenly truth, breaking ttifaugh, and dissipating the darkness, which at this day pre- vails on the earth.

The following extract con-

tains the general outlines of Swe* denborg's theological sy stem.— - 1. That the sHci*ed scripture contains three distinct senses, called celestial, spiritualf and natural; and that in each sense it is divine truth, accommodat- ed respectively to the angels of the three heavens, and also to men on earth. — 2. That there is a correspondence or analo- gy between all things in hea- ven and all things in man ; and that this science of cori'esjion- dence is a key to the spiritual or internal sense of the sacred scriptures, every page of which is written by correspondences ; that is, by such things in the natural world as corresjiond unto, and signify things in the spiritual world.* — 3. That there is a divine trinity of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, or in oth- er words, of the all-begetting divinity, [divinum a qttOf'] the divine human, and the divine proceeding, or operation; but that this trinity consisteth not of three distinct persons, but is united as body, soul, and ope- ration in man, in the one per- son of the Lord Jesus Christy who therefore is the God of hea* ven, and alone to be worship- ped; being Creator from eter- nity. Redeemer in time, and Regenerator to eternity. — 4. That redemption consisteth not in the vicarious sacrifice of the

  • Correspondence, in a philosophical sense, is a kind of .analogy that one

thini^ bears to another, or the relation subsisting between the essence of a tiling and its form, or between the cause and its effect ; thus the whole nat«  llral world corresponds to the spiritual world ; the body of a man with all its parts, corresponds to his soul, and the literal sense of the word corres-- ponds to the spiritual.




Bedeemery and an atonement to appease the divine wrath; but in a real subjugation of the powers of darkness; in a res- toi*ation of order in the spiritual world; in checking the over- grown influences of wicked spirits on the souls of men, and opening a nearer and clearer communication with the hea- venly and angelic powers; in making salvation} which is re- generation^ possible for all who believe on the incarnate God and keep his commandments, — 5, That there is an univer- sal influx from Grod into the souls of men. The soul, upon receiving this influx from (iod, transmits it through the per- ceptive faculties of the mind to the body. The Lord with all his divine wisdom^ consequent- ly with all the essence of faith and charity, enters by influx into every man^ but is received by every nian according to his state and form. Hence it is tliat good influxes from (jod are changed by the evil nature of their recipients into their opposites; good into evil, and truth into falsehood. — 6. That we are placed in this world, subject to the influences of two most opposite principles, of good from the Lord and his holy angels, of evil jfrom hell or evil spirits. While we live in this world our spirits have their abode in the spiritual world, where we are kept in a kind of spiritual equilibrium by the continual action of those con- trary powers; in consequence

of which we are at perfect lib- erty to turn to either as we please ; that without this Jm- wiU in spiritual things, regene- ration cannot be effected. If we submit to Crod, we receive real life from him; if not, ws receive that life from hell whidi is called in . scripture spintwd deaths — 7. That heaven and hell are not arbitrary appoint* ments of Grod. Heaven is a state arising from the good af- fections of the heairt, and a cor- respondence of the words and actions, grounded on sincen love to God and man: and hell is the necessary conse- quence of an evil and thought- less life, enslaved by the vib afi*ections of self-love, and flis love of the world, without beii|; brought under the regulatifw of heavenly love, by a right submission of the wUl, the im- derstanding, and actions, to fliB truth and spii'it of heaven.— 8. That there is an intermediate state for departed souls, whidi is called the world of spiriU; and that very few pass direct^ to either heaven or hell. This is a state of purification to the good ; but to bad spirits it is i state of separation of all the extraneous good from the radi- cal evil which constitutes thi essence of their natures.— 9«  That throughout heaven, sod as are of like dispositions and qualities arc consociated into particular fellowships, and such as differ in these re^qpects ara separated ; so that every soci- ety in heaven consists of simi-




lar members. — 10. That man immediately on his decease ri- ses again in a spiritual body^ whicii was inclosed in his ma- terial body ; and that in this spiritual body he lives as a man to eteiiiityy either in heav- en or in hell, accoi*ding to the qualify of his past life.— 'll. That those passages in the sa- cred scripture, genei*aily sup- posed to signify the destiniction of the world by fii-e, &c. com- monly called the last judgmenU must be understood, according to the abovementioned science of corres})ondences9 which teaches, that by the end of the World, (or consummation of the age,) is not signified the des- truction of the material world, bat the end, or consummation, of the present christian chuirh, l>oth among R4)man Catholics smd Pi-ot^stants of every des- cription"*^ and denomination : that this consummation, which consists in the total falsification of the divine truth, and adul- teration of the divine good of the word, has actually taken

place ; and, together with the establishment of a new chuirh in place of the former, is de- scribed in the Revelations, in the internal sense of that book, in whicli the new chuixrh is meant, as to its internals, by the new eai*th^ also by the JWic? Jernsaltm descending from Qod out (jflieaveiuj

It is a leading doctrine of Swedenborg in his explanation of the other books of scripture^ that one of the principal uses for whicli the woixl is given, is, tliat it might be a medium of communication between the Loi*d and man ; also that earth might be thei-eby conjoined with heaven, or human minds with angelic minds ; which is effected by the correspondencca of natural things with spiri- tual, according to which the word is written ; and that in order to its being divine, it could not be written otherwise : that hence, in many parts of the letter, the word is clothed with the appearances of truths ac- comnuMlated to the apprehcn-

  • An ingenious autlior, who has embraced the doctrines of tlic New Jerusa-

lem churchy thus explains this subject : *< It may be expedient to observe that there is a lust jud^nenU both particular and general, as it relates to an individ* ualof the church, or to the church itself collectively considered. The lafct judgment, as it relates to an individual, takes place with every one when he dies ; for then he passeth into another state of existence, in which, when lie Cometh into the full exercise of the life which he had procured to himself in the body, he is judged either to death or to Hfs / i. e. to hellov to heaven. The last judgment, as it relates to the church collectively considered, takes place when there is no longer any genuine love and faith in it, whereby it ceaseth to be m church. See Notes on Swedenborg's Doctrine concerning the Lord, by Mr. HilL

-f* The Rev. Mr Hargrave, minister of the New Jerusalem Church in Balti- VKxre, observes, that the end of the world signifies the end of the churches, both a0 to life and doctrines ; and the last judgment means an examination and condemnation of all those false principles which have brouglit the church Xm an end. See his Sermon preached at Philadelphia in 1802.




flions of the simple and un- learned^ as, when evil passions are atti'ibuted to the Loi'd, and where it is said that he with- holdeth his mercy from man, forsakes him, casts into hell, dueth evil, &c. : whereas such things do not at all belong to the Lord ; but they are said in the same manner as we speak of the sun's rising and setting, and other natural phenomena, according to the appearance of tldngs, or as they appear to the outward seases. To the taking up such appearances of truth from the letter of scripture, and making this or that point of faitii derived from tliem the es- sential of the chm*ch, instead of explaining them by doctrines drawn from the genuine truths, which in other pai*ts of the word are left naked, Sweden- borg ascribes the various dis- sensions and heresies that have arisen in the church. These lie says, could not be prevented consistently with the presen-a- tion of man's free agency, both with i-esjiect to the exeilion of his will, and of his undci*stand- ing. But yet, he obsencs, every one, in whatever heresy he may be with respect to the under- standing, may still be reformed and saved, provided he shuns evils as siiiSf and docs not con- finn heiTtical falses in himself; for by shunning cxy'ds as sins the will is reformed ; and by llio wUl the undei*standing, which then first emergt^s out of dark- ness into liglit ; that the word, in its lowest sense, is thus made

the medium of salvation to thoM who are obedient to its pre- cepts; while this sense serves to guard its internal sanctities from being violated by the wicked and profane, and is rep- resented by the cherubim plac- ed at the gates of Eden, and the flaming sword turning eve* ry way to guard the tree of life.

His doctrine respecting dif- ferences of opinion in thechurck is summed up in these words : « Thei*e are three essentials of the church; an acknowledg- ment of the Lord's divinity, an acknowledgment of the holi- ness of the word, and the life which is charity. .Conformablo to his life i. c. to his charity, is eveiy man's real faiUi. From ' the word he hath the knowl-' edge of what his life ought iof- be, and from the Lord he haA' i*eformation and salvation. If these three had been held as essentials of the chui'ch, intd- lectual dissensions would not have divided it, but would only have varied it as the light va- rieth colours in beautiful ob- jects, and as various jewels con- stitute the beauty of a kingly > crown."

The moral doctrines of Hm New Jerusalem church aro comprised under general headSf collected from Swedenborg's WTitings, and prefixed to somo • proposals published in England' for the organization and estab- , lishment of a society. Under those general hedds it is piti- posed to promote marriages on




[principles of the new ii ; which are* that true ^1 love consists in the l>ertect and intimate union ids, which constitutes one 8 the will and understand- ■e united in one ; that this xists only with those who L a state of regeneration ; iter the decease of conju- irtners of this description meet, and all the mere al loves being separated, ental union is perfected, bey are exalted into the m and happiness of the ic life.

edenborg founded his doc- I on the spiritual sense of ord of God, which he de- 1 was revealed to him im- itely from the Lord out of in. As his language is iar, his reasoning cannot ridged so as to be render- telligible to the generality aders. Those who are )us of farther information eferred to the authorities below.

le receivers of the doc- } of the New Jerusalem

h are numerous in Eng-

and in some parts of Ger- r» There ai'e also a con- able number of them in [en« Russia, and France, n all the countries of Eu-

rope. They are also to be found in many of the countries of the East. In most^of the United Slates, there are many readers, and some receivers of the doctrines, particularly in the cities of Baltimore, Phil- adelphia, and New York. Churches have been erected in Baltimore and Philadelphia, and meetings of the receivers of the doctrines are held in many places. They have three places of worship in London ; and likewise several chapels in other parts of the countiy; They use a liturgy formed on the model of that of the church of England, and as similar as the difference of doctrines will admit Some of the ministers of the establishment are con- verts to Swcdenborg's testimo- ny.*

NEW PLATONICS : See .^momans.

NICOLAITANS, a sect that arose in the first century, and boasts its origin from Nicolas, one of the seven first deacons of Jerusalem, but is very severe- ly censured by the Lord Jesus Clirist himself, in the book of Revelation, chap. ii. 6. " The DEEDS of the Nicolaitans which I hate." By this expression it should seem that their heresy was rather practical than theo-

luTnmary View of Swedenborg*s Doctrines, p. 12—90. Sweclenbop^ on

w Jerusalem, p. 28—34. On the Lord, p. 8S. On Influx, p. 28, 29. On

n and Hell, p. 2—5. On the Doctrine of Life, p. 116. On Divine ProT- J Note 259. Areana Goclestia, p. 47, 48. Apocalypse Revealed, p. 37. Aphorisms of Wisdom, p. 52— 54. Hindmarsh's Defence of 5W Church, p. 281—362. Dialogues on Swedenborg^s Theolo^cal Writ- k 11— ST. See also Dr. Priestle^s Letters to the New Jerusalem Church mingham. The Christian Observer for June 1806. Barruers Hist of nism, vol. iv.




retical ; and they stand charg- ed in history with sensuality and profaneness : pai-ticularly, witli ailuwing a community of wives. \> hether N icolas him- seli'ccmntenanced such conduct, or whether they ahused his name to sanction it, is not now easily to be ascei'tained ; but the latter seems vei-y pi*oba- ble. The Nicolaitans of the second centuiy were Gnostics 5 but there seems some doubt whetlicr tlicy were the same •ect.*

. NOETIANS, a denomina- tion in the third century, the fidUowers of Noetius, who af- firmed that the supreme God, whom he called the Father, and considei*cd as absolutely indi- visible, united himself to the man Christ, whom he called the Son, and was born and cru- cified witli him. See Fatripas-

♦NOMINALISTS, a party of the schoolmen, who follow- ed the doctrine of Aristotle, with respect to univei-sal ideas, in opposition to the Realists^ which see.

NON-CONFORMISTS,dis- sentera from the church of Eng- land ; but the term applies more particularly to tliose ministers who were eje<:ted from their livings by the act of uniformi- ty in 166*^: the number of whom was nearly 2000. These men wei-e driven fi*om their houses.

from the society of their ftiendif and exposed to the gi'eatest dif- ficulties. Their troubles wen gi^eatly augmented by the con- venticle act, whereby they ww© prohibited from meeting jRn* any exercise of religion (abova five in number) in any other manner than allowed by the lit* urgy and practice of the chUrdi of England. For the first df- fence the penalty was three month's imprisonment, or pay* ing five pounds ; for the second offence six month's imprison- ment, or ten pounds ; and inr the third offence, to be banish- ed to some of the Americm plantations, for seven years^ or pay one hundred pounds; aiil in case they return, tosoiftr death without benefit of clerg'. For a detailed account of tkb sufferings of the Nonconfml!- ists at this period the reate is referred to NoaPs Histmy of the Puritans, and BroobiP Lives of the Puritans.

For the the grounds of Non- conformity, see Dissenters wd JPiivitQ/ns i

  • NONJIJRORS,theremaiM

of the ancient episcopal chunl of Scotland, who at the revda- tion of 1 68 8 adhered to the ban- ished family of tl^e Stuarts, and refused to take the oaths of al- legiance to king William. But at the death of the last pretend- er in 1788, the denomination became extinct, and the la^ra

  • Diipiii's Church Hist. vol. i. p. SO. Mosheim, vol. i. p. 143, 144. NcwBd:

t Mosheim, vol i p 246, 247. Broujirh'on, voU ii. p 172. i See Palmer's Nonconformists' Memorial, preface, p. vi. yIl Buck's Tbct oloj^. Diet.




against them have been since ivpeafecL The episcopal church af Scotland is now considered IB a branch of that of England, md is governed by eight bish- ops, one of whom is styled Fri-

NOVATIANS, a denomina-

tion in the third century, who

derive their name £i*om their

fimnderSf Novat and Novatian ;

the first a priest of the church

af Carthage, the other of that

%f Rome.

This denomination laid it 4own for a fundamental tenet, tliat the church of Christ ought fo be free from every stain ; l^Bd taught, that he, who had fallen into any moral of- ice, could not again become .^ member of it, though they «3ld not refuse him the hopes of vtomallife. Hence they looked ^Mfon every society which re- whuLtted those to theii- com- imanion who, after baptism had fidlen into heinous crimes, as imworthy the title of a chris- tian church. They separated from the church of Rome, be-

cause she admitted to communi- ion those who had fallen off in time of persecution, to which they objected fromHeb. vL 1^- 8. They likewise obliged such as came over to them fi*om the general body of christians to submit to baptism a seci>nd time, as a necessary prepara- tion for entering into their so- ciety.

This denomination also con- demned second marriages, and denied communion forever to such as practised them. They assumed to themselves (as is pretended) the title of Catharip or puritans.t

♦NOVOJENTZI, aparty of the <'old believers" among the Russian dissenters, or Ras«  koliniks, who recommended marriage very strongly, in op- position to those who prefer celibacy.^:

♦NUNS, religious women in the primitive and Roman church, who devote themselves, under a solemn vow, to celib- acy and a recluse life. See Monks.



  • CEC0N0MISTS, a par- with the king (Loui3 XV) and

(irofFrench philosopher, who the people, nnuer pretence of ingratiated themselves both promoting (economy in the

♦ Skinner's Bccles. of Scotland— Primitive truths and order vindicated — Adam's Religious World displayed, vol. ii. p. 399, &c. and Evans' Sketcli, 13th ed- p- 158.

f Formey's Eccles. Hist. vol. i. p. 61. Mosheim's Eccles. Hist. vol. i. pw SSO, 251. Hist, of Rdigion, vol. iv. Broiighton's Hist. Lib. vol. ii. p. 173^ i Pinkerton's Greek Church, p. 333.





state, while their main object, according to the Abbe Bai^rud, was to subveil Christianity, by circulating the writings of Vol- taire, Diderot, and other infi- dels.

OPIIIANS, Ophites, or Serpe^^tahians, seems to be the name of sevei*al sects, so called fi*om their reverence, and in many cases worsliip, of the serpent. Mr. Bryant tliinks this almost universally prevail- ed in the heathen world, and names many countries which a- dopted it, pai*ticularly Egypt.* Tlic cause seems to have had its origin in the opinion, that the serpent was <' more subtle than any other beast of the field." It is not difficult to account, therefore, for the scqient's be- ing an early emblem of wis- dom.

There were also Ophites who were a sort of mongrel chris- tians, and perhaps revered the serpent as a type of Christ,! as the bi*azen serpent is still con- sidered. (Johnii].14« 16.) The Ophites are considered by many authors, as a kind of Gnostics. ♦ORATORY, priests of the. There were two religioits con- gregations which assumed this name ; the one founded in Ita- ly by Philip de, Neri in 1548; who also founded an hospital for pilgrims to Rome so large that in the year 1600, it lodged successively 470,000 pei^ons. The other, called « the oratory of Jesus," was founded in

• Ilolwell's Mvtholop. Diet. p. 303.

  • Scotch Thcoloff. Diet.

France, and its chief object wai << neither learning -nor theolo- gy .w — but to cultivate «*the virtues of the ecclesiaslictl life.i:

ORIENTAL PHILOSO^ PHY. The oriental philosfN- phei-s endeavoured to explain the nature and origin of al things, by the principle of eat anaUon from an eternal' fbuB- tain of being. The formatioi of this philosophy into a regi^ lar system has been attribottl to Zoroaster, an ancient Pfersiift philosopher, who adopted flu principle, generally held by tk ancients, that <<< as.^ vesture shalt thou change thevbi and they shall be changedy*^, &c. The fashion of the worit passes away like aturniBgsceBen ,to exhibit a fresh and new-np* resentation of things ; and iC only the pi*esent dress and i^ pearance of things go off, fli| substance is supposed to remaili entire.* See jkUlenarians^ »)

Origen is also charged wiQl Arianism. See Jirians.

^ORTHODOX, sond H the faith ; a term generally if»> plied by the established clMudl in every age and country ts itft own creed ; and denied to d doctrinal dissenters from it*

OSIAJSDRIANS, a denom- ination among the Lutheraiu^ founded in 1550, by Andret Osiander, a celebrated Ciermu di\ine, of high Calvinisticprai- ciples, similar to Crisp, Hor- sey, and others, charged iritt leaning to Antinomianisnu One of his iK>sitions was — ^tliat b5- lievei's being made partaken of Christ's divine righteousBen by faith, God can behold IM sin in Ihem, tliough in them- selves t'le chief of sinners*!

OSSENIANS, or Osssm. Sec Helcesaites.

• Mosheim's Eccles. Hist vol. i. p. 219— 225. Cudworth's Intellectinl System, vol. ii. p. 818. Cheyne's Philosophical Principles of Religpion/.p. 47— 84. Travels of Cjtus, p. 235—238.

f Mosheixn, vol. iv. p. 10.




^Pagans, heathenB, and l^urticnlarly tbc^ who worship idols. The term came into tse after the establishment of ehristianity ; the cities and ^at towns affording the first convertsy the heathens w^re called Pagans, (from Pagus, a Village,) 4)ecause they were Aen found chiefly in remote ' country places ; bat we use the tenn commonly for all who do not receive the Jewish, Chris- tian, or Mahometan religions. i The Pagans may be divided in- [ to the following classes — 1 '1. The Greeks and B^mans, ^ others who admit their re- ihed system of mythology. f II. The more ancient na- fions, as the Chaldeans, Phe*- Mcians, Sabians, &c.

III. The Chinese, Hindoos, Japanese, &c.

ly. The Barbarians, as the 'vidians of NoHh and South America, and the Negroes of Africa.

The objects of worship a- ■^ongthe Pagans are various ^Tid diverse, as 1. The heaven- 'ly bodies, and particularly the Bun and Moon. 2. Imaginary %eings, as Demons, Genii, &c. 8. The spirits of departed prin- ces, heroes, and philosophers : or, lastly, almost every object of the animate and inanimate creation. The more refined, indeed considered animals or

images as only the representa- tions of their gods, who wei'e supposed to reside in them ; or as ttie medium of their worship. But the vulgar, the multitude^ looked no farther than the ma- terial images : « and it must be remarked, 'that however high they might look, if not to the great Supreme, they were e- qually idolaters, whether they worshipped the sun, or Apollo, or a departed ghost ; or an ox, a tree, or a stone.'*

The rites of Paganism were as various as the objects of their worship. In general they had some idea of the necessity of an atonement for their sins, and tliat « without shedding of blood there is no remission f* in ma- ny cases, and on all emergen- cies, they were apprehensive that the sacrifice must be of equal dignity with the sinner; and hence among many nations both ancient and modern, from the worshippers of Moloch, to the South-sea Islanders, the practice (sometimes carried to great enormity) of human sa- crifices, which have stained the altars of almost all the nations upon the earth.*

The peculiarities of many nations have been already no- ticed in these pages, and others are to follow. See the articles Celts, Chinese, Druids, Gaurs, Grecians, Egyptians, Hindoos^

Adimoi's Religious World displayed— StilVmgfleet^s Original f^aers.




Japanese, Indians^ Magianst Negroes, Sabians, Samans, or Schamansy &c. &c.

♦PANTHEISTS, a sort of philosophical atheists, who con- sidered the universe as an im- mense animal, << whose body nature is, and God the soul* This was the system of Orphe- us and other early Greeks, and seems to have been the original of the doctrine of two co-eternal principles in the Oriental Phu losophy, which see. From this, sprung the opinions of the Gnos- tics and Manicheans, and in modern times, of Spinosa and Tho. Hobbes.* See /S^nosists*

PAPISTS, those who receive the Pope fFapiaJ of Rome as the head of their church. See Boman CaOiolics.


PASAGINIANS, a denomi- tion which arose in the twelfth century, called also The Cir- eiimcised. Their distinguishing tenets were 1. That the ob- servation of the law of Moses, in every thing, except the of- fering of sacrifices, was obli- gatory upon christians. 2. That Christ was no more than the Jirst and purest creature of God^ which wa<^

hapHsm. They believe that 3, The same inward grace ii

baptism is to be administci-cd signified both by circuradsios

to believers and their children, and baptism. Kom. ii. 289 fH^

and that the infants of cbris- To be a Jew wwardlyt by be-

tian parents belong to the visible ing circumcised with the eir>i

church of Christ. cumcision of the heartf and In

That the visible church is one be a christian inwardhff by be-

and the same body, both under ing washed with the washing

the law and gospel ; for the regeneration, (Titus iiL 5.} to

Gentiles are grafted into the one and the same thing. B^^

same stock from which the un- tism is also called the circuaol;

believing Jews were broken sion of Chi*ist. Col. ii. 11.

off: Rom. xi. 17. That the II. Infant baptism, they saj,

Gentiles should be fellow-heirs was the approved practice loC

of the same body, and partak- the apostles. Forthescriptuwi

ers of the promise in Christ by give us an account of the kKf^j

the gospel. Matt xxi. 43. tismof whole Aou^eAofab; as ttil

Eph. ii. 11, &c. gaoler and his househcdd, hpo

The covenant made with dia and her household, aiid ikk

Abraham was the covenant of household of Stephanas : mi

grace; for Gknl preached before some of these, it is presumtri^i

the gospel unto Abraham, that must have contained childiciC.

the blessing of Abraliam might The Fedobaptiats also ooft-'

eome on the gentiles through Jc" elude that sprinkling was tin'

sus Christ, Gid. iii. 8 — 14. practiceofthe apostles, becaim:

Christians, being the spiritual such great numbers were 0Q»»

seed of Abraham, are under verted and baptized, whersfb

the same covenant, and entitled circumstances, shortness A

to the same privileges, which time, and situation of phm^

they may justly claim also for render it unlikely that thcf;

their infants. Acts ii. 39. wei*e baptized by immersion.! .

I. Baptism is now used in the III. The Pedobaptists pnu>'

room of circumcision. Fori, tise baptism by qffusum, or

Circumcision was appointed to sprinklingf which, they think

be the token of the covenant of scriptural, from the import of

grace : it was a sign and seal the original word, which, thqr

of the righteousness of faith, say, signifies wasHng, and ifl<,

the same thing which is signi- used in scripture for washing

ficd by christian baptism. — things wMch were not dippca

♦ Milner's Cliurcli Hist. vol. iii. p. 306, 20r.




atcr. (Luke xi. S8.) The DTices of the spirit, repre- td in baptism, are often ex- ied bj pouring, or sprink-

as the renewing of the

Y Ghost, which he haspowr- ut, or shed, on us abund- r. Acts X. 45. Titus iii. 6. \ Among the Pedobap- some assert farther, that laptism of Christ by John ot an example for rhris- imitation* They say, ist was not baptized to ifest his repentance; nei- did he submit to baptism 1 ea^ampfe to the Jews ; nor his baptism a token of be- washed from situ But his ism was a conformity to aw otpriestty consecrations ; t answered to the washing le high priest at his admis- to the priesthood, hat the baptism of John was christian baptism they con- ey because: — 1. The grand gn of John's baptism was manifestation of Christ; shristian baptism is used for •rent purposes, — 2. John's ism began and ended un- the legal dispensation. The lel kingdom did not tegin Christ rose from the dead. (I's baptism was completed re the death of Christ, and lequently fell short of new

testament times ; for ^^ where a testament is, thei^e must also of necessity be the death of the testator," Heb.ix. 16, 17. — 3. The Holy Trinity was not named in John's baptism. This is plain, because there is an ac- count that some were baptised by John, and yet had not heard of the Holy Qhost. (Acts xix. 2, 5.) The consequence inferred is, John^s baptism was not chris- tian baptism.^

Some Pedobaptists, however, take a more simple view of this subject. Considering baptism as an act of religious worshipy they represent adult baptism as an act of self-dedication, and the baptism of their children as the dedication of their off- spring to the Lord. And they observe that many baptists, on the birth of their children, dedi- cate them to GoA in the sam«  manner, except only that they omit the use of water. As to immersion, they admit that it was frequently and perhaps generally, practised in the a- postolic times; but they sup- pose the mode no more essen- tial in this than in the sister or- dinance of the Lord's supper ; and this they consider equally valid under the different forms in which it is administered and received, whether sitting, stand-

Clarke's Scripture Ground of the Baptism of Infants. Parson's Infant iun vindicated. Bostwick's Vindication of Infant Baptism. Lathrop's ikling^ a Scripture Mode. Cleveland on Infant Baptism. Fish's Japheth [inj^ in the Tents of Shem. Lewis' Covenant Interest of the Children of ^ers. Tow^rood's Baptism of Infants a Reasonable service. Strong's onstration of Infant Baptism. Glass' Dissertation on Infant Baptism. Al- Essay on outward Christian Baptism^ Fish's and Crane'd Baptism of Jc- ^hrist not to be imitated by christians* Bdwaids' Candid Reaaoms.






ingy or kneeling^— and whether the elements consist of unleav- ened bi-ead, and vine lowered by water^ as in the immitive church ; or, as with us, leaven- ed bread, and wine of various sorts, accoi*ding to circumstan- ces — or whether the time be in the morning, at noon, in the afternoon, or evening.

PELAGIANS, a denomina- tion in the fiftli century, so called from Pclagius, a monk, who looked upon the doctrines which were commonly received concerning the original corrup-

, tion of human nature, and the necessity of divine grace to en- lighten the understanding and purify the heai-t, as prejudicial to the progress of holiness and virtue, and tending to establish mankind in a presumptuous and fatal security. He maintain- ed the following doctrines :— ^ !• That the sin of our first par- ents was imputed to them only, and not to their posterity \ and that we derive no corruption from their fall, but are born as

  • pure as Adam when he came

out of the hands of his Creator. •»2. That mankind, thei*efore, are capable of repentance and amendment, and of arriving to the highest degrees of piety and virtue, by the use of their nat- ural faculties and powers; that, indeed, external grace is neces- sary to excite their endeav- ours, but that they have no need of the internal succoui-s of the

divine spirit. — 3. That Adam was by nature mortal; and^ whether he had sinned or not^ would certainly have died^-— 4. That the grace of God ia given in proportion to our mer- its. — 5. That mankind may ap- rive at a state of perfection in this life. — 6. That the law quel* ified men for the kingdom of hea- ven, and was founded upon equal promises witli the gospel.*

PELEtV ISLANDS. The inhabitants of these islands be- lieve in one God, in the unlim- ited extent of his government in the most important moral distinctions, and religious du- ties as taught by the light of nature, in the immortality of the soul, and in future rewards and punishments. They have vei*y few forms of religjkm, lit- tle ceremony in their worahip^ and no houses or temples devot- ed to this purpose.!

♦PENITENTS, certain re- ligious societies of both sex- es among the Roman Cath- olics. The male penitents are distinguished by the colour of their garments, white, blacky blue* &c. The black penitents (called the brethren of mercjy institiited 1488,) attended crim- inals to their execution. The female penitents are chiefly re- formed courtezans, as the pen- itents of St. Magdalen, at Paiv is and Marseilles, the converts of the name of Jesus at Sevilley &c.^

• Moaheim, toI. i. p. 412. Milncr'a Church Hist. vol. li. p. 390, fcc, f Delano's Voyages, published 1817, p. TX. $ Buck's Thcolog. Diet.




PEPUZIANS. SceJIfowte. Tiists,

♦PEREMAZANOFTSCH- INS,re-anointers5 a sect which separated from the Russian church of Votka about 1770, They are very numerous at Moscow, and agree in almost every thing with the Starrob- redsi, except that they reanoint all who join them from other communions.'*^


who hold it possible to attain I»erfection in the present life. See Methodists.

  • PEHSEES, a sect in India

descended from the ancient Persians, who worshipped fire. See Chiurs and Magians*

PETROBRUSSIANS, ade- nomination which was formed about the year 1110 in Langue- doc and Provence, by Peter dc Bruys, who taught the follow- ing doctrines : — 1. That no per- ■ons were to be baptized before fhey came to the full use of their reason. — 2. That it was Ml idle superstition to build churches for the service of Grod, who wiU accept of a sincere worship wherever it is offered : and that such churches had no peculiar sanctity attached to ihem. — 3. That the crucifixes deserved the same fate— 4. That fhe real body and blood of Christ were not exhibited in the cucharist, but were only repre- sented in that holy ordinance by their figures and symbols. —

5. That the oblations, prayers^ and good works of the living, could be in no respect advanta- geous to the dead.j — 6. That crucifixes and other instru- ments of superstition should be destroyed.

Peter de Bruys (says Dr. Haweis) << inveighed against the vices and su|)crstitions of the times, and boldly attacked the tyranny and abuses of Home as antichristian. The enraged clergy stirred up the populace, and he was burnt alive, not ju- dicially, but in a tumult rais- ed by the priests.:^:

PHARISEES, the most cel- ebrated of all the Jewish sects, which is supposed to have sub- sisted above a century before the appearance of our Saviour. They separated themselves, not only from the Grentilcs, but from all other Jews ; but their separation consisted chiefly in certain distinctions respecting food and religious cei'emonies ; and does not appear to have in- terrupted the uniformity of re- ligious worship, in which the Jews of every sect united.^ The dissensions between the schools of Hillcl and Shammai, a little before the christian era, in- creased the number and power of the Pharisees : Hillel and Shammai were two great and eminent teachers in the Jewish schools. Hillcl was born an hundred and twelve years be- fore Christ. Having acquired

  • Pmkerton's Greek Church, p. 303.

t Moiheim, vol. ii. p, 446, 447. # Uawela* Church Hist. roL iL p. 224.

^ Percy's Key to the N«w T«stamefit -^


a profound knowledge of the the highest offices both in fhtf

most difficult points of the law^ state and priesthood, and had he became master of the chief great weight both in public and »

school in Jerusalem, and laid private affairs. It appears fimn >

the foundation of the Talmud, the frequent mention, which iB.{

Shammai, one of the disciples made by the evangdists, of tbm*

of Hillel, deserted his school, Scribes and Pharisees in con-'i

and formed a college, in which junction, that the greater mim-

he taught doctrines contrary to bcr of Jewish teaches, (for thejr 'i

his master. He rejected the wera the scribes,) were at thaikl.

oral law, and foUowed the writ- time of this sect. . t :i.*$

tcnlawonly in its literal sense. The principal doctrines of^

See Karaites. These schools the Pharisees are as follow :-^.'t

longdisturbed the Jewish church That the oral law, which thegf:;!

by violent contests ; the party suppose God delivered to Mo^*!!

of Hillelwasatlastvictorious.'N' ses by an angel on Mount Sb^d

When our Saviour Jesus nai, and which was preaervei/'

Christ api)eared in Jndea, the by tradition, is of equal auHigp-'*

Phaidsees were in great cred- ity with the written law :^4<413«  f Mosheim, vol. v. p. 66, 67. ■*

t See Barruel's Memoirs of Jacobinismt




PHOTINIANS, the follow- era of FhotinuSf bishop of Sir- ndum^ in the fourth century. He taught that Jesus Christ was omcei ved of the Holy Ghost and iKKm of the YirguiMary : — ^that t certain divine emanation, or Hy of divinity (which he called (he Word) descended upon this extraordinary man: — ^Uiat, on account of the union of the di- vine Word with his human na- tiiref' Jesus was called the Son of God, and even God himself. 'I^hey also taught that the Holy Ghost was not a distinct person, but a celestial virtue proceed- img from the Deity."^ i*PHRYGIANS, or Cata- "tiirygians, a small parly of llMtanists, who resided in fhiygia. See Mmtainsts, ..PICARDS, the Adamites of tte fifteenth century, a set who lent naked in their religious usemblies. It is generally be- |. lipved that such a sect existed ibo in the primitive Church ; hnt Lardner refuses to believe lit because they are not men- tioiied by any vnriter earlier than Epiphanius, and by him Vdy from uncertain reportf

PIETISTS, a denomination in. the seventeenth century, vhich owed its origin to the pious and learned Spener, who btmxA private societies at Frankfort, in order to promote tital and practical religion ; and published a book, entitled, «< Pi- ous desires,'* which greatly pivi- moted this object. His follow-

ers laid it down as an essential maxim, that none should be ad- mitted into the ministry but such as had received a proper educa- tion, and were distinguished by the wisdom and sanctity of their manners, and had hearts filled with divine love. Hence they proposed an alteration of th«  schools of divinity, which con- sisted in the following points :

  • ~1. That the systematical the-

ology which reigned in the acad- emies, and was composed of intricate and disputable doc- trines, and obscure and unusual forms of expression, should b» totally abolished. — 2. That po- lemical divinity, which compre- hended the controversies sub- sisting between christians of different communions, should be less eagerly studied, and less frequently treated, though not entirely neglected. — 3. That all mixture of philosophy and hu- man learning, with divine wis- dom, was to be most carefuUy ayoided.-— 4. That, on the con«  trary, all those who were de- signed for the ministry should be accustomed from their early' youth to the perusal and study of the holy scriptures, and be taught a plain syBtem of theol- ogy, drawn from this unerring source of truth.— 5. That the whole course of their education was to be so directed as to ren- der them useful in life, by the practical power of their doc- trine, and the commanding in- fluence of their example.!

• Mo&heim, vol. i. p. 346. Brou^hton, vol. ii. p. 441.

f Gardner's Heretics, p. 168. * Moshcim, vol.iv. p. 454-460.




But it was not on preachers only, but on all their members, tliat exemplary piety and prac- tical religion weve enjoined. Like the society of FritndSf and others, they renounced all vain amusements, and attended meet- ings of devotion.

^PILGRIMS, in ecclesias- tical history, are certain per- sons who undertook, from I'eli- gious motives, long and painful joumies to the holy land, Rome, or the shrines of certain saints. The former became so numerous in the nuddle ages that, on their account chiefly, the holy war was undertaken. See Crusaders.

PLATONISTS. The Pla- tonic philosophy is denominated fi*om Plato, who was born about two hundred and sixty seven yeai-s before Christ. He found- ed the old academy on the opin- ions of Heraclitus, Pytliagoras, and Socrates; and by adding the information he had acquir- ed to their discoveries, he es- tablished a sect of philosophers, who were esteemed more per- fect than any who had before appeared in the wiorlcL

Tlic outlines of Plato's philo- sophical system were as follow : — ^Tbat there is one Grod, eter- nal, immutable, and immate- rial; perfect in wisdom and goodness ; omniscient, and om- nipresent. That this all-])er- fect Being formed tlic univei*8e out of a mass of eternally pre- existing matter, to which he gave form and arrangement,

That there is in matter a neces- sary, but blind and refractoiy force, which resists the will dT the supreme Artificer ; so that he cannot perfectly execute his designs : and this is the cause of the mixture of good and evil, which is found in the materid world. That the soul of maa was derived by emanation firon Grod ; but that this emanatidii was not immediate, but tlirougji the intervention of the soul tf the world, which was itself di^ based by some material admii- turo. That the relation wluA the human soul, in its orighid constitution, bears to mattor^lk the source of moral evil. TUlt when God formed the umvene^ he separated from the sod'rf the world inferiour souls, eqii in number to the stars, and lit- signed to each its proper oehif* tisd abode. That these wA were sent down to earth to be imprisoned in mortal bodies; hence arose the depravity ant misery to which human natatt is liable. That the soul is iBi- mortal : and by disengaging itself from all animal pasfflonsy and rising above sensible ob- jects to the contemplation ef the world of intelligence, it may be prepared to return to its ori- ginal habitation. That matter never suffer^ annihilation : but timt the world will i*emain for* ever ; and that by the action of its aninuiting principle, it ac- complishes cerlainpciiods,with«  in which every thing returns to its ancient place and state.




lUs periodical revolution of nature is called the Platonic^ or great year,* ' The Platonic system makes the perfection of morality to consist in living in conformity to the will of God) the only au- thor of true felicity ; and teach- es that our highest good con- sists in the contemplation and knowledge of the supreme Be- ing, whom he emphatically

PLOTINISTS, the disciples of Plotinus, a celebrated pla- tonic philosopher, the disciple of Ammonius, who founded the sect of the Academists, the pop- ular philosophy during the first ages of Christianity. See Jica- demies and dmmoniana.


♦POLYTHEISTS, those who worship many gods. See Fd'

sfyles the good.j[ The end of gans.

ttis knowl^ge is to make men ^POMORYANS, certain Rus-

vesemble the Deity, as much as sian sectaries, who believe that

'is compatible with human na- anticlirist is already come^

^Core. This likeness consists in reigns in the world unseen# that

-Ibe possession and practice of is, spiritually ; and has' put an

mil the moral virtues.^ end in the church to every

After the death of Plato many thing that is holy. They are

«^ his disciples deviated from -Sub doctriiies. His school was llien divided into the old, the aniddle, and the new academy. ^The old academy strictiy ad- Jiaeed to his tenets. The mid- dle academy partially receded JEkioni his system, without entire- ^ deserting it. The new acad- emy, founded by Cameades, an African, almost entirely re- linquished the original doctiines of Plato, and verged towards flie sceptical philosophy.

  • Enfield's ffist of Philosophy, vol. i. p. 227, 228.

t Plato believed that in the divine nature there are two, and probably

ihra /{srpofMfleff.— The first he considered as self^zistent, calling^ him, by way

oftminence, the Seinff (t« oi) or (t» tij the One. The only attribute which

he acknowledged in this person was goodness ; and therefore he frequently

styles him the (r« kyetUit^ the good. The second he considered as (yov$) the

wdndf or (Aoya^) the wisdom or reason of the former, and the (Jig^/ov^yo^)

maker of the world. The third he always speaks of as {;^vxi) ^he soul of

tiM world. He tauji^ht that the second is a necessary emanation from the

first and the third from the second* or perhaps from both ; comparing these

emanations to those of light and heat myoi the sun. Encyclopedia, vol. xviil.

p. 43.

t Bacier^s Plato, vol. 1. p. 7, 8. § Plakerton's Greek Church, p. S30.


zealous in opposing the inno- vations of Nikon^ with regard to the church books; prefer a life of celibacy and solitude^ and rebaptiee their converts from other sects.$ See Russian


♦POPERY, the system of the Papists, or Boman (JatMicSf which see.

♦POPOFTCHINS, the great body of the Russian dissenters, including all those sects which admit the ordination of the




mother church, hot differ from each other in eertain particu- lars of little moment. Most of their ministci's are bred up in the establishment.^

PRE-ADAMITES, a denom- ination given to the inhabitants of the earthy conceived by some people to have lived before Adam.

Isaac de la Percy ra, a French Protestant, in 1655) published a book to evince the rcalityof Pre- Adaraites, by which he gain- ^ a considerable number of proselytes to the opinion ; but the answer of Demarets, pro- fessor of theology at Gronin- gen, published the following yeais put a stop to its progress, though Pereyra wrote a I'eply.

To support their princiiial tenet advocated by Pereyra, that there must have been men be- fore Adam, his followers reason thus :

1. Tltey argue from Rom. v. 12 — 14. The a[>ostle says, <^ sin was in the world HU the law ; meaning the law given to Adam : But sin, it is evident, was not imputed, though it might have been committeid, be- fore his time ; for << sin is not imputed where there is no law J* — 2.. The election of the Jews is supposed to be a consequence of the same system : it began at Adam, who is called their fa- tlier, or founder. God is also their Father, having espoused

the judaical church • The gen- tiles are only adopted chil- dren, as being Pre-Adamites. — S. Men,t i. e. the gentileSf are said to be made by the word of God. (Gen. i. 26, 27.) Adam, the founder of the Jew- ish nation, (whose history alone Moses w^rote,) is introduced in the second chapter as the work- manship of God's own handsi and as created apart from oihr er men. — 4. Cain, having killr ed his brother, was afraid ef being killed himself! By whomt — ^He married! Yet what wib could he get ? — He built a tow»t What workmen did he emplajF? The answer to all these quesv tions is in one word, Pre-Adr amitcs. — 5. The deluge only ovei*flowcd the country inhab- ited by Adam's posterity, to punish them for joining in mmx^ riage with the Pre-Adamite% and following their evil conun^w

es« — 6. The improvements arts, sciences, &c. could imft jnake such advances towardf perfection, as it is represented they did between Adam aiid Moses, unless they had been cultivated before. — ^Lastly ^ tike histories of the Chaldeans, IS- gjrptians, and Chineaey whose chronology (as founded on a|h tronomical calculations) is sup- posed infallible, demonstrate the existence of men before Adam 4


• Pinkerton's Greek church, p. 298.

•f Observe, the plural number is here used, in contradistinction to the founder of the Jewish nation, vfho is called Adam, in the sinj^lar.

♦ He^belot's Biblioth. Orient, p. 36. Picart's R^liafious Ceremoniea. Blount's Oracles of Reason. Basna^'s History of the Jews. Origines Sacrac, b. i.




name given in the ninth cen- tury to the foUo¥^ers of Godes- difdus, a German monkf whose ientiments were as follow :*~

1. Thattlie Deity predestinated a certain number to salvation^ before the world was formed. —

2. That ho predestinated the wicked to eternal punishment in consequence of their sins, which were eternally foreseen. — S. That Christ came not to save all men individually^ and that none shall perish for whom he shed his blood.*— 4. That Miice the fally mankind can ex- ercise free-will only to do that which is evil.* The term Pre- destinarian has since been ap- plied to all doctrinal Calvinists, ^ho hold, for substance^ the ginne opinr/ms. See CoMnists. "■: PRE-EXISTENTS,aname ^Akh may not improperly be sf^lied to those who hold the dcictrineof Christ's pre-exist- ence. This name comprehends two classes : the Arians, who defend Christ's pre-existence, bat deny that he is a divine person : and others on the Cal- vinistic side^ who assert both his divinity^ and that his intel- ligent, created soul, was pro- duced into being, and united by an ineffable union to the sec- ond person of the trinity, be- fore the heavens and the earth ^ere created.

Under the article Jlrians, the

reader has been presented with a view of the system of Arius and his immediate followers. The sentiments of the celebrat- ed Dr. Richard Price will be brought to view, under the arti- cle E/nttortans. In this place a short sketch will be given of the hypothesis, which was maintained by Dr. Samuel Clarke.

This learned man held, that there is one supreme cause and original of all things ; one sim- ple, uncompounded, undivided, intelligent agent, or person; and that from the beginning there existed with the first and supreme cause, (the Father,) a second person, called the Word, or Son, who derived his be- ing, attributes, and powers, from the Father. He is there- fore called the Son of GtNl, and the only-begotten ;t for gcr.er- ation, when applied to God, is only a figurative word, signify- ing immediate derivation of be- ing and life from him.

To prove that Jesus Christ was ^nerated (or produced) before the world was created, the' doctor adduce^s the follow- ing considerations : The Father made the world by the opera- tion of the Son. (John i. 3—10. 1 Cor. viii. 6. Eph. iii. 9. &c.)

That all Christ's autliority, power, knowledge, and glory, are the Fathei*'s, communicated

  • Moftbeim's Eocles. Hist. vol. i. p. 159. Eccles. Hist, of France, p. 63.

Baxter's Church History, chap. x. p. 263.

' f Dr. Clarice waves caUing^ Christ a creature, as the ancient Arians did ; and principally on thatTouncSition, denies ihe charge of Arianism.




to him. Dr. Clarke endeavours to prove by a variety of scrip- tures. The Son, before his in- carnation^ was with and in the form of God, and had glory with the Father. (John i. 2; xvii. 5. Phil. ii. 5.) The Son, before his incarnation, made visible appearances, and spake and acted in the name and au- thority of the invisible Father. Dr. Clarke calls Christ a di-

i.e. spoken of figuratively in scripture, under personal char- acters.f ■^'

In order to prove that Chrislfi^ human soul existed previous t9 his incarnation, the firilowi^g- arguments are adduced. '-

I. Christ is represented at' his Father's messenger, or an^' gel, being distinct fh)m aad- sent by his Father, long beftit his incarnation, to perform »•

vine person, solely on account tions which seem to be too kiv

of the power and knowledge forthedignity of puregodhaaiL

which were communicated to The appearances of Christiu

him by the Father. He indeed the patriarchs are describal:

owns that Christ is an object like the appearances of an i»'

of religious worship ; but then gel, or man, really distinct flratt

he confines it to a limited sense : The worship paid to Christ ter- minates in the supreme Grod.*

The doctrine of the pre- existence of Christ's human soul has been held by several divines ; as Mr. Fleming, Dr. Groodwin, and many others who profess to maintain the proper divinity of Christ. The fol- lowing sketch of the hypothe- sis of the late pious and ingen- ious Dr. Watts is selected from the rest. **

He maintained one supreme God, dwelling in the human na- ture of Christ, which he sup- posed to have existed the first

God ; yet such a one, in wM Jehovfdi had a peculiar »«  dwelling, or with whom IIm^ vine nature had a personditaiv ion. • fs

II. Christ, when became iito the world, is said, in sevml passages of scripture, tohm divested himself of some gbiji which he had before his incut" nation. Now, if there had od isted, before his incamatioiw nothing but his divine n^tnre» this divine nature could not properly divest itself of any elory. I have glorified theem earth; I have finished the wmk^ which thmi gavest mt to iB.

of all creatures ; and speaks of And nmv, O Father , glorify tii«  the divine logos as the wisdom me with thine own sdf, with the of God, and the Holy Spirit as ^ glory 9 which I had with thee he- the divine power, wjiich, he ^fore the world was. See John says, is a scriptural person ; 'xvii. 4, 5. Fe know the grace

• Clarke's Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity. Doddridge's Lect t Dr. Watts says, in his preface to the Glory of Christ, that true mnd pro- per deity is ascribed to the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The exprMsion Son of God, he supposes, is a title appropriated exclusively to the human j|y. of Christ. ^




1 I

of our Lord Jesva Christ, thatf though he was richf yet, for our ,. sokes, he became poor, tnat you, though his poroerty, miglU be made rich. 2 Cor. viiL 9.

III. It seems needful that the loul of Christ should pre-exist, that it might have opportunity to give its previous actual con- MDt to the great and painful aadertaking of atonement for our sins. The divine nature is incapable of suffering.

IV. The covenant of redemp- tion between the Father and tti» Bon, is represented as being nade before the foundation of tJnd world. To suppose that ^de divine essence, wUcb is the aune in all the three personali- ties, should make a covenant "^rith itself, seems highly incon- ^stent.

y • Christ is the angel to whom Ckid was in a peculiar manner imited, and who in this union inade all the divine appearan- <«B related in the old t^tament. See Gen. iii. 8 ; xvii. 1 ; xxviii. is, IS; xxxii.24. Exod.iiL2; 9SkA a variety of other passa-

VI. The Lord Jehovah, when he came down to visit men. Carried some ensign of divine idajesty; he was surrounded With some splendid appearance ; finch' a)s often was seen at the door of the tabernacle, and fix- ed its abode between the cheru- bim. It was by the Jews call- ed the sitekinah ; i. e. the hab- itation of Gt)d. Hence he is described as ^< dwelling in light, and clothed with light as with

a garment." In the midst of this brightness there seems to have been sometimes a human form. It was probably of this glory that Christ div^ted him- self when he was made flesh. With this he was covered at his transfiguration in the Mount, when << his garments were white «  as the light;" and at his ascen- sion into heaven, when a bright cloud received him ; and when he appeared to John, (Rev. i. 13 ;) and it was wifli this he prayed that his Father would glorify him.

VII. When the blessed God appeared in the form oC a man, or angel, it is evident that the true God resided in this man, or angel ; because he assumes the most exalted names and characters of godhead. And the spectators, and sacred his- torians, it is evident, consider- ed him as true and proper God, and paid him the highest worship and obedience. He is properly styled ^*the angd oj Oo^s presence^' — and ^the cav^ enant, Isaiah IxuL Mai. iii, 1.

VIII. This same angel of the Lord was the particular God and King of the Israelites. It was he who made a cove- nant with the patriarchs, who appeared to Moses in the burn- ing bush, who redeemed the Israelites from Egypt, who con- ducted them through the wil- derness, who gave the law at Sinai, and transacted the af- fairs of the ancient church.

IX. The angels who have appeared since our blessed Sa-




Tiour became incarnate, have Hever assumed the names, ti- tles, chantcters, or worship, be- longing to Grod* Hence we in- fer that tl^e angel who, under the old testament, assumed such titles, and accepted such wor- ship, was that angd in whom God resided, or who was unit- ed to the godhead in a peculiar manner ; even the pre-existent soul of Christ himself.

X. Christ represents himself as one with the Father : John X. SO ; xiv. 10, 11. There is, we may hence infer, such a pe- culiar union between God and the man Christ Jesus, both in his pre-cxistent and incarnate state, that he may properly be called God-man in one complex person.

Dr. Watts supposes that the doctrine of the pi*e-existcnce of the soul of Christ, explains several dark and difficult scrip- tures, and discovers many beau- tics and proprieties of expres- sion in the word of God, which on any other plan lie unobserv- ed. For instance ; in Col. i. 15, &c. Christ is described as ^<)d, can- not refer merely to his divine nature ; for that is as invisible in the Son, as in the Father : therefore it seems to refer to his pre-existent soul in union with the godlicad. Again, the « gj)dhcad*' is said to " dwell

• Watts' Glory of Christ, p. 6—203. by Palmer. Doddridge's Lectures, p. Flcmnig's Cbrlstolo^y. Evaiib' Sketch.

bodily in Christ, Col. iL 9^ and from hence this has becM called the indwelling scheme.

<*Thi8 system," says Dr. Price, speaking of Dr. Watts' sentiments, << differs from Ath' anism, in asserting the doctrM of Clurisfs consisting of t#o beings ; one the self-exiatnol Creator, and the other a cfta- ture, made into one peraoii*;lqr an ineffable union and individt ing, which renders the sane attributes and honours eqoal^ applicable to both."*

Mr. Eivans observes^ ilii|| ^< Between the system of Mi bellianism, and what is tehlMl the indwelling scheme, then appears to be a considenHe resemblance, if it be not'piifrj cisely flie same, diflbrentty «k^ plained. Dr. Watts," says 1M(

  • ^ towards the close of h» IHb

became a Sabellian, and wrote several pieces in defence (rf it" To prove this assertion, Mf. Evans refers to Dr. Waltf Last Thoughts on the Trinitji in a pampMet published by the Rev. Gabriel Watts of Chiches- ter. It was printed by the Doctor in the year 1 74 5. Fwm this piece it appears, that Dr. Watts had discarded the com- mon notion of the trinity. See 8abeUians.

Under this denomination, the plan lately advanced by the Rev. Noah Worcester, in a work styled, *< Bible News, re- lating to the living Gt>d, Ids only Son, and Holy Spirit,"

Johnson's Life of Christ, with notes 385—403. Price's Sermons, p. 331.




may perhaps be inserted with propriety.

Mr. Worcester supposes^ that the pre-existence of Christ is naturally implied iu thenumer* Otts passages which speak of God's sending his Son into the World, and of Grod's giving his jfton. The same idea is impli- ed in all that Christ said of his coming forth from the Father, apd coming down from heaven, and coming forth from God. Such representations naturally iinport that he had existed with Ifche Father, witli God, and in lieaven, before he was sent, or before he came into the world. Our. author's theory respect- &Mg the metaphysical nature of mjnr Saviour, is founded on the "CUle Son cf God^ so frequently ^mA 80 emphatically given to ««iir Lord throughout the New "Testament. He thinks that -file language of scripture in which our Lord is styled God's ^mmi^Sfiim," the only begotten Sir cf Ood, Hie only begotten of He Father, < God spake in the singular number — ^- out the bible, in which God ib' addressed, he is addressed as one individual person.

Christ addressed the Fatter not only as one person^ but as the << Only True God. Aa the Son he addressed the Father, and in his prayer he hath these words ; *^ And this is lifio Ver- nal, that they might know Thtef the only true Gtodi and Jeena Christ, whom Tkou hast weulL/f

The following arguments aiJB adduced as a specimen <<< Intwo parables our Saviour represents himself as standing in the same relation to God that a king's son does to his father: [^ The kingdom of hear ven is like unto a certain kii^ who made a marriage for his Son.' Matth. xxii. 2. In the parable of the vineyard, Mark xii. 6, he contrasts himself with




Br messengers of Grod in manner: << Having jet, fore one Son, his weU be- 1, he sent him also last them, saying, they \^ill •encemy Son." irist spo^e of it as a great ay of God's love, that he tent into the world. *< God ^ed the world, that he gave fdy begotten Son, that who- beiievethonhim should not h, but have eternal life. iw let it be asked, if Jesus

himself the Deity, what I can be made of either of foregoing passages? On ontrary, if he were but a like Moses, where was his lity? But if he were indeed s Son, with what force do i passages strike the mind!

ain, Jesus used unexam-

familiarity in speaking of

and to God as his Father, in coupling himself with

^*My Father worketh

arto, and I work.*' '« I and

  • atherareone." "My Fa-

is greater than I.'* " If a

love me, he will keep my Is, and my Father will love

and we will come unto

and make our abode with ^ « Thatthey may beone, ou. Father, art in me, and Hiec, that they may be one , even as we are one.** e may farther observe, that Saviour had evidence that familiar manner of saying Father, was understood by Tews, as claiming the dig-

of God's own Son ; for


when he said, <*My Father worketh hitherto, and I work," they were ready to stone him as a blasphemer, and affirmed according to the Greek, that he " made God his own Father." This they considered as such a manner of equalling himself with God, that he ought to be put to death. Yet while he kne^ the sense in whicli they understood him, he persisted in his claim, but assured them he was dependent on the Fa- ther, so dependent that he could do nothing of himself; and thus he received all his fulness, his life, and all his authority from the Father. On similar ground, they repeatedly accus- ed, and he as repeatedly vindi- cated his claim, and justified himself.

Now what shall we say to these things ? Shall we say that Christ was the supi'ema God, and thus render sdl the representations of God's love in sending his Son as perfectly unintelligible as the docti*ine of the Trinity ? Shall we say that Jesus was a mere man, and gave up all his claims to his being a pattern of humilty, and consider him as the most arro- gant and vain-glorious teacher that ever appeared in human form ? Shall we not ratlier ad- mit his claims, and regard him as the Son of the living God ?

Mr. Worcester asserts, that the precise difference between him and the Arians is, he sup- poses a Son from the uncreat-



ed essence of the Deity ; the Arians a Sou created out of nothing.*

PRESBYTERIANS, from the Greek left^vrt^^^ a denom- ination of protostants : so cal- led from their maintaining that the goTemment of tlic church, appointed by the new testa- ment, was by presbyters and ruling elders, associated for its government and discipline. The Presbyterians aflGu-m, that there is no order in the church, as established by Christ and his apostles, superiour to that of presbyters^-^that all ministers, being embassadors, are equal by their commission ; and the elder, or presbyter, and bishop, are the same in name and office, and the terms synony- mous, for which they allege Acts XX. 28. Tit. i. 5 — 7. 1 Thes. V. 12. Heb. xiii. 7 — 17. and 1 Pet. v. 2, 3.

From the time of the refor- mation to that of the revolu- tion, the Scotch church was torn with contentions respect- ing her form of cliurch govern- ment; the court professing epis- copacy, and the people pres- byterianism, and each prevailed by turns : but on King William's accession, presbyterianism \\tis Anally settled to be the estab- lished religion, and has so continued ever since. Their form of church government is as follows :—

The Kirk'Sessimi^ consisting of the minister and lay elders

of the congrogatioD, is the kiwv est ecclesiastical judicatiweb The next is the Presbyteg^ which consists of all the jpaftaiQp within a certain district,. b«A one ruling elder from eH^ parish. .m'^

The pnfvindal Synods. Qi which there are fifteen) n^ twice in the year, and are ami- posed of the members of tiiQfm^ eral presbyteries within.' % respective provinces. aIh

From the Kirk-sessions; % peal lies to the Presbytetin^ from these to the Synod w4 from them to the Qmaral 4lt senMy, which meets aniraal||^ and is the highest ecclesiastiflll aUtliority in the kingdom. 1^ is composed of delegates ftMk each presbytery, from ewij royal borough, and fnnnisch of the Scotch universUaes, «ii the king presides by a copMiiir sion of his own appointment

The Scotch ordain hjM << laying on of the hands offti presbytery,*' before which pft- sons may be licensed to prack as pi*obationei-s, but cannot ad- minister the sacraments. Ite clergy ai-e maintained bytke state, and nominated to liviqgi by patrons, as in other estab «  llshments. ;

Of the Presbyterians in Eng- land, some preserve their con- nexion with the Scotch Kirky and others with the relief,. &c. (See Bditf Kirk, Seceden, ' Burghers9 Ike.) But those pro- perly called the English pres-

• Bible News, second edition, p. 16, 26, 38, 57, 66, 143. Respectful Ad- dress to the Trinitarian clergy, p. 5. Manuscript of the IteTt Mr- Worccfftet.




byterians^ have no connexion with the Scotch Kirk, though they preserve their forms of worship; nor do they adopt iheir creeds and catechisms^ {which are confessedly Calvin- istic,) but are avowed Armin- ians, and many of them Aiians «r Socinians.^

The Presbyterians are nu- merous in the United States of America ; the majority of whom inliabit the middle and southern states. They had be- come a powerful and respecta- ble body in New lork before the commencement of the pres- lent centuiy. They are now the most numerous religious de- ^llomination in this state. The ^Dctrines of the Presbyterian churches in America are, gen- '^irallyyin strict conformity with the tenets of the Genevan BchooLf

PRIMINISTS, a party so ^Blled from Primianus, who be- dtime the head of the Donatists, ^iD^hich see

PRISCILLIANISTS, a de- domination in the fourtli cen- tury, the followers of Priscil- lian, a Spaniard by birth, and hishop of Abila. He is said to have adopted the principal ten- ets of the Manicheans : it is more certain that he was cruel-

ly persecuted, even unto deaths for his opinions. This sect stands chai*ged with practising in some instances dissimula- tion; but their moi*als wera generally con-ect and austei'e.:^

PROCLIANITES, so call- ed from Proculus, a philoso- pher of Phrygia, who appeared in 194, and put himseii' at the head of a band of Monlanists, in order to spread the senti- ments of that denomination.^ See JHontanists.

PROTESTANTS, a name first given in Germany to tliose who adhered to the doctrine of Luther; because in 1529, they entei-ed a solemn protest against a decree of the diet of Sjui-es, (which prohibited all farther reformation,) declaiming that they appealed to the enipei*our Charles y,|| and to a general council. This name was after- wards given to the Calvinists, and has since become a common denomination for all who dis- sent from the Roman Catholic church, in whatever country they reside, or in whatever sects they have since been dis- tributed.

Though some of the Protes- tants differ not more widely from the church of Rome, than they do from one another ; they

  • Collier's Hist Diet. vol. iL Scotch Theolo£^. Diet. Adam's Religious

World displayed, vol iii. p. 1.

f Wilson on the atonement.

i Mosheim^ vol. i. p. 349. Priestley's Eccles. Hist. vol. ii. p. 411.

4 Breughton, vol. ii. p. 285.

I This was the second diet held at Spires on account of the religious dis- putes in Germany ; it was held 1529, and revoked the decrees of the former diets, which were favourable to the reformation. *' Every change in the doc- trine, discipline, or worship of the established religion^ was prohibited by this^ diet'*




agree in professing to receive the scriptui'es as the supreme rule of their faith and practice. Chillingwoi-tli^ a learned di- vine of the church of England, addressing himself to a Roman Catholic writer, speaks of the religion of Protestants in the following terms : — << Know that when I say the religion of Prot- estants is in prudence to be preferred before yours ; as, on the one side, I do not undei*- stand by your religion the doc- trine of BeUarraine or Baroui- us, or any other private man amongst you, nor die docti'ine of the Sorbonnc, or of the Jes- uits, or of the Dominicans, or of any other particulai* compa- ny among you ; but that where- in you all agree or pi*ofess to agree, the doctrine of the council of Trent. On theothf^rside,by the religion of Protestants I do not understand the doctrine of Luther, or Calvin, or Melanc- thon, nor the confession of Aus- burg or Geneva, nor the cata- chism of Heidelberg, nor the articles of the church of Eng- land, no* nor the harmony of Protestant confessions ; but that wherein they all agree, and which they idl subscribe with a greater liarmony, as a perfect rule of faith and action, that is, the Bible! The Bible, I say, the Bible on]y, is the religion of I^otestants. Whatsoever else they believe besides it, and the plain irrefragable, indubi- table consequences of it, well may they hold it as a matter of opinion, but as a matter of

faith and religion^ neither cUi)

they iiith coheraice to their u

own grounds believe it theniFa

selves, nor require beUef -of Hk'

in others, without most hig^'i

and most schismatical presiiinp*:i

tion. I, for my part» after fti

long (and as I verily belive ando

hope) impartial search 0f thn

true way to happiness, do furni

fess plainly, that I cannot fiail .

any i*est for the sole of my &dtii

but upon this rock only. I smm

plainly, and with my owneyeM

that there are popes againjbi

X)opes, and councils hguatf ,

councils ; some fathers againU

other fathers, the same fiaAeni

against themselves; a cons^

of fathers of one age agaiuktff

consent of fathers of snaOiab

age; traditive interpretalioH}

of scripture are pretended, M

there are few or none to ito

found ; no tradition but thaft'cli

sciibture can derive itself fttta

the Ibuntain, but may be phuBi:

ly proved ciUier to have beni

brought in, in such an age tb^

ter Christ, or that in such la

age it was not in. In a wori^« 

there is no sufficient certain^^l

but of scripture only, for tip

considering man to build iipoi«t

This, therefore, and this (mly#<

I have reason to believe. TUs

I will pi-ofess; according td^

this I will live ; and for ihii^

if there be occasion, I will mio.

only willingly, but even gladljn

lose my life, though I should be.

sorry that christians should

take it from me.'*

<^ Propose me any thing out of the book, and require wheth-




belieye or nOf and seem it ' soiincomprehensible to hu- reason^ I will subscribe it hand and heart, as know- 10 demonstration can be ger than this, Qod hath \0f iherefl^re it is tine. In

things I will take no 3 liberty of judging from

neither shall any man mine from me. I will

no man the worse man,

he worse christian; I will no man the less for differ- i opinion from me. And measure I mete to others, lect from them again. I illy assured that Qod does Eind therefore men ought require any mo;'e of man this : to believe the scrip- to be God's word; to en- our to Und the true sense

and to live according to

JATYBIANS, a party of Lrians, in iu lu 360, who itained that the Son was ted.| See Ariand. rOLEMAITES, a branch le Yalentinians, so called L Ptolemy, tiiieir leader, who red from his master both in Dumber and nature of the

DRITANS, (Caihan.) In middle ages this term was led to a branch of the Pau- .n8,(See Ca^ruf, Jwho are 'ged with the tenets of the licheans; but whose prin-

cipal crime, according to Mil- ner, was theii* aversion to th^ church of Rome. (See Favli- c'mns.J This able historiansays, <* They were a plain, unassum- ing, harmless, and industrious race of christians; condemn- ing» by their doctrine and man- ners, the whole apparatus of the reigning idolatry and su- ' perstition; placing true reli- gion in the faith and lore of Christ, and retaining a supreme regard for the divine word.*'§ in England, the term Puri- tans was applied to those, who wished for a farther degree of reformation in the church than was adopted by Queen Eliza- beth, and a purer form of dis- cipline and worship. It was a common name given to all who, from conscientious motives^ though on different grounds, disapproved of the established religion, from the reformation to the act of uniformity in 1662. From that time to the revdution in 1688, as many as refused to comply with the established worsMp, (among whom were about 2000 clergymen, and pwhaps 500,000 people,) were denominated J\/bnconformist8. From the passing of the act of toleration on the accession of William and Mary, the name of Nonconformists was changed to that of Protestant Dissetders. See Dissenters. The greater part of the Pu-

Mosheim, vol. iv. p. 71, 73. Adam'g Religious World Displayed. Chil- rorth'a Religion of Protestants a safe way to heaven. Hist, of Religion, vol. iv. ^ Mosheim^ vol. i. p. 332.

&Iilner*t Churcli Hist. Toi iii* p. 385.




ritans were Presbyterians.* Their objections to the Eng- lish establishment consist principally in forms and cere- monies. Some, however^ were Independents^ and some Bap- tists. The objections of thesc were much more fundamental ; disapproving of all national churches^ and disavowing the authority of human legislation in niattci*s of faitli and woi'ship. The severe persecutions car- ried on against the puritans da- ring the reigns of Elizabetii and the Stuails, sei-ved to lay the foundation of a new empire in the western world. Thither, as into a wilderncssy they fled from the face of their persecu- tors; and, being protected in the fi-ee exercise of their reli- gion, continued to increase, till in about a ccntuiy and a half, they became an independent na- tion. The different principles, however, on w^hich they had originally divided from the church establishment at home, operated in a way that might have been expected, when they came to the possession of the civil power abroad. Those

who formed the colony of Mui- sachusctts having never Mlfiiii quished the principle of *||f'^' tional church, and of the'j^lM^ er of the civil magifliafiitci m matters of faith and wot^&U wei-e less tolerant than lUoM who settied at JVbec; Fi and at Rhode Idand dence Plantations, The very (and they were good noien who had just escaped the cutions of the English prdi now, in their turn, ^ others, who dissented fifMI them, until, at length, the^'til^ eral system of toleration, esubl lished in the parent countrf V the revolution, extending toiii colonies, in a good mbaslbs put an end to these crud pro- ceedings.

Neither the puritans, nor the nonconformists, appear to hsLn disapproved of the doctrinal ar- ticles of the established churcL At least the number who^did so, was very small. It is aaij that while the great body of Ifa clergy had, firom the days o| Archbishop Laud, favourcdAi^ minianism, they were attacbod to the principles of the first rer

  • The English church and the majority of the Puritans in Queen EUy^

beth's reig^i, agreed that some religious establishment was necessary ; and thidk the alliance between church and state was beneficial. " Both parties,** m Mr. Neal, " ag^reed too well in asserting- tlje necessity of an uniformity of piA- lie worship, and of calling in the sword of the magistrate for the support nd defence of their several principles, which they made an ill use of in their tumia as they could grasp the power into their hands. The standard of uniformity, according to the bishops, was the Queen's supremacy, and the laws of tiic land ; according to the Puritans, the decrees of provincial and national synods fcllowed and enforced by the civil magistrate ; but neither party were for ail- mitting that liberty of conscience, and freedom of profession, which is eveiy man's right, as far as is consistent with the peace of the government under which he lives." See Ncal's Hist of the Puritans. See also neview of Brooks* Lives of the Puritans in Christian Observer 1815.




ien, and by their labours sufferingB the spirit of the rmation was kept alive, after the revolution many le Presbyterians veered to- Is Arminianism^ then re-. 1 the Arian hypotliesis^ by degrees settled in So- inism. Some of the lude- [ents^ on the other hand^ 3d to the Antinomian doc- ss ; but the rise of Metho- \f in the latter part of the century, greatly revived encreased the dissenting

irBAHONISTS, the disci- of Pyrrho, the sceptical »sopher. See Sceptics. fTH AGORE ANS, the fol-

lowers of Pythagoras, a cele- brated Greek philosopher, who fiouidshcd about five hundred years before the christian era. His distinguishing doctrine was that of the jHetempsychosis, which he learned among the philosophers of India. This doctrine refers to the transmi- gration of the human soul after death into the bodies of various animals, till it returns again to its own nature* This notion led to the total rejection of an- imal food, and inculcated a merciful treatment of the brute creation. The symbols of this philosopher were highly mys- terious, and have never been completely developed*!


tUAEERS. A small part e American Quakers, dur- the revolutionary war, ►ht themselves at liberty to pt offices under govem-

, or to bear arms. Among

party was the distinguish- lilitary character General !n, who died 1786, to whom

ress decreed a monument,

ancient Quakers expelled their assemblies the free Ighting Quakei*s, as they

style tliemselves, and they were obliged to form a separate con- gregation, which still exists in Philadelphia. They differ from otliers of their denomination only in being less rigid.:|: See Fnends.

QUARTODECIMANI, a denomination in the second cen- tury; so called because they maintained that Easter day was always to be celebrated, con- formably to the custom of the

ITeaVs History of the Puritans, 2 toI. Syo, Palmer's Nonconfonnistg* >riaL Brooks' Lives of the Puritans, 3 vol. and Bo^e and Bennett*^ ry of Dissenters, i vol. 8vo. £ncy. Perthensis, in Pythagoras, jirej^ire's Histoirc Des Sectes Relight




Jews^ on the fourteenth day of the moon of March^ whatever day of the month that happen- ed to be*

QUIETISTS, the followers of Michael de Molinus, a Span- ish priest^ who flourished jn the seventeenth century.. They were so called^ from a kind of absolute resf and inaction, which the soul is supposed to be in^ when arrived at that state of perfection^ which they call the unidve /i/e.

The principles maintained by this denomination^ are as fol- low : That the whole of reli- ^on consists in the perfect calm and tranquillity of a mind removed iVom all external and finite things, and centered in Gody and in such a pure love of the supreme Being, as is in- dependent on all prospect of in- terest or reward.

For, say they, the primitive disciples of Christ were all of them inward and spiritual ; and when Jesus Christ said to them^ It is expedient for you that I go away ; for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come un- to you; he intended thereby, to draw them oflf from that^ which was sensible, though ve- ry holy, and to prepare their hearts to receive the fulness of the holy spirit, which he look- ed upon, as the one thing neces- sary.

To prove, that our love to the Deity must be disinterest- ed, they allege, that the Lord hath made all things for himself

• Brou^^litoiii Tol. ii. p. 507,

as saith the scripture ; and it is for his glory^ that he wllb our happiness. Our happiness is only a subordinate end^ whiph^ he has made relative to the lai^ and great end, which is his |^ ry. To conform, therefore, t^ the great end of our creatioB^ we must prefer God to ijnaf, selves, and not desire ow owji happiness, but for his ghurj.^ otherwise we shall go contraiy to his order. As the perbi^ tions of the Deity are intrinsic ally amiable, it is our gjlory vif^ perfection to go out of ovv selves, to be lost and abaoriMJ in the pure love of infiu|)| beauty. See Mystics. .

Madam Guion, a woman tt fashion in France, born (164^ was a warm advocate of then principles. She asserted fliit the means of arriving at tt» perfect love, are prayer wj^ the self-denial enjoined inl]^ gospel. Prayer she defines to be the entire bent of the sool towards its divine origin. ^

Fenelon, the excellent arch- bishop of Cambray, also fr' voured these sentiments in i celebrated publication, entitled, « The Maxims of the Saints." Hence arose a controversy be- tween him and Bossuet, bishop of Meaux. The tenets object- ed by Bossuet to Fenelon may be reduced to two : 1. That a person may attain an habitual state of divine love, in which he loves God purely for his own sake, and without the slightest regard to his own interest, creii




spect of his eternal happi-

2. That in such a state

lawful^ and may even be dercfl as an heroic effort nfoiinity to the divine will, nsent to eternal reproba- if Grod should rcquii*e such crifice; the party which ?s such an act, conceiving ic moment, that such a sa-

e is possible,

was objected to Fenelon, his doctrine elevated char- leyond human jiower, at xpcnse of the fear of God, the hope of divine favour. 1 the habitual state of dis- ested divine love, the at- nent of which was said to culcated in Fenclon's wTit- , Fenelon himself uniform- eclared his opinion that a lancnt state of divine love, out hope, and without feai*, above the lot of man ; and

uet himself allowed that
might be moments, when

il, dedicated to the love of , would be lost in heavenly 3mplation, and love, and e without being inJQuenced r by hope or fcai*, or being ible of either, he controversy* between

these great men was referred to the decision of the Roman Catholic church ; and in 1699, the pope issued a brief, by which twenty three pi'opasi- tions, reducible to the two a- hove mentioned, were extract- ed from Fenelon's "Maxima of the saints^' and condemned. Fenelon submitted to the deci- sion of the church. But his enemies were mortified by a bon mot of the pope, <ie was deposed ft*om his ' for refusing to sanction •rdination of a preacher

who was disagreeable to his congregation. This exclusion served only to make him popu- lar, and being soon joined by several other ministers, who took part with him, they form- ed the « Presbytery of Relief ;»' and the denomination continu- ed increasing, until,*afew yeai*s since, they formed a synod, in- cluding about sixty congrega- tions, and thirty-six thousand members.*

  • RELL YANS, the foUowers

of Mr. James Rell^, who main- tained the doctrine of univer- sal restoration, upon high Cal- vinistic principles. Mr. Rel- ly first appeared as a preacher in connexion with Mr. Whit- field, and was very popular, but adopting the principles of uni- versal salvation, he was of course separated from the con- nexion, and some of his admir- ei*s followed him; and even lately, a remnant of them as- sembled at Philadelphia Chapel, in Windmill street, near Fins- bury square, London ; and have therefore been called by Mr. Evans, Fhiladelphian univer- salists

REMONSTRANTS; Ar- minians ; so called from a re- monstrance they addressed to the states general in 1610, in which they state their grievan- ces, and pray for relief. In the last century, disputes ran very high in Holland between Cal- vinists and Arminians. Epis- copius and Grotius were at the head of the party of the latter.

dams' Religlotls VTorld displayed, vol. iiit p. 223.




In order to terminate this con- troversy, the famous synod of Dort was lield, 1618. The most eminent divines of the united provinces, both of the Arminian and Genevan school : and deputies from many of the reformed churches in Europe were assembled on this occasion. 1'his synod was succeeded by a severe pcj^sccution of the Arminians; their doctrines were condemned ; and they driven from their chu)rhcs and country into exile and poverty. The learned Grotius, who was condemned to perpetual imprisonment, escaped from his confinement, and took refuge in France. An account of the pi'oceedings of the synod may be seen in a series of lettei's, written by John Hales, who was present on the occasion. Hie reader is also referred tx> an abridgment of Gerard Brandt's Histoiy of tlic Reformation in the low countries, 2 vols. 8vo.

RESTORATIONISTS. See Universalists,