A Dictionary of All Religions and Religious Denominations/dump5

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RHINSBERGHERS, a party of Mennonites, said to be unitarians, who attend the general meetings of the sect twice a year at Rhinsberg, near Leyden. Seo CoUegiates.

ROGEREENS, so caUed from John Rogers, their cUef leader. They appeared in New England about 1677. Thcor distinguishing tenet was, that worship performed the first daj of the week is a species of idol- ati'y which they ought to 'ap- pose ; and in consequence of this notion they used a vari^ of measures to disturb tbtm who were assembled for pib- lic worship on the Lord's day.* '

ROMAN CATHOLlC^or memhei*s of the Cuvviiswdt Rome, otherwise called PqA&b from the pope being adi^M as the supreme head of^.^ universal chui-ch, the sucoeter of St. Peter, and the fouflUa of theological truth and ecckih astical honours. He givisa Indb for the installing bishops^ imd archbishops.! He has power to convoke general councib; to grant dispensations and>iB- dulgence^i ; to excommunicate offenders ; and to candnisol those, whom the church deen

  • Backus* tiist. vol. i. p 473, There is stiU remaining a small comp^of

the Rogereens in Grotan, near New London. See Benedict's Uist. of tfae^Bip- tists, vol. ii. p. 426. [

t In some lioman Cntholic states, the sovereign nominates persons to bid^ oprics, and gpreat benefices ; but bulls from Rome are necess&iy toenableidiem to enter into the exercise of tlicir functions. See Vattcl's Law of Nations.

t Canonization is a ceremony in the Romish church, by which peisms de- ceased are ranked in the catalogue of saints.

Tlic beatification of a saint is previous to his canonizatioR. Before thit can t«kc place, attestations of virtues and miracles are necessary. These are examined, sometimes for several years, by the congregation of rites. Befbie a beatified person is canonized, the qualifications of the candidate are strict^ examined into, in consistories held for that pui7;)ose. After this, the pope d^ crccs the ceremony, and appoints the day.




woi-thy of that honour. His jurisdiction is not^^ liko that of other bishops, confined to particular countries, but extends i through the whole body of Ro7 man Gatliolics in the christian T ' world.* He keeps liis coui*t in

  • } great state at the palace of the

1 Vatican, and is attended by T .«eventy cardinals, as his privy -Icounsdlors, in imitation of the ••seventy disciples of our Lord. T The pope's il^ority in other 7 kingdoms is merely spiritual, iij'butin Italy he is a temporal -r sovereign; Lewis XVIII and "f-. the allies having lately i*estoi'ed It him to his throne, and to those 1(» temporalities of which he was ^^deprived by Buonaparte and hthe Fi>ench Revolution. On rcritouming his government, pope toiFious YII has restored the orBiioder of Jesuits and the inquisition ; so that the Roman Cathifiiolic religion is now re-instated bnin its ancient splendour and au- X9'#ihority.

r f'lt The principal dogmas of this «ri religion are as follow : — »*> L That St. Peter was deput- v.ed by Christ to bo his vicar, n: and the head of the catholic church; and the bishops of ^ 'Borne, being his successors, {..o|myQ the same apostolical au- u-thority. For our Saviour de- clares in Matt^ xvi. 18. " Thou art Peter, and upon this rock wUl I build my church f^ by ■* which rock they understand St. Peter himself, as the name sig- nifies, and not his confession, as the protestants explain it.

• This peculiarly distinguishes the

And a succession in the church being now supposed neccssai*y under the new testament, as Aa- ron had his succession in the old, this succession can now be shown only in the chair of St. Peter at Rome : tliercfoi*e the bishops of Rome are his ti'ue successors.

II. That the Roman Catho- lic chui'ch is the mother and misti'ess of all churches, and cannot possibly err in matters of faith: for the church has the Spirit of God to lead it into all truth ; The gates of hell shall not prercail against iU Matt. xvi. 18 ; and Christ, who is himself the Truth, has promised to the pastors and tcachei'S of the church to be rvith thein always, even to the end of the world. Matt, xxviii. 20. A promise which the protestants apply to the faitliful in general, and not to any pai*ticular communion.

HI. That the scriptures ai«e received upon the authority of the church ; but are not suffi- cient to our faith without apos- tolical traditions, which are of equal authority with the scrip- tures.^ For St. Peter assures us that, in St. Paul's epistles, there are some things liard to be understood, uohich they who are unlearned and nnstahle wrest, as they do also the other scHp- tures, to their own destruction, Q Pet. iii. IG. We arc direct- ed by St. Paul to standfast, and hM (lie traditiom which we liavc been taught, whetlier by word or by epistle. 2 Thcss. ii. 15.

bishop of Rome from other bishops.




IV. That seven sacranicnta were instituted by Jesus Clu'ist; Yiz. baptism, confirmation, eii- charist, penance, extreme vnc- Hon, orders, and matrimony; and that they conier grace. — To prove that confirmation, or imposition of hands, is a sacra- mcnty they argue from Acts viii. 17. — Penance is a sacrament, in which the sins we commit after baptism are forgiven ; and which they think was instituted by Christ himself when he breath- ed upon his ai)osties after his resurrection. John xx. 2£« In favour of extreme unction, or anointing the sick with oil, they argue from James v. 14, 15, the text as it is j'endered in the vul- gate : Is any sick among you ? Let him call for the priests of the church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil, &c. J1ic sacrament of Itoly orders is inferi*ed fwmi 1 Tim. iv. 14 : — That marriage is a sacrament they think evident from Eph. V, 32 : This is a great mystery, rei)i'esenting the conjunction of Christ and his church. Not- withstanding this, they enjoin celibacy u]icm the clergy, be- cause they do not tliink it jirop- er that those wJio, by their of- fice and function, ought tc be wholly devoted to God, should be divci'ted from those duties by the distraction of a married life. 1 Cor. vii. 52. 33.

V. Th?.t in the mass^ or >ub- lic service, there' is ofTcred un- to God a true and propitiatory sacrifice for the quick and dead : and that in the sacrament of the

cuchai*ist, under the forms of bread and wine^ is really and substantially present the body and blood, together with tin soul and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ ; and that there U a conversion made of the whale' substance of the bread into his body, and of the wine into his blood, which is called UwmA^ stantiation ; according to ow Lord's words to his apoeflea^ This is my hoiy^^jfi, AIatt.zxri. 26; wherefore it' becomes with them an object of adoratioii. Farther, it is a matter of dis-' cipline, not of doctrine, in the Roman church, that the laUj receive the eucharist in onfr kind ; that is in bread on^. '

y L That there is a jpufgnti^f ry ; and that souls keptprisonvi ers there do receive help by tM suffrages of the faithful. Frit it is said in 1 Cor. iii. 15^ ff any man^s work sIuM be burnmi lis shall sniffer loss ; bathe hm>i sdf shall be saved, yet so as hf fire; which they understand of' the flames of purgatory. Thqri also believe that souls are re- leased from purgatory by the prayers and alms which are of* fered for them, principally bj the holy sacrifice of the masb* They call purgatory a middle state of souls, where those en- ter who depart this life in God's grace; yet not without some less slain, or guilt of punish- ment, which retards them from entering heaven.

VII. That the saints reign- ing with Christ, (and especially the blessed virgin,) ai-o to bi




Jionourcd and invoked, and that they do offer prayers unto God for us ; and their relics to bo liad in veneration. These hon- ours, however, are not divine, lut relative; and i*edoiind to the divine glory. See Rev. v. S ; viii. 4, &c.

VHI. That the images of Christ, of the blessed virgin, (the mother of 6od,)and of oth- er saints, ought to be retained in churches ; and lionour and V'eneration to be given to them, . oyen as the images of cheni- bim were allowed in the most holy place.

IX. That the power of indul- S^nces was left by Christ to the church, and that the use of tHem is very benelBcial to chris- ^icin people ; according to St. ^"Siitt. xvi. 1 9. By indulgences

  • lmey do not mean leave to com-

^*^t sin, nor pardon for sins to ^< ' wttnl

^ merly this was heldtoHb^iilto- fnl, not by Cathidics '«Vily*,jH|Mt by all the sects in chridtenMlil; but thotlhe Catholics 7ik0*h!^

• The Catholic claims have undergone a discussion in the house the result of which has been more favourable to ^e hoj^es of that bools es- tablished for the education of the clergy.

The Russian clergy are di- vided into regular and sex;ular, the former are all monks, and the latter are the parochial

.dam's Religious World displayed, p. 1, Sccw— p. 54, 94. Butler's Ad- o protestants.

loshsijny vol. It* p. 226. Ency. Perthensis^





dergy. The superiour clergy are caUIed Airhii-es^ but the ti- tle uf Metropolitan, or Bishop, is pei-sonal, and not pi-opcrly attached to the sec, as in the western church. IS ext after the Archires rank the black clergy, including the chiefs of monas- teries aiid convents, and after tlieni the Monks. The secular priests are called the white clergy, including the Protoires Tor pi'oto-popes) priests and deacons, together with the Rea- ders and Sacristans. These amounted, in 1805, throughout the empire, to ninety eight thou- sand seven hundred and twen- ty six. The white dlb*gy must be married before they can be ordained, but must not marry a second time : but are at liberty then to enter among the black clergy, and a way is thus oix'.n- ed for their accession to the higher orders. The whole em- pire is divided into thirty six di- ocesses, (or eparcfucs,) in which arc four hundred and eighty three cathedrals, and twenty six thousand five hundi'ed and ninety eight churches.

The churches are divided into three parts ; 1 . the altar, where stands the holy table, crucifix, &c. which is separated f mm the body of the church by a large screen (ikonostcs) on whic h ai-ft painted our Saviour, the Virgin, the Apostles, and other saints. Up(m a platfoi*m before this are placed the readers and singers* and here the preacher general- ly stands behind a moveable desk. £• The Nave or body of

the church, which may be call- ed the inner court: and 3. Ths Trapeza, or outer court : boA these are designed for the con- gregation, but neither have any seats. The walls of the church ai'e highly embellished with script ui'e paintings, ornament- ed with gold, silver, and pre- cious stones, but no images.

The church sei-vice is con- tained in twenty volumes foliOf in the Slavonian language^ which is not well understood by the common people. Parti of the scriptui'cs are I'ead in the service ; but few, even of the ecx;lesiastics, possess a complete bible.

The patriarch of Russia iras formerly almost equal in aii«> thority with the Czar himsdf $ but Peter the Gi-eat, on the death of the patriarch in irOQ, abolished his office, and ap- pointed an Exarch. In irSi he abolished this office also, and appointed a <« holy legislative synod" fi>r the government of the church« at the head of which is always placed a layman of rank and eminence. The raiD- nastic life \^ as once so prev#«  lent in this country, that theie wci*e four hundi'ed and sevenljf nine convents for men, seventy four for women, which there were about seven thousand monks and nuns, &c but this k?nd of life was much disrouraged by Peter Great, and the Empress Cath rino, that the religions are no reduced to about five thousa monks and one thousand se




tm hundred nuns ; a great part of their revenues has also been alienated, and appropriated to the suppoi*t of hospitals and houses tor the poor. For the

doctrines of this communion, see the Greek Church : and for theprinciples of dissenters from it, see RaskolnikB.*

Sabbatarians, a de-

nomination of christians, who keep the seventh day as the . Sabbath, and are to be found {irincipaily, if not wholly among the baptists. The thi*ee fol- lowing propositions contain a summary of the grounds of their practice. 1. That Grod has re- quired the observance of the seventh, or last day in eveiy week, to be observed by man- kind universally for the week- ly Sabbath. S. That this com- Buind of God is perpetually binding on man till time shall be no more. S. That this sa- cred rest of the seventh day Sabbath is not (by divine au- ttority) changed from the sev- enth and last to the first day of the week, or that the scripture •Ifjes no where require the ob- servation of any other day of the '^eek for the weekly Sabbatli, fcut the seventh day only.

Many of the Sabbatarians ^liser^'e the first dav of the '^^^eek also, in conformity to tho general custom of christians.

founded (as should seem) on the practice of the apostles. See Acts XX. 7. 1 Cor. xvi. 2. Rev. i. 10.

Some divines, however, con- ceive that the first day of the week was the original Sabbath ; that it was changed at the giv- ing of the law, and restored at the resurrection of Christ. The spirit of the command is sup- posed only to require a seventh day, however it is reckoned; and as the sun rises and sets at different hours in various cli- mates, it seems impossible that all nations should observe the same precise time.f

There are two congregations of the Sabbatarians in London, one among the General Bap- tists, the other among the Par- ticular Baptists ; and a few are found in different parts of the kingdom. In America the Dun- kers and Keithians may be reck- oned of that class ; and the Abyssinians, and some mem- ber of the Greek Church keep both the Sabbaths.:):

  • Pinkerton's Present State of the Greek Church in Russia, 8vo. 1814.

t See Kennicot's Dissertation on Ca n and Abel, p. 1 84

i Doddridge's Lectures Evans' Sketch, 12th ed. p. 201 Comthwaite's

^^cts, publish* d about 1740. See alse Cluoidlery Orton, Falnier, and Dr*

Watts' Holiness of times and placea




•SABEANS, or SABiAW8,the ancient inhabitants o& Arabia^ "v^ho worshipped the hosts of heaven(in Jleb.Sabbaoth)tho\ig\i at the same time they acknowi* edited a supreme Being, by whom they were created.* See Zabians.

A sect in Ecclesiastical His- tory are called by the same name, whose ci'eed is a com- pound of Judaism, Christian- ity, and Idolatry. See JI/eTi- dai.

SABELLIANS, the disci- pies of Sabellius, an African bishop (or presbyter) in the third centnry. He maintained that the Divine Essence sub- sisted in one person only, name- ly, the Father ; but that a cer- tain energy, or I'ay of divinity, was united to the man Jesus, and formed the character of the Son of God ; while a similar divine emanation — a celestial wannth «— <'onstitute4 the Holy Ghost. This they endeavoured to illus- trate by comparing Grod the Father to the material Sun, the Wonl, or Son of Grod, to the light issuing therefrom, and the Holy Spirit to the heat emanat- ing from the same source. His doctrine seems to differ from that of Noetus in this respect, that the latter taught it was the one person of the Deity which acted under the three relative characters, as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit ; the Creator, Re-

deemer, and Sanctiiier of mai- kind; whence his foilowen were reckoned Patri-pasriani s but not so the Sabelliansy who preserved a sort of distinction between the sacred Threes tho^ it was not personal. This sys- tem is called an economical or modal trinity, and its bdieven are called Modalists^^

Sabellius had many foUowm during the age in which heUvr ed; and modificationsof hisdoe- trines have subsisted in variooB succeeding denominations. Itis said to be found in the 'creed of many of the general baptifltsm the principality of Wales. Th Swedenborgians have also beai charged with Sabellianisiii4':<

SACOPHORI, i.e.penDi0 who wear sackcloth, as.ceFtaiB christians affected to do i&.tbD foui*th century, by way of p» ance and mortification.^

•SACRAMENTABIAH8, a term applied at the time of tto reformation to all who itsM the real presence in the sacit- ment

SADDUCEES, an andent Jewish sect, said to be fouadsd about three hundred years be- fore Christ, by one Sadockf^ is reported by tradition to hate been the disciple of Antigoim Socho, president of the ^Qhe- drim of Jerusalem. This cele- brated teacher inculcated apure and disinterested principle of obedience to God, independent

  • Ency. Perthensis.

•\ Alosheim, vol. i. p. 244. Waterland on the Trinity, p, 385.

^ Adam's Religious World displayed.

i History of Religion, vol. iv. Art^ Sacophor.




of rewards and punishmentsy from which some of his disci- ples inferred tiiat none were to be expecti'it ; and hence the sect degenerated into infidelity ; and denied the being of angels and spirits, and, consequentky, a fu- ture state. Acts xxiii. 8.

it has been said that they re- jected all the sacred writings hut those of Moses ; and it is probable that some did so, but that this was not universally the ^case.^ It is certain, indeed, ■that they rejected the traditions •of the elders, and paid little i attention to any religious forms. iTo make amends for this, how- iever, they wei-e very strict in administering justice between -man and man; so much so, that fflome have derived the denomi- ^nation from the Hebrew word -for justice, which is piv. In their philosophy they were Ep- v'jcureans or Materialists ; but ^did not admit of a resurrection : land were so far fi'om Necessa- ' lians, that they were great advo- cates for the doctrine of free- T'Will, and totally rejected that Itif divine influences.f The his- - 'iory of the Sadducees may be «' traced do^n to the middle ages, ^i and there are still said to be -: some remains of this sect in • Africa. See Jews.

SAMARITANS, the inhabi-

' tants of Samaria, but chiefly

the Cuthites, \vhom the kings

of Assyria sent from beyond the

Euphrates to people that coun-' ti*y after they had caiTied a- way captive the children of Is- rael. The Samai'itans, being a mixed multitude, at first wor- shipped Jehovah in connexion witli their former idols, (2 Kings xvii. 24 — 33.) until a Jewish priest was sent to instruct them. At length Alexander the Great permitted them to build a tem- ple on mount Gerizim, in op- position to that of Jerusalem. John iv. £0. Sanballat, the govemour, made Menasses, the son of Juddua, high priest, and from this time they main- tained, that this was the place where men ought to worship. This created an enmity between the two nations, which has nev- er subsided to this day.

When Menasses was made high priest, he taught the Sa- maritans to worship the true God only according to the Mo- saic institutions ; and from this period they renounced idolatry and were considered a sect of the Jewish religion.

The Samaritans receive only the pentateuch, Tor five books of Moses,) and their copy dif- fers materially fi-om that of the Jews in some chronological dates ; it has also some repeti- tions and elucidatory passages, but the most material differ- enre is that in Deut. xxvii. 12, 13. they have transposed the names Ebal and Gerizim to

• Prideaux*s Connection, Anno. 107. Basnage*8 Hist. lib. 2, cap. 5. Scal- iger Elencli Triher, cap. 16.

f Prideaiix's Connect Anno. 44-6. Lamy and Beaiisobrjj^'s Intpoduct. Cal- met's Diet. vol. ii* new ed. Stack])ouse*s Hist of the Bible, 8vo. rol. v. p. 118*




favour their schismatic temple ; it is also written in the biima- ritan character, which sume suppose to be the ancient Ue- brcWf but on this the learned are much divided.

The Samaritans liavc been, like the Jew^^ dispersed in va* rious counthes ; but lor a long time their chief residence has been Napiouse, the ancient Sichem. As late as l&UB, we learn fnim authentic docu- ments,"^ that thev still c<^sh of animals, killed by one of their own sect^ and with certain formalities. They are separated fi-om the Jews, Turks and Christians, and form no alliances with tliem. If they are forced in their employment to touch a sti'an^r, or his gar- ment, they purify themselves as soon as possible. The dead are

considered as impure, and th«y cause them to be buried by the lurks and Christians. They consider themselves to be true Israelites of the tribe of Jo«  seph ; and say that their law is written in the true Hebrew language. They have a priest oi the race of Levi, but no iiuan or grand pontiff. They say, that tney have not had any priests of the race of Aaron for one hundred and fifty yean past.

The Samaritans celebrate the first day of the passover at mid<- night ; a sheep is killed in the synagogue, i*oasted and eateii there. Since the year 1788 they have not been able to repair to mount Gerizim for worsh^; but have nfiered their sacrificed in the city Naplouse, whichf. they say, << is comprised in the chosen place." According to their account, there are no Sar maritans in the East, excepting at Naplouse and Jaffa. These amount to two hundred perr sons, men, women, and chil<^^ dren, composi ng thirty familieaJ These are extremely exact iH their observance of the ceremo-. nies prescibed by Mose^ ; an^ have preserved their pentateucli with the utmost care.t

  • SAMMANS, ScHAMA]!rs,or

SiiAMA^s, (as the first letter is

• The celebrated Gregoire applied to the Censul of Alepijo for information respecting the Samjiritans of Naplouse, who obtained from the chief of the synaj^jcue an ans\er in Arabic, which was translated into the French bjr c3orances, senior consul of France.

t Calmet's Dictionary, vol. ii. new ed. vol. iv. 239—468 ; vol. v. 310. Stack- house's Hist ot theiBible. Gregoire's Histoire Des Sectes Ueiigieuses. Tom. iu p. 325, 326, &c.




differenflj pronounced,) were originally worshippers of the heavens, (inUeb. Shemim^J and the heavenly bodies. Such were the ancient Chaldeans, Syrians, and Canaanites, ^hose idol was Baal'Samen, or Et-Samen, the Lord or God of heaven, by which they meant the sun ; and ihey had a city and temple, call- ed Betli-Shemeshf the city or temple of the sun, whose He- brew name is Shemesh.

From these Sammans seem to have sprung the SammanC'S, ap ancient sect of philosophers in India, from whom Dr^Priest- lejr thinks the Hindoo religion was originally derived. " The Bammanians Tor Sammans) be- tkg persecutea by the Bramins, tnd driven by tliem out of India JProper, are thought to have taken refuge in Pegu, Siam, and •flier countries beyondthe Gan- ges ; and it is supposed that the religion of those countries was derived from their principles. The religion of the Lamas in Hbet is also said to be a re- fbraied SchamanLsm. See ThU keHans. And from the same source this author, with great probability, derives the modern Schamans of Siberia.

<« The people ai*c at present described as wholly illiterate ; but their predecessoi*s are said to have written many books on philosophy and religion. They believe in one God, the maker of all things ; but they think tiiathe pays no attention to the affairs of men, leaving the gov- OTiment of th.e world to iidJeri-

our beings, to whom, thei*efore, all their devotions are address- ed. Both the celestial bodies, and all terrestrial objects of con «  sidcrable magnitude, arc objects of woi*ship to them ; though some of them only believe that moun- tains, and gi*cat bodies of water, ai-^ the habitation of the gods, and not thenisehes animated. They have, however, a great variety of subordinate deities, whom they invoke for difiei-ent purposes, viz. one for health, another for their ( attic, another when they travel, anotlier for the women, another for their children, another for their mn- deer, &c. &c. thinking that par- ticular spirits preside over and have the care of them. But though they have goddesses, as well as gods, they do not be- lieve that they are married. These spirits, they suppose, ap- pear to their priests in the foi-m of bears, serpents, or owls; and on this account they have a particular respect for those an- imals.

<< Besides these deities of a iiatui^ superiour to man, the Siberians worship the jnanss of their ancestors, and especially of the settlers of coh>nies, whom they I'egard as demi-gods.

    • They not only suppose that

there are superiour beings of \evy different dispositions, some friendly and others unfriendly to men, but think the best dis- posed of them are sometimes partial, obstinate, and vindic- tive : and over the malevolent deities they place one of much

■uperiour power, .whom, the; •SAM0KB£^T8^(;;pKNTiB[»

«iili Seaitan. Bgjt though he. ia or .seU-b^pf^eni., ^..wipU: wti

very wicked, tiicy think it jioa- in Ruasi^. who Wgiu^riijI'ilDM

flibleto appease hiini and there- the church. 'Jl^iej: t!J^iW^|!t

fore much of their wui-slup ia the.m8elyea»uudei^<9n.ffiQj^jl^

addressed to hiin. nu other persona are """JryiTti

" They have no temples* but ly pure to perAfruf l^.^i^fat

perform their i-eli^ious rite^in ttiem.t iMuiIiiiiiti

the open air, on eminences, or SANDEMANIAjS^S^iiIKIm

the hanks of rivet's. In some denomination arose ifii^cottiff

places their religious ceremo- about the year l-7S)j,)^itqi»u

nics are performed at any hour originally called filnj^iffli IWH.

of the clay indifTcrently ; but that term above,) .^iii,,||»

generally during the night, by wards Saiidemaniuisfiwi^

the light of a fii-c, kindled for following circuin^Aance.,^;;^

the puipuse. Soon after tlic yea^, ifSfi^

"They have idols of stone Mr. Robert S^kndciuafi*,^^

or wood, having aonie rude re- der in one of these c^ui'/i^i^.M

semblance of the human form, ScoUand. pubUslie4.a,ier)e^^

and they pretend to feed them, letters addressed tf> Air. Jjuv^

smearing their faces witli blood Hervey, occasioned by hii^ "v^

and grease. By way ofincens- ron and Arnasio, in whicji jift

ing them, they make a smoke endeavours tt-t^liow tliatliispiig

with burning flesh, blood, or tion of faith bcontradic^'yi;^,^

houglia of tip and wormwood tUesci-iptureaccoiint of it; Hiii^

before them. But when mis- would oidy aei've to lead^pt;;].

fortunes befall them, they load profewedly holiling ,th^.jl|i^

them with abuse, sometimes trines called Calvinistic, njx*

dash them against the gi-ound, tablish their own righteo^gpos

throw them into the water, or upon their frames, ferlin^.JM

beat them '^Ih rods. acts of faitk The lc8dfnga{»

" Man they believe to be timenta which ^Ir. SandaQMi

compounded of soul and body ; endeavours to prove Jti j^^

and that immediately after letters, are aa fudqw,; ' ' ,

death the soul passes into anoth- I. That justifying! &ld»^#

er state of existence; which, more than asimpie^'elierg^BB

ho5V"ever, most of them think to truth, or the divine testiiqoiif^

be at least but a very uncom- pa'i'iively received, ., .,', ,,,

fortable one, and therefore they II. Thiit this divine teatuUn

have a great dread of death."* ny carries in itself sulfi^fnt;

fnstituti(Hi> of M^(<. )ie quoteg,') bitnMlflc^

t Pinlurtoa'a Greek Cbiircb, p. 334: ,■ ■




id of hopOf and occasion of X) every one^ who believes tlioiiC atqr thing wrought in r done by ub^ to give it a

ular direction to our-

» support this system^ the emanians allege^ that fkith led receMng me late of the

and the apostle often

LS of faith and tmtli to the pui^pose9asinJohn3cvi. 13. pint iff truths S Cor. iv. 13. ipiri^ qf faith ; Acts vi. 7. md to me faith ; 1 Pet i. « dbe^vg the truths and di- itfaer passages. The scrip- consider laith^ not as a of oorSf iior as any action ed by the human mind ; but in direct opposition to ev" K'orky ivfaether of body or . See Rom. iv. 4, 5. This ast excludes every idea of ily in the mind, from the )r of justification ; so that innot i^eak of preparatory s of any sort, ip^ithoutmalc- h^ gospel a law of works. iiL 27. Where is boosting ^ Bis exi^idedf kc. Now ing cannot be excluded* if hing, done by us, sets us in re probable way of obtain- llie sfdvafion, which is of s, ' whether it be called by lames of a law work, seri- xercise of seeking souls, or iring to obtain an interest !irist, &,r.

rery doctrine, then, which es us to do, or endeavour, thing towards our accept- with God, stands opposed G doctrine of the apostles,


which, instead of directing us what to do, sets before us all, that the roost disquieted con-> science can require in order to acceptance with God, as alrea^ dy done and finished by Jesus Christ

Some of '< thepopularpreach** ers," as they were called, had taught that it was of the es- sence of faith, to believe that Christ is ours : but Mr. San^ deman contended, that that which is believed in true faith is the truth, and what would have been the truth, though we had never believed it They invited sinners to repent and believe in Christ in order to forgiveness ; but he maintain- ed, that the gospel contained no offer but that of evidence j but that it was merely a re- cord or testimony to be credit- ed. They had taught thatthough acceptance with God (which in- cluded the forgiveness of sins) was merely on account of the im- puted righteousness of Christ; yet that no one was forgiven^ or accepted of God, till he re- pented of his sin, and received Christ by faith ; but he insists that there is acceptance with God for sinners, while suph, before <<< a passive belief of this quiets the guilty conscience, begets hope, and so lays the fcwndation for love."

The authors, to whom Mr. Sandeman refers under the ti^* tie of <* popular preachers,^* are Flavel, Boston. Guthrie, the

^rakigM^. Ac 1?iiwe<)(ft btiUii„.

treated with great jKiWWnyiimf ;i?M> "^f£ f<9 tb^4

vpntai^iitK yetsfvi^ftfipwri- ah*.; li>uteiUMin^,in>'>f .

tf)i%, who baiv.e y^iqattMl tb««e wl in > riflkt ,jpai^t->r.4

Ptifij^ra ;Crfra^b» iiuf«c^if^, abuns .9f thw vviKifS

have. a(iiipwl«!dim!L that W bw tlMny (ioT>Ui)Ueain RT^Pfi^

pointed out many blemiabes lu t}Ki|^initivBpn)i«s^^i9l

tlii^m-itingsi OUMraWveen- wijrlovp i-evi^in^ijwiftm^

d«^vou^ed.ta^pllo.1(, that Mr- ancientcbrutiaM^frnMiff

dandeman's nption of faitb* l^ iiy rteroer/ia^tiih.il Ci»h \

^iudins^Upoticwrvenceofthe »o neither alioNld »ffjifiiA

VjU with ^xwpel plan of sal- duties or «iq>reasiwm^

ntioo,.. cupfounilH the faith of aUowet] to fail. . ., ,/r , devila intb tl)a( of christians. At tbciv )uve fcn^tSr )_.

f^ ia e^o^ated tadeoeiTsthe the admission of « W'^f^

souls of men. It has also been ber» and on otlu^r 9€fit

q^sexre^tbat though Mr. 8an- they use the kis^ or cl)9< all hia godli- nation believe ertprrs^ly ^^cu^

Bfwn conBisting (as he acknowl- ed» Boffi. xvi. 16 ; ut^. i^

fldgeSfjinlavrtothatwhidiSrst 1 Cor-iTi. ^0. Thiiyalsopro^-

txUev^ bfJih" a amountB to tise . washing; cacli otheir's fe^t)!

nothing but self-love. for which tu^agu thcf ^ege

., Tbe^QCifai prarticee!n John xtii. t4,.>^,,,,^ .hnul^a ^])ich t^ doapiHiiwtion differ They ho]d.ltt,,<>athecbri8tuui Sabbi^ of tbe, , cbuwb ;■ -.tpj ifflWBgy

^designed fw the celebration the .wdaw&ilnev.m,- wJdlM

«f4iviiteoT4i)i>U|ic4(*'wbicbiure treasurea:.gH e^tr^htM^aj

smmaitFUyT eftninWh 9Ki]ps

i«nd defrajFiog- other expeuKs. Idtcyii afccinf^ .cQaqw^' ^Vi

-. In the interval between tlwir fikQuaBWHmi^i^|y">fim[;

morning and afternoon service,, but 'anprebending a lot to be

'tfiejr f>8ve their love feasts,, of Barf«d,:'*i8*iPP**TCf J*'******'

wbwb.ewerymeinbiai^isFequir-, pi^v.ihg.atcM^,fl'!t'^4t?» a^i cd to p«)itak«t to tflstity' they Th^ lmve,«4lJUiro1ijyr..(Ml. jbI-

are all brethren of one family. dcrs,niistorsorbisbop^ni«Ah

They allege, tbat.these Iot^ ' cljul^; .JhO^ C'M(a>«M)lesr




4ldh^/ Wi^! dP Hairnrhig KtHM led tlieiiiddv^ poMif-iafcMf ptt».

'iAjat^&A&hit hitrvd^ tfl*« tib f^ts, arM amgela.^ "'^ *

ll(0j(ftm#t»jmm, to etmMetj ft^Mn

notions cohieiided' irttii thote of Basilides and otter Olibstiea.

See BasUidian»4 ' *'■'

♦SCHAITEB, or ScjHnmg, those Mahometmtf wblfch boM- sider AH Taleb as tHef'^trde Imam ^BetMMnfieions:'^' ^' «SCHA»fAKI8M;8ee*i^^ mofu* ' - ■• '-■■ '*' ■"•" SCEPTICS. Thfe^EfdctiAe.

igMlif^Hn&ty t6 Vc; abrtliitely nee- 'Hssltttr. Wititr^eicoittiiMinicat-

  • iji^ ttNfMbeni ttiey hold it linlaw-

^tt^^itheir to esti/^t drink.* ^^wr. Sitb'dehiatt catne to New ^Endand, and settled' a society %WMMr4*Oaiibiti% &c. He ^dft)aAd'MB ito 4««A. tion fhe tr«fth otvfi^ optfiibn^ and maMaiil ihtM^mfkytl^itilg is uncertaim" - ^ *•■ .:^» '■■'•"5

The ortgii^ai deiApi ^t fhe sM^tic philosophy was ts «oni«  piEU% external phioiiomlettia with mental conceptions, In ^t^rdef to discover tbnr ftteonsistency, and the conseqaeat anceiteitity

^^ijImiiiUr powerfifl, and fall bf of all reasotiing 'from appear-

^iKViif [it Wffis' wise^to pay hitn anees :-^-4o cure that restless-

^Wltftriift^^ ordir to <^n- ness which attends the unstic-

'inHilNrlklMi/ '^n^ ccssM search after tratbv Md

ed to hEtif^lkkin a^ bMmehof the by means of «n tiiliversal ' site-

^Meaj^mklisytdioiitlk year^sgo. pension of judgment to estab-

^V^ pd^^M w ^od^ lired lish rtentsd^ tranqaillity. > Its

^Wjf' il&^^S? aiid' 1^ iit the ftindamerftal princi^e Is, that

•HmMs.%'idV^p<^ttl6ti> ' B^^hie note#, p. 65^136. Backds' Diftdoune bn

.891 ran

the ©__ _ _

iWlrtUltei«|i.(ir 'J ;.i

.-*PlhB^Mlf*%f..l»b.T*.ijP»m..,.! .,! •

t Motbeun, voL i. p. IS'& I«rdnet'» Hereticf, p. 71.


SoMch Tkeol.


SCD!^ 260; SQlS)r-


amtietfiff luv nu n) i. »h4v; ri/ tha<.QaiwimMlii«ii«eM fdrHS^vif

li9.c»ft aemrtaav, tj|pMi|fff4itif

lieiimlatiMiis^lliitthftiiiCm^ ciple. ^"^ i:/|r,-.u)i in ^fifoioAliAl

vUch pbUcMoplieMhaiir«rdniw4) ,3>i«aflekjM9lltlfw;af9lik

fnNBiith^ i«pcirti..oeth0^^«enae8 auibhfff olit^Q JOtotwifffltoli^ are.inay:4ie ovartuni'i. sidcyrcAaaonevfitliQmitpvigphft

ed ib J xpiMfriiig»! liiually: . #Imh erful ad vocfitai^ f to* 't^HltuNlni i

siU».ynlb*«tho96'by wbiQhitia among .ttiOomodwMi o H^^ W M t

8uppQrtod«j{L>if(>>; ' educated a.ppotwIauMgi^iiidBli

Vyrrh^^iHlQr^fif^ philosopher in life gave pnDo&xufiwimifiiAo

of(,'V|Edop^DnMa9> (about 300 genius*. BvtvbUf^^he^t^Miqiif

yeara beCwrQ Cbrip*:,) was the the Jeaaits^ coll^!irtt y« wlpyifcJ

fouHdep iif thi9\ m^ but it ob- the feadiug ; ofi^iwnteiiVeMUx

tftiiieA f»a igrbat popularity till boaks» B»d tbe> commmiiimidi

the!ti«i«o£.'4|ie lijMUftn Enripe*- a popiah.prlestirled kwil taiMi-Ji

rors. His object was rather to brwe (te JHk>Pianf^ inVtitWilfcii m^

destroy i^OfiJ^) gyabet$8^ than to ligion» whi^ in|E»iglMwi|qfi«||^(

estabHab .a^ mm oiiek Be ash alter be. iienoun^^iftaQdli ^ib

sorted nothing p(KUtiT)(fy;f eren became a sceptuc* ;Mrtth0UlnMCl6

on Abo point afmoiradafcedQubti fixed system c^fi^iniemftrt^a-fl.'rc

ed^bemvm lieicould4i^ ertain- Mr. Huiae^ ijie JBni^Ml ViHn

lyA AaerittltnatQ /ihetuceen gAfed torian, makea ■, -.^i diatiiiguiilbMl?

andeNrik'iHDted^rent^ t. figure also. amengrthodlMideni?

-Manriofbfia.Mrfy followers sceptics. The 4Ai^llini^[|lHf|

chose to. riieltertjtaBiDselTe^un^ pbilosi^bical wiMingnllB^Ma

der: Ae ijMm^(«f -iAcademif^s^ tcoduce doubt in»m/gfftihnmA'y

who (especiaUy Ihetdiscjiilfls^c^ ofpbysicstmotaphyffasjJMrtaiJhit

C;eiin9^es)/werR/inuj(rli:ificli|ifd ethics, and.fthe^hjiytffufft'lAeiM

tOf.sQoisticiBm t9r99ly I tbey ;4id isi»V B«grs this^elebrMfld ffnthMte

ad^nH^a^ioidf^gitHWofprobar. Hat6p«ipSfOfmieptioisM»M^^

bili^^.iH(dcb'thf)i^iiitW d^nt^cW!J^tudy f|nd'tidttlotopl4Ri9

ed. : The .Acad^nu^ allowed, wbicb isk'iiNieh 4neyiilc^4odtJhgr')

thatnotiiiBg<(^exeaptinatl]^ematr IMs 'C^W^and^^tlier^ immsi

iral science) 'povldf be iknewn sojiriE«vrigni4»?eflerrfttijrftil|gtiiisA{

with certainty ; but the Pyrir^ esroi^aa^pri^ipitiMie jndg»Amfet honistswere not certain evexit' It recommends^, an- rUnlvdHM^

of ||iis : andsQ i^nd weri&thQyi douht» ,iiot ofdj^ faf J Wf ffblvier

of, doubting, that they e^ven pmneiplesriandiOpifHons^itnijfctidfn

doubted their only position^ that so of our very faculties ; of

  • Gale's Ck>urt ef the GcntUes. Enfield's ^HisW'ef^lVfE^hi',^. i.





wUse if^radty wt mvat assttYcf -

iitt|^'dediioM« JBromitome^orfglw

bllacioiis or deceitful/** '^^'n

a^dMioiiitoMiitf^'^led tPMt

rimknigMli^Ihe Bixteentliceti- tn^r.'M Heiilfi^Mdfhom Luther kmiho* three MIcMln^ points. l»»0iptte dMftritie of the en- cWttet^iSchiyin^nkfeldt Inv^rt- edaetifiDHliithe:>soul^'" i% UacMJ m Ab f ils:«ffi^ets ttre Hke those €t*i^inN'^Meh ilt^'englhens and refkresbefthe btiarl. 3. Hede* Bieflf Aiait-tbe tittemal word, iAiidb'|g<1Ai^'holy s^^riptares, ^vowfattdowed^fith the power of iMdiJttg^i illiiminating, and re- iMflf in^-the^niind : and he as* ciUMlittilii^ power to the inter^ Mt^twd^-'Whlcht according to hki »d^nion» wa9 Christ him- wMf^»»* ' Be would not < aHow Okmthi^hiiRtayi nailitre» fn; its' eildlrA' sMe,'^ bef' caH^ a ttikAkif^ '«ir a Ciliated Ii«Al.' stance < i w tfa^ appeared M' Urn < taArdlel; below its ^dij^M- ^^itfliM^it had been imMfed' to tiiK#iTinee88ence.f •■■■-■••■'»»■' I >^ I *SGHOOLMEN, a* sedk 'of mkm to^fhe t#elfthy thlrteehthy

•a ....'».;


f .


and fiMirtciieiitfa 'CeMwief^' who* were versed in the subtflties of; a^adeicrtdd^ dti^ulalldfii c The phBos^pky and metaphysics of Aristotle principally oMtarUiut-* ed to tbe-^ formation? of 'the soholastie > theology^ ' Thonlas Aquinas^ who flonrisheiil in the tfairle^ntti dentiiiT*, <" 6jV theolo^ are hold-in hi^h esti^: mation by the Roman eathoUo*' church, and his mafheritf his always been -gvmt^iin^HIAir ' schools. He was cansulaed bw- ■ pope John XXII^ in the yeap>' 1S23. He founded the seft of** the Thomi8ts.:|! See that ar-i ticle. -.1 ••■f

SCOTCH BAFHSTS. II does not appear that thevewom > any Bi^rtist «faarofae8^i» Soot^'- land till the year ITS^^emiBpt' one^) of which some trftees re^ main in a book, ontitloAf ^ A- • confession of the seTieral co^«  gregations of churcbes^of €)hHiBt in London^ which are common^ ly, though unjaiStlyi4?tfled Axxm^- bapHsts, printed la' ]'653.^^ '

In 1786^ all the Baptist"^ chnrchcs in Scotland wei^ i^-' greed in their r^igi^us senfii' ments and praetif^ bift of la^^- years Tarious classes of this de*? nomination have sprMg up'in' thid part of the iinited krnf^om,' who have rtd* coni^lii)^ with the^ original iiocieties, nor in- deed With OTie another, but have' feraied themsdves info snrlaY^'

'*'. •

r.. -i

• flume** ^WOT, vol. i»ip^flft..,.i

  1. Buck*^ Theological Diet. Knox's

t J4o3hcJ40, T«L iy. p; ^3.' Ksiinys, vol. i.p. 281

J869, then) »et^ filteeji Bap- this one crtnsidei-ation, ' tfcB

tist churches in Sfcottam) ; &m wliU^ there is a pewoct ailtl in^

flieif onmbcTol' late jeai-s have fatliWe staiitfaru, by wMcb» if

roii^Wei-ahlyinci'e.ised. in En- it Ite reallj- tbllowcil, neittlre^

gland and Wales there ai^ a churches iloiiiidiviilUal3'(*bli^

few churiiies, and smaller so- led astray ; it is efiually iinraa-

ciftica who are of the same, sonable and dangerous ts Cofl-'

faith and onW with (]ie ma- pie witli it one, which', i^JM

[oritj of their brethrenin Scot- nature of things, tdost (w nn-

laiidj and consi.'(juently distinct jteifect. Aside iroiH ' the ^Mfr^

fi-om tl)e two great bodies, nineuuB doctrines rotatalneil'^i^

known by the names of Gcner- conlessions of feith, th^ ^^-

al and fai-t^ular Baptist. approve of them, bct^ausf. tbc^

Many,oftlic Scotch Baptists, are used as standards o^ tmto xniurig whnm is a church in in addition to the word of Gu'd* Edinlinr^li. fonuedin the jcar and consequently are en^i^ li"65, liiiVe. adopted some of the to cramp, or circuniscribe, iUl pcciiliarsciifimentfiof Ml". San- further advancement in, Mli dcirian. Like him, they r-e- knowledge of divine tWitfci'rtft ject e\T,ry doctrine, how much they are by no means •^^ti^liM Boevcr ii tuiiy he qualified, and with a general acknowleSgini^ibt refined, which makes a sin- that the bible la tin- Avoid of ner's a'ccfptanre with God in God, and nn inlitllihic stand- any respect to depend upon his afd. They mainiain thai the own vii-t'iioTia actions, his ^ood sense in which a m;in undcr- dispositionR, Ilia deviitional ex- .-^ands )lie scripturcst (^oinSi ercises, or his endeavours to tntes his faith j and itiertWl'^ prepare and nunlU'y himself for they bate no ctHtat)^^ bcingma^IcftpartakcrofClirist, tbowwbo do iMtb^ft, they suppose faith signifies aim- ment *ifli themitt.ifi^ ply belifving or' giving credit of scriptbrft, -vrfthrtiriiSAft't toi the divine record. They erythijAg; th*y Oeiixlf^ ' ^ ^ave also adopted ttiatiy of the tollitlrittltji aoflioirW. ... usages of the Sandeniaitian.s, as , Th^"1;ettc1^et^ 'WiiHk'*'m observing the love feasts, ttle S(^Mt^ ' BatitistiJ' aM'"^A(SfM kiss of cUa.ri|^, and partaking among thei;* brethren) wit (^ the Lord'^:»tppei' every first atte:mpt;rig'to,furm,tlii^4; day of the wetk., &c. into a se)iarate class ;' wnd

The Scotch Baptists reject official ohantctcr - «i'^iey

rre^s, litnr^es. and confes- BUstam, givcA thera no'^rvisiii^

^ons of fkith, and acknowledge inctice Whattiver in ai' W6tr^<^ i

no standard of faith and prac- point of view. Their cbun^^

tice.aiiioQg Christians, except likemostof tho^ of Qfe,9liier '

divine revelation itself, and Baptists, maintaiB' closft otOr



,^,Thfi, ieKjJBliue Mf^ f^^ordi j, Jfor wjiicb fi-eedom the

^VPUiinent of tlieif cligrciietj s^noif voW Uiiri censurable,

V^ ntrktly cougregationat.* and oidei-cd bjm to be peliiked

,*SC0TIST8, tfi(e.fi>Up\'vf;rsof itt their bar. Be, and tlu-e8

pujis SrotU4, EL Cui'ddiu'f wliQ utltei' . ministers, pi-Qt^sted a-

BmiuUiiucdlin; jmniatuUtecoii- gainJit fbis sentence, mid ap-

ceptidii of the Virgin Mar^, {lealed to ttir, next assembly,

in opposition to Atiuiiias and The assembly approved of tb^

ti/^ti 'i'iiouijsts.f procctdingB of the synod, and

.|.SEtJEi),ERS, a numerous ordered Mr. Ei'siiine to be re-

ofifly of, Prcslijtei'ians in Scot- buljed at theirbar. He refus-

l^d. WI19 adhere to tlje doc- eil to submit to the rebuke ■

uiiRe and discipli/icpftbcir an- whence ho and his I)retbl%l\

<;e^tpr.St aud inalntaiu the bind- were suspended from the 'minl^

iflg obligation of the Scotch try, after which tlit^ seeded

Cj^YP^anti and of the aolcniii from the national clifiih:h. They

te^ue iuid c»Tenaiit of the were joined by o^eis ; andth^

W^c natifliis4 They ahvays nujiisters and their elders whi

Ifllyc declared that they did not declared their necpssion from

Sfedc from tl^c priuciplea of thenationalcharcli, did in 1738

e church of Scotland, as they constitute tliemselves into aii

are represented in her confos- ecclesiastical court, which they

^^on wffaitli, catechisms, longer called the Associate i'rtsbytcry.

M^ shorter, directory for wor- In 1*45, the seceding niinw-

i^fp, and fnriD of prcahyferian ters were become so numerous,

gpyprpmeivt; hut only from her that they were erected into

p^!;^|it judicatories, who, they three different preshytcrics, un-

wppf^t h^ye 'R«lbnTii.tion. The lolemn leigiM Wf)PRTW7' l?,aii.(»»J:li, TlyKhinlW!! wai Ufcen by persons of all rants in the three kintnto™ ;' it was iptenOed to Bfing iboilt an uti'iformitj in doctriBt,

iMMi, tuflwdpship'. ■'^^•-- '

' ■VHflHtials (SS^hiiitt, iBthnS«dkfiteh, p. fa. Bwwn'* rite Mtd fKgttm



BqUi clu0es of the 8eoed- eWf wod the Relief Kirk, in- cludingy in IBllf abont three hundred miBittors in Sootlandy are strict Freflbyteriansy not- withstanding their seceesion or dissent from the Scotch estah- Ushment.

8ECUNDIANS, the foUow- ers of Secundus, a disciple of Valentine. See Vakntiinians.

SEEEJIRS, a denomination which arose in the year 1645. They dtanred their name from their maintaining that the true churchy ministry 9 scriptnrey and ordinances were lost* for which they were Mefein^. They taught tliat the scriptures were ohscure and doubtful — ^that present mi- racles were necessary to war- rant faith-— 4hat the ministry of modern times is without author- ity — and their worship vain and useless.*

^SEEKSy a religious sect at Patiia iu India, being a sort of Hindoo deists— differing from iHitli the Mahometans and the worshipped of Brahma. Mr. Wilkins describes them as a very harmless people, founded by one Naneek Sak, about four renturies ago. He wrote a book of his principles in verse, inculcating the doctrines of one supremo omnipresent Being, and of a future state of rewards ami punishments. It enjoins all the moift! virtues, particu- lai'ly philanthropy and hospi-

taltty; Thegr Imto a Uiri <--6. TiaA

%IWr 8oQiiuiut«biucbes in Tran- man, boni free» was conaeqiient

H^ij'Mi'Kt attdwho t^poBcd with \y capable trf remsling 4he ib-

Omrt >zM)-the .worriiip of Jesm flaencaB of grace, or.uf ttun^-

VimaiH, ^i^ii,!Jt,-afpeium, was iog^ith its BUj^astinw;

^^iHOBUe aenBe.« ■tron^j de- The Felagiana ai^-Seni-Pe^

fiJide^dtj'iEhKinus; and David, la^^ans differ in tiiia'ceapect;

4w.^|K^Bal|w)nce (^ tenaciouHly the former asaert thktthnre is

Cohering to.faia.own opinions,' no necessity for iaward grace;

  • ^(H-,tbraKH,tntD.pboi], where but the latter muotaiii th^

1bitb#ei|iAtaJ*-advance4a^ His no persons can advance in vir-

.^|i^h(Hi!CTf!ih.didnat4ie with tue without the aasiatanee of-

'%Katiiw4fiounaa^ edOeorge Whitfield* and other

IrT-P£LAGIANS, .a itinerant preachen. Soon af-

banch of the Pelagians in tilie. tw these reformers, who were

^f entury. Tlte laonk Cae- at first called Ifksv Lights, and

(jfA was the leader of this de- afterwards Separates, were or-

■l^inatiun. In ni'der..;to ac- ganised into distinct societiea,

UJownOd^te tlw dttTerence , hfr> tbey were joined by Shnbal

t«^n. Augustin and Celagiu^- Steams, a native of BostoDf

li^'.imaintiuncd the Inlawing wboibecomii^ a preacher, la-

do^trineti :^1. That' G«d- did boured among tbem until 1751*

not. dispense bis ^vK^ Jioom when be embraced the senti-

Ja^Cfi than to sinuthtir, iacnn- ments of the Baptists* as many

aoquence of the decree of pre- others of the Pedobaptist Sepa-

destination ; but was willing to rates did abont this time. He




VFBS onlained'the same year ho Mas baptized, in Tolland, Con- necticut; but afterwards re- moved fi-om New England^ and settled in North Carolina.

Mr. Stearns, and most of the Separate?^, had stnwig faith in the immediate teachings of the Spirit They believed that to those who sought him earnest- ly, Gk>d often gave evident to- kcn§ of his will. That such indications of the divine pleas- ure, partaking of the nature of ins[)irati()n, wci*e above, though not contrary to reason ; and that following these, and lean- ing in every step upon the same wisdom and power by which thev were first actuated, they would inevitably be led to the accomplishment of the two great objects of a christian's life, the glory of Gt)d, and the salvation of men.*

SERVERlANS,asmall par- ty of Gnostics, in the second century ; so called from Ser- vcrus, who is said to have taught that the world was made by principalities and powei*s ; a?id that the devil is the son of the great prince of the princi- pal ities.f SERVERTTES,apartyofthe Monophysites, called after Scr- verus, a monk of Palestine ; the same (or nearly so,) as the .^71- gelites* in the fifth century.

SERVETIANS, a name vrhich in the sixteenth century distinguished the followers of Michael Servetus, a very learn-

ed and ingenious Spanlal^* ' He Is said to have tauglif that ^ tte Deity, betoi-e the ci^eation^iif tW world, had produced -wftMl himself two personal i-epmin^ tations, or mannorB -of^'MWii cnce, which were to MrHMiih dium of intercoui«ebelwWi him and mortals, and iiy^^iriliishi consequently lie was ^to^theMMl his will, and display hil^hMMfo^ and beneficence to the ^cMlftrn of men :---that theel6«tnyY^u^ sentatives were thef'WdwI^ltttl the Holy Ghost-Jthat llitt*'!* nier was united toISic^<>iAtk Christ, who was bt^rnti^fltlftf Virgin Mary by an oiktSl^iisMi act of the divine wilts*' 'ItttfHMt on this account Christ jhittMlfb properlv called^^dM-^Sifl^tk Holy Spirit directed CM boMN^ and animated the whole^i9]Fifili of nature ; and more ^^Sffp^cM- ]y produced in the mindd iif riidi wise counsels, virtuoiis^pni|MI- sitie^, and divine feelffiga A rt l finally, that these two r^rMA- tations were, after the dfixstriM- tion of this globe, to bo obsmV* ed into the snbstanceof th^Dii- ty, whence they had been f of ok-

ed/* '■■ Z';^

Servetus denied infafil Ml^ tism, and maintained, thiil^ man ought to be ponij^hdiffi^t criminal fQr ahy poitit^^iAfe- tnne. This was m>t tile Opt- ion of the -age, nor of the* in- formers. For it is a^rfiidf that wlien Servetus'hadesrflp^ from his pi^oif at t^eni^fe? and was travelling through Swit-

• Benedict's Hist, of the Baptists, vol. ii p. 87.

t Brougliton, toL i. p. 340. IIearil*s Ductor Hlstor. voL il ii> fOl.




HEirlatid in 'Op!>deF to seek refuge

lii Itaiy^ Calvin caused liim to

he appreheoded at Geneva. in

Ae 3^ear IddSy and had ahiap-

ovsation of blasphomy bttiugfM)

gainst, him before the qounciL

The issue of thvi. accusatioQ

^'aa fatal to ServetiiS) who^ ad-

Ji^ring i?esolute]y to the opin-

Ibna he had emhracedy was, by

^public. sentence of the court,

^iectoted ,an obstinate heretic,

-and condemned to tlic flames.

Aoi-secution for opinions was

.JtSf^nf^y supported by the hab-

.^yn,,of.:thc sixteenth century ;

-silld all the reformers, as well

iPi^{Gaiyinf were advocates for

^[Jllfprseoutiony when applied to

•^1 SETHIANSv 80 called be- .^use they paid high honours to ^fjMJ^ whom, it is said, they look-

  • |l^ 'Upon to be Jesus Christ ;

ihA kei'6 (as Jjardner remarks) •4Plipt be some mistake, bex:ause lfll9^ said Christ waai descended •fi^pm Seth in a miraculous way, i<< losing the desire of love and power with which they first set out," and the latter being of shoi*t continuance, << their ex- traordinary communications have long ago ceased. This testimony was revived in the persons of" James Wardley, a taylo^ by trade, and Jane his wife, who wrought at the same occupation." — " And the work under them began at Bolton and Mancliester in Lancashire, a- boutthe year 1747." They had belonged to the society of Qua- ker, but receiving the spirit of the French prophets, and a far- ther degree of light and power, by which they were sepamted from that community, they con- tinued for several years discon- nected from every denomina- tion. During this time their

pose the pre-existent soul of testimony, according to what • out ••Mie^ifear one hundred aiid ninc- Atff^^iVm] continued above two f))i^re«I yeai-s.! Kun S0 AKERS, In the account

and revelation from God, was,

  • < that the second appearance of

Clirist was at hand, and that the chui*ch was rising in her full and tran8cendentglory,which would affect tlrc final downfall of Anti- christ." « From the shaking of their bodies in religious exer-

• Mosheitn, vol. iv. p. 172, 173. Memoirs of Literature, vol. iv. p. 199«  Erskine'o Sketches of Eccles. History, vol. ii. p. 277-

t IM!l9U£hton^ voL.il. p. 390^ . Larclner's Heretics, p 333. &c.




oiws th^ are called Sfiflkisfs^ or Skflking Qnakera. Ttiis fiftme they acknowledge to be proper. Fop say thcy^ « The work which Git>d' promised to accomplish in the latter day, was vtiiinently marked out by the prophets to be a worl^ of Shak- ing; and hence the name (though by the world intended for deris- ion) was very properly applied to the peopte; who were both the subjects and instruments of the work of God in the latter day/'

The work went on under Wardley, tffl the year 1770, when a new impulse wa» given to the society by Anne Leese, who became a distinguished leader of this denomination. This woman declared herself «tt« Elect Lady,** the woman spoken of in Rev. xii. and the mother of all the eledJ* To such as addressed her with the customary titles used by the world, she would reply, *'Iafn ^imCf the Word,^ signifying, that in her dwelt the wo^. She was received and acknowledged, b^ the Shakers, << as the first mother, or spiritual parent in the line of the female, and the second heir in the covenant of life, according to tlic present display of the gospel.^ Hence among believers, she has been distinguished by no other name or title than that of mother. Her followers assert, that she was the instrument to introduce the glory of the latter day.

The manner of worship, of

tbis denottritiHticM^liyitto'^SttofN. cises used in' their public tasmi- blies are shakihg' and taneiA- btihg,singing and dancing, lei^ ing and shouting! and^ ftecora- Ing to their acCoiM^ <« «s w^rdhi the work, knew perfectly ■Wkttt these things iheknt, ' and >Mt therein the greatest possibto<<|f:juM- ment commencedi?' ■• '• -^'n In 1774, Anne Leese, $snA^ number of her followers,' t^riio complained of being peMMttkfl in MancTvester, set saQ-'Cmii Liverpool for Neir Torkw • a^- ing joined by others, ttiey M- tlc^ at Nisqueunia neaP'^DdhiU ny ; whea« they have iajlraAI their opinions, and ifi^innitedlD a (Considerable niiMber. The persevering efforts of this aoel- ety multiplied the cotiv^nitf-ib their doctrines. Anne^'ILeeM, and her elders, used to delight • in missionary joumeyi3«' being out for two or three yeai^v ima returning with Wonderftd ac- counts of their success. : » :.' : Anne Leese died in 1784,*

  • ) his denomination appears to suppose, that the divinity dwelt in Anne




Junes Wh^RchermicceededfhiB jfilect la0y» but dying in 17879 JEohn HockneUy the last of the J&tiropeant bandy took the lead^ jokd he died 17995 in the seven- ^Igr.Bixth year of his age. Jo- ^«eph Meacham^ and Lucy j^M'^rigbty were the next admin- jstrators of this spiritual lun^-

,.: It appears from a work of the .jUiakers, published at Albany «1810, entitled, << The Testimo- iHy of Christ's second appear- tfincef &c. that in the delinea- .4ion of their doctrines this de- rAomination are exceedingly inystical and obscure j it is tALQch easier te pronounce neg- .^vely leather than positively gCOQceming them* They are ^neither Trinitarians nor Satis- ffactionists. They deny also .Ibe- imputation of Adam's sin to his posterity; the doctrine of i«lection and reprobation, as well -MS the eternity of future pun- liahiBents. And in their chap- iter on the resurrection, the re- .fllbcitation of the body is deni- ed very positively, and at great length. They reject the cele- ilMHtion of water baptism and 'tite Lord's supper. Of) The tenets, on which theSha- ^hwB most dwell, are those of hu- ^-nan depravity, and of the mi- xacuIboflM effusion of the Holy -Spirit. Their leading practical lenet is the abolition otmarriage^ or indeed the total separation of the sexes. The ^senco of their argument is, that the i*e3unHH;-

tion spoken of in the new testa- ment means juothing more than conversion I our Saviour de- clares that in the resurrection they neither ntorrj/, nor are giv' en in marriage, therefore on the conversion or the resurrection of the individual, marriage ceases. To speak more plain<^ ly , the single must continue sin- gle, and the married must sep- arate. Eveiy passage in the gospel and in tixe episties is in- terpreted according to this hy- pothesis. In particular they endeavour to support their cqpin- ion from 1 Cor. vii.

This denominatioh asserts, that the day of judgment is past, and consider their testimony as a new dispensation, which tihey call Ckrist^s second appearance^ In which they are not to be guid- ed so much by the scriptures, as by the influences of the Holy Spirit. They pretend to have the power imparted to them of working miracles; and have re- lated several instances of super- natural cases, attested by viit- nesses, &c« <<eese, as truly as in Christ ; and that in her, his second coming to judge the vorld was verified.




leading parts of worsliip, eape.- cially aUuding to the return of the prodigal, while the elder aon^ diHiiking music and daiie- ingy represents the natural man condemning their soul-reviving practices.*

SEMONIANS, the suppos- ed followers of Simon Magus, whose history is recorded in Acts viii. 9 — S4. He is said to have been the founder of the Grtiostics, but this is denied by others, who consider him as a total apostate from cliristianity, and refuse him^ even the honour of being a heretx«f See Gnos*


•SIMONISTS, aname given to persons who pui*chase holy orders, in allusion to the crime of Simon Magus, just referred to.

SINTOOS, the ancient idol- aters of Japan. Sec Javcmtse.

SOCIETY OF THE VIC TIMS. On the 23d of June, 1804, an imperial decree was issued for the suppression of those associations, known un- der the names of Fathers of the Faiths adorei'S of Jesus or Psu canaristes. This decree was provoked by a report of Porta- lis, minister of worship; are- port exti-emcly well written, printed, but not published. It has been translated into Grcr- man, and therein speaks of a

ment the

llcligfious Denominations, edit. X:>.

secret society of Yicttms^ con- cerning whick society the fol- lowing account has been giv^ n by Gregoire, in his learned work, styled, ** Histoire Oes Sectes Beligeuses.?' •■ .< u

Catnerine de Bar ?ras barR at Lorraine in 1619* fi)be esn tablishedt in the year 165ir>idly.i,iik France. Siie adopted the jplUe of SL Benedict, but with somo modifications, which she. ta^ plained in a work, entitlo^ «< The true spirit of the pery^ ual religious worsluppers 't^ the most holy sacrament .oCttty^ altar." The praper charaotiff of these nuns was tkait>or biding Victims, to expiate the sins com*' mitted against Jesits Cbritft im the celebration of the euduiriAtk Each day one of the ReUgiaw i-emains in hei* retreat firDm mattins until vespers. , HwiCii^ fice is to be the QxpiatorTi.SSo^ tim. When the sisters gO'^^if their dining room, the ^IVictiR^ is the latit to leave tfittd cfaom She appears with a oovdnbioirt her neck, and a torch ^dnr-'liQr hands. Wlien they^baW' f|H taken their places, she rediHlidip them that they are M^Wie^m^ immolated for the sakctoL-*^ sus Christ; she then Jiowa lt0|t- self, returns to the clioii^ i^tr

J Mosheim's Eccles, Hist, vol i. p 115 Diipin's Church Hist. vol. i. p. 29. Kormey's Eccles. Hist. vol. i. p. 21. Calmcl's Dictionary, vol. ii.




ing dinner^ and remains there until alter vespers, like a victim separated from the flocks and destined for sacriUce.

Regnauld, a curate of Yaux, author of a work, entitled, «*Thc JVIystery of Iniquity/' makes mention of a work, en- titled, «Les Galarics,** pub- lished in 1754, a species of mysticism in favour of convul- sions. In the fourtli galcric of Elias, tho author assei^ts, <* The victims are of the greatest im- portance. They are devoted fifir every crime, and each of them bears different parts in the sacrifice of Jesus Christ. Tliis character will make them kniown to the Gentiles. The despair of the victims will ex- piate pi'esumptuous confidence, is the sacrifice of Jesus Christ 4n the ci*o«^ has represented Uid expiated the sins into which mankind hi^ fallen. They rirast bear to be culpable in the eyesof men, that they may com- |d[et0 what is wanting in the (MdAsion tit our Saviour. They dlliBt bear the burdens of the iuig<*d her litei*ary career her active spir- it exercised itself on ascetic subjects. Many of her works




jhaye been ationymoudy pub- iUhed b^ her i^ii-ers. Sucb as ** Edifying liisti-ilctioiis on the iasUng o|\ Jesus Cbristia the desert ;" a9d» ** The xuan- uel of the. Victims of Josusji or ]bxtnu.as fi om the instriuiioiis nvhich ihe Lord has given tu his first victims." 1 his last work appeai-ed in 1799» a volume in octavo of four hundi-ed pages.

In 1774, writing to Beau- mont* archbishop of Paris» she preflicted that God viras about to execute his judgments on the liationst to punish a tenth part of the earthy and to choose a new people ; but first he would es- tablish those victimsy who would constantly immolate themselves to him* The Abbe de Garry would be their director. France, which had been the first chris- tian kingdom, and which had distinguished itself by the puri- ty of its faith, and its piety tow- ards the holy virgin, would be the cradle of this new people, if its perversity did not deprive it of ■ this benefit. If France rejected tlic Victims, Grod would take away its provinces; he would raise up a strange prince to devastate and enslave it. She pretended to foresee that the Spanish nation was to be the in- strument of Grod's vengeance. Great calamities would then fall upon the capital ; the cler- gy, secular as well as regular, would be humbled ; the sanctu- aries would be abolished, in or- der to punish those who ought to have been their ornaments

and glory, .Tbign^vapttbliah- ed in 1791. .

- ■ • ■

In ^ letter to t^wia JiY^i)ieii sick, Maijam Bi'oiion ultmi|lp^ es the Almighty 99 a Mfdifl^f and demands iu ^13 iWW3lUd» am- Victoire. to kd am.vi tibif victims. Sophia dii^-P^aiMh^ the daughter of a Notenr. df Peronne, a novitiate ,^ ^||i# Benedictines de Gmnepfi. JpQUt taire, was also to he pQdiqCt^ victims. The number vaft^fii^ ed at twelve to. represent :t)i|i jv* postolic college with the wni^ attributes. The college of- Y^Cr tims was composed of an jQqi||f| number of* men and- Wfmmt The latter would bagfi^thi^rbflik^ our of beginning 1;)iei«§]i|F;iiJ|| sion; 1. as an effect of 1^)|^ of Jesus Christ for bjf»«;Mb| mother ; fi. in order tp. ^iniMt the fidelity, of the wom.ep M^.f^t sus Christ in the coprfi^^of |l|^ mortal life and piissioi|«;,.^.^pp| order to humble the mil sex, who abuse thQir auj and to provoke their. j^afowKf when thiey see the ste^jpf te^ni women. The m^Ie ^.yicti|D|| would be clothed with ^ m^ cerdotal garments. T]|A/im| men, however, woi^d iiq^ j^ subordinate to them } thej^ 9(qv knowledge no superiour but,^ bishops; but they would, pgr% serve a great re«Epect: fQC .||^ body of pastors, united .^ thf Pope,thelieadofthetniechi|nq^ who would recdve an augiQjpii- tation of power over, faitfifid souls. Some auxiliaries vro^ form a body for reserve out oT

80C its 80C

  1. hli:h the successors of the Vic- nasteries. The Victims will be

tims would be choseif. the vine and body oftlie churchi ' The VictimB, weanling to Enoch and Eliiis will preside." their own (iccotint, ai-e predict- The greatest crimes are coin- ed in the bible j ■withoirt them milted between six o'clock in en esNentin! part of the Messi- the evening and two in the ah would fail, They will be innrntng; the Victims pass that established near Jesas Christ, time in prayer, and'i-ccite ma- to fnJfll the same fiinctions i'or tinsat midniglit. Mm that he has fulfilled for bis Each Victim has suspended leather. There are, say they, t« her neck a silver medal, on wine faithful souls, who have which is engraven the sacred grace enough to ensm-e their hearts of Jesus and Mary, to ewn salvation ; but not enough which they owe a perfect devo- Hfr immolate themselves to di- tioTt.

Trtt the plague which menaces Madam Brobon, being ttie

ftehuman species. The Vic- first Victim, it willnotbefound

iiliis' are consecrated to do it by surprising that she was adorned

^ho maintain the qpii^ humanity of Christy differ.j^HNa Socinus in many thinp ; rar- ticulai*ly as to the miraculc^ conception, and in notpayhigr^ ligious worship to Jesus 'ChT&^ M hich was a point thatFauSfaoyi Socinus vehemently insisted^dii. See HuTnanitarianSmj

Socinus allowed that tihe fi- tle of Gfod might be given '^ Christ; because hehada^nju divine power and dominion In^ stowed upon him, to q[QJ|fiCf him to take care of the coiK^^riu of christians, and to heai^uA answer their prayers, thoii j[b!^ was originally nomorethan^ human creature. ^ "^

There were some among flf6 early Socinians who diisappr^li^r ed of the worship pa^' to Christ ; and at present, it Is S- greed among all Unitarians^jili^ the Supreme God in one pj^^k^itm is the only object of reli'gii^ worship. See UnUarianSm 7^

Socinus was a strict P^a^& in his sentiments respecting 1^^^

■ its

  • Socinus, and some of his followers, entertained a notion of Chriat'a haaniig

been, in some unknown time of his life, taken up personaTIv into heaven, ancla^t down a^in to the earth, which was the way, in which they solved these ezprei- tions conceming* him : John i il IS, .\h man haA ageend^d up to heaven^ but kt i^ cawe dnvH ft^om heaven^ f^en the Son ofmaatfhichit in Aeooea. Thus Motes, yf^ was the type of Christ, before the promulppition of the la w, ascended .to God upqn Mount Sinai. So Christ, before he entered i»n the office assigned him by {he n- ther, was, in consequence of t)ie divine OMmsel and agency, translated intohCB.- ven, that he migfht see the things he had to announce to the worlds in the name of iiod liimself.

t The terms, Socinians and Humanitarians, are used to denote aU Unit^ rians who deny the prc-csislence of Christ. See Tatet' Sequel^ P* At ■


. ' 275-


naturej; and the diyine de- jpiees. Seid Pelagians. "^, The Sociniims differ {rom the Arians in. the following partic-

.. The Sociniahsi assert^ flii^ Christ watf simply a man* and consequently had no existence liefpre h|s birth and appear- ance in this world. The Ari- ^ns miuntain that Christ was 9t super-angelic being, united to ^k hunian body : that, though he yEB^ himself created) he was the ^creator of all other things un- !|4er Gk>d9 and the instrument of «tt tib^ diyine communications to ^thepatriarchs.

,' The Socinians say that the j^Soiy Ghost. is the power and .,>risdom of God, which is Gt)d. ,]31ie Arians suppose, that the tBoIy Spirit is the creature of the .J^n» and subservient to him in .;^e work of redemption. ,^^-^_j! The ^Qcinians flourished ■T ^y eatly in Poland about the r^^ 1551, and J. Siemienius, itine of Podolia, built pur- ely for their use the city of in. A famous catechism »^ WjiB published by them, called !^^ Sacovian catechism ; but it never obtained ^mong this de- jDomination the authority of a ^Ubb confession,or rule of faith. ^vTheir most able writers are ^faio^m by the title of the Fra- ^frfes. Poloiiitf or Pitilonian Brc- ^Iren. Their writings were re- •ipublished together, in the year

1656, in one great collection, consisting of six volumes in fo- lio, under the title of Bibliotheca Fratrum. An account of these authors may be seen in Dn Toulmin's Life of Socinus.*

SOLDINS, the foUowers of Soldin, a Greek priest, about the middle of the fifth centuryt who, in the mass, it is said, of* fered gold, incense and myrrh, in memory of the like offerings made by the Magi.f

^^SOMNITES, orthodox Jlfc. hometans, which see.

  • SOUL-SLEEPERS, aterm

sometimes applied to Material- ists, because they admit no in- termediate state between death and the resurrection.

SOUTHCOTTIANS, the foUowers of Joanna Southcotty who was born in 1750. In 179^9 she assumed the charac- ter of a prophetess, and the number of people, who have joined with her from that peri- od to the time of her death, as believing her to be divindy in- spired, is considerable. She declared that she was the wo- man in the wilderness, spok- en of Rev. xii. 6; and having first excited the feelings of her adherents, gave them, sealed passports, which were called her seals, and which were i^ protect them from the judg- ments of the present and future world. She next called upon them to sign their nsunes for

^;n . ■-. ■

  • For an account of the Socinian divisionsi see Biddelians, Budneians^ and

Utoib iiians; -^^ .

t Brouf^ton^rtl. ti. fL J60l



276 .


Cbrist's glorious and peaceable kingdom to come qHin tho earth, and for satan's to be dc«  strayed. The saUed qftlie Lord, Elect, Precious, ^c were then written on a piece of paper ; and Joanna affixed her 8igna- tui*e« Each of the seals being then signed, the impression of the seal of the pro[«hetess was made on the outside, with wax. Her followers placed implicit confidence in her cei*tificates ; and it is said, that some w)io were actually dying, ordered these seals to be buried with them as a passport to heaven,

Hor predictions were deliv- ered boti) in ])roRe and verse, and contained, besides Rome personal threatenings, denim- ciations of judgments on the Buri*ounding nations, and a promise, of the speedy approach of the millennium* The whole purport of her predictions was, she said, to warn the world at large that the second coming of Christ is nigh at hand ; and to show from the fal|, that the promise, which was made to tho woman at fu^t, must be accomplished at last, and in li r sex too, before man's com- plete redemption can take place.

In the course of Joanna's mis- sion, as she called it, the desire of increasing her followers* in- duced her to itinerate through different paiiis of England, par- ticularly at Bristol, Leeds, &c.

Slie met with folk>w«*s In most, directions, especially at Leeds^ where her cause greatly flours ' islied. Having satisfied faei'self witi) beii^ an itinerant, J oann* finally settled near the metra^ poli^. Uer leading chapel was - in Ouke-street, ht. G«orge*8 Fields, in the viciuity otthe Obelisic ; \\hei-e Iter high priests- Mr. W. Tozer, presided, and. where the liturgy of the church* ^ ■ of England was read, prepar*! ^^ atory to the scrmonic elucida* - tion of her pregnosticarien&' ^ They had a clioir of singers, her poetry supplying UieiB' with f hymns. Anxious to be ir^gard*" ed as within Ihe tickno'aiedgedi" pale of the chriatian chiircJW.';. notwithstanding their ec^entri^ i cities, the sacrament was regt»-' larly administered aBiongrtli6in>:- . and they even affected to coh»- - sider themselves in thepbarac» i tcr of members of the estab^ lishment.

Joanna continued to >gaiB>. proselytes, to whom she mwim -^ the mast magnificent promiseft' - of wondeiful events^ which would shoiily be arcompliaked in her person ; but her 4eatb^= which took place in 1814, dis- appointed their raised expecta!* tions, and exposed tliem to the- derision and contempt of.vtite enemies of the pretended pre^ plietess. Those, who wish: for a more detailed account of this-- woman, are referred to tlw statement of the life, predic-

  • She asserteil, that her followers were ta make up the scaled number d

one hundred and fort^'»fpur thousandi to stand with the XAmb on Mount ^ioiv




tionS) and death of the Exoter prophetess; see also Hughson's Historj of Religious Impos- tures, and Carpenter's i Mis* si6naiy Magazine. SOU TH-SEA ISLANDERS are fae inhabitants of the So- ciety^ Friendly 9 Sandwich^ and 8ome other Islands ; of none of which have we so much or so correct knowledge as that of Otaheite, (or rather Taheite,) to wluch therefore the following account principally, but not exclusively, refers.

They in general acknowledge au^almighty Creator of the uni- verse, who executed the vari- ous parts of the creation by subordinate powerful beings. They acknowledge a something within them, which sees, hears, stnells, tastes, and feels, which Qicy call eteeliee ; and they be- fieve that after the dissolution of the body, it hovers about the Corpse, and at last retLfes into the wooden representations of Ituman bodies, erected near the J^ijrying places. They expect ^ future happy life An the sun, '^vhcre they shall feast on bread- ftniit, and meat which requires "tio dressing : and they direct their prayers to the supreme di- vinity, or Eatooa-Rahau

The name Eatooa admits a very great latitude in its inter- pretation. Each of the islands Las a tutelar deity, which is al- ways the divinity, to whom the high priest of the isle addresses bis prayer, at the grand morai of the prince. The great deity, or Rntma-Mahtih they consider

as the primary cause of all di- vine and human beings; and suppose the inferiour deitie-^, and even mankind, are descend- ed from him and a female dei- ty, for which n^ason they call him the great proci-eating stem. They imagine a co-existing material substance necessary, which they called O-te-pa-pa. These procreated O^hee-naaf the goddess of the moon ; the gods of the stars, (whom they call the chihli*en of the sun and moon ; ) of the seas, and of the winds. But the sea is under the direction of thirteen divini- ties, who have all their peculiai* employment. Their supreme god lives in the sun, and is thought to be the cause of eartli- quakes. They have one infe- riour genius, of a malignant dis- position, residing near the mo- rai, or burying places, and in or near the chest including the heads of their deceased friends, each of which is called the bouse of the evil genius. The people think that when a priest invocates this evil genius he will kill, by a sudden death, the person on whom they intend to bring down his vengeance. — They have another inferiour di- vinity, who liad the same [wwer of killing men, witli this differ- ence, that he is worshipped only by hissing. This is called TeC'lue^ which, they say, is the being that hears, smells, tastes, and feels within us, and after death exists separately from the body, but lives near burying places, and bovers round the

(lead. TheM7%e-Au« are like- geri^ird Sx^'or&btp they fa'aVe '£

vise feared : because, accord- kind of dii penates, ur hous((-

infr to their belief, they creep hold gods. Eachfamiljbasi^

daring the night into houses, guar^n spirit, who is 3uppoB« 

and eat the hearts and entrails to be due of their departed t^.

of people sletniinc^therein, and latives, who, foi his superiwf

cause their death. excellence, has heen exaltOd t^

These islanders honour th^r an Eatooa. Fhej suppose thlf

(HTinities by prayers, by setting spirit can inflict sickness, or i^

qiart certain days for religious move it, and preserve {hem

«arahip,*by consecrating cer- from a m^ignaiit deity, who Ui

tain persons and places for that always employed in misChttx;

pnrpose, and by offering humaa Some of the Otaheitans an

HBcriflces, which are generally very devout, and not only are

^her prisoners of war, or con- the whattas, or offbnng plac^

denmed male&ctors.* They of the niorais, commonly loadw

|pre|iare those oblations on their with fruits and ^imftls, ba

Bontis. there are few houses w here yol

The deities of Otabeite are do not meet Avith a '•mall Jilais

nearly as numerous as the per- of the same sort nuir theiqP

MRS of the inhabitants. Every They imagine that their pun^

flunily has its Tee, or guardian tual pcrtbrmanct of relieioiiitf

^irit, whom they set up and offices prepares for them evert

wwship at the morai : but they temporal blessing Tlil>j ftS

have a great god, or gods of a lievc that the animating anJt

SDperionr order, denominated powerful influence of tic divin^

Fwhannw Po, or born of night. Spirit in evti y w hei c diffused

The general name for deity, in and that sudden dtatlis, ind aft

all its ramifications, is Eatooa. accidents, are effected bj (he

Three are held supreme in ce- immediate action of sftmc dni-

lestialdignity.which are called, nity; and they ha^eaomcn(^.'

Tone, te Medooa, the Father j tion of a metcinpsyckasu, w

Onmattow, Tboa tee te Myde, transmigration of the sonl. a^£

God in the Son; Taroa, Mm- that itrelurnseicntuaUy intore-

MM te Raoor the Bird, the Spir- union with the su]»reme ttertj' it. To these they only address The missionaries, wtio hki-fe"

their prayers in times of very fbr several veics resided ittlTta.

great distress, supposing tliein heite, lia^e found the intiihi-

tD be too highly exalted to be taiits to he cinnibaK, and tlikf

troubled with matteis of less they notonlvsirpifiretheirene-,

moment than the illnej^s of a mies, but cit them be-hdw

chief, storms, devastation, war, which they have a iiomd cus-

or any great calamnity. — For torn of da^jxiying tUeir infcntBi

  • gwttrt Ce e gt a yiiieal Obaermfmns, p. 333,' 334. ■ •■.;;'>' i




h» with their wansi^ has I depopulated thenu How- I as Cluidtiaiiity hasobtain- fluence among themj these have^ in some degree^ dis- ared.

  • om recent intdligencet it

are that many of the inhab- s of these islands have em- lA the christian religion. siud» that the majority of leople of Eimeo have re- ced heathenism, and it is 3sed there are upwards of thousand people in that is- who are professedly the hippers of the true Grod. r are distinguished from countrymen by the name Bure Atua,*' or Praying le. The missionaries at Ei- have printed the Bible in Taheitean language, and number of christians is casing rapidly in Eimeo, Otaheite."*^ See Appendix.

  • INOSISTS, the followers

lenedict Spinosa, a cele- )d Portuguese Jew^ who at the Hague in 1677. He the great champion of the hdstSf (which see,) and his ngs had the more weight use his character was mo- and his language, both in king and writing, decorous inoffensive: so much so, he had many advocates, thought him unjustly ac- i of such principles. In BlhicSf however, a posthu-

mous work» he throws off fho mask, and avows his opinion^ that the DeUy is only another, name for the universe^ « producr ing a series of necessary move-r ments or acts, in consequence of its own intrinsic, immutable* and irresistible energy." It is said that he was seduced into this opinion by the Cartesiaa philosophy."!*

STANCARIANS, disciples of Francis Stancarus, Hebrew Professor at Koningsburgh> ioi the sixteenth century, who taught that Jesus Christ was mediator in quality of a mere man only, and not as God in the form of man.f

•STAROBREDSI, or (M CeremoniaUsts, a numerous sect of Russian Dissenters, 'Who strongly objected to the inno*. vations of Nikon, but do not object to the ordinations of the Mother Church. In 1735 the two churches of Staradubofsk and Vetka amounted to 80,000 membere; but the latter has since been scattered by persecution throughout all Russia and Si- beria ; and many fled into Po«  land about 1764, where this sect is now supposed to amount to several hundred thousands.!

♦STAROVERTSI, believers of the old Faith ,* the namo as- sumed by the Russian Dissent- ers, generally called Rascolniks, which see.

STOICS, a sect of heathen

American Baptist Magazine, 1817> Bayle's Dictionary in Spinosa^

• p. 33S. new edit.

Moeheim, vol. it. p. 338. % Pinki^rtoa'p G^:c;clc. (^urch, p. 390* &c.




pTiilofmpIiera^ of which Zeno, who floiirisiied about thi'ee Hun- dred and filly yeai*s before Christ, was the founder. They xeccived their denomination from a portico at Athens, in which Zeno delivered his lec- tures, llieir distinguishing tenets wei*c — ^I'hat God is un- dcrived, incorruptible, and eternal;* possessed of infinite wisdom and goodness ; the ef- ficient cause of all the qualities and forms of things ; and the constant presenter and gover- nour of the \voild. That maU ter is also undcrived and eter- nal, and by the powerful energy of the Deity impressed with motion and form. That though God and matter subsisted from eternity, the present I'egular frame of natui*e had a begin-

  • ning, and will have an end.

Tliat the element of fire will, at last, by an univei'sal confla- gration, i-cduce the world to its pristine stat/. That at this period all material fonns will be lost in one chaotic mass ; and all animated nature be re- united to the Deity. That from this chaotic state, how- ever, the world wifl again emerge by the energy of the cflicient prinri])lc ; and gods, and men, and all forms of reg- ulated natuiT, be renewed and dissolved, in endless succes-

sion. That alter the revolu- tion of the great year all thiugs will bo re8toi*ed, and the mce of men will return to life. SoBie imagined that each indiyidual would return to its fenBcr body, while others siiKioaed that similar souls woOld -be placed in similar bodies.

Thase among the Stoics; who maintained the existence of-ike soul after death, supposed it ta be removed into the oelestibil rcgi(ms of tho gods, where' it remains until, at the general conflagration, all souls^ butli human and divine, shall be ab- sorbed in the Dei1y» ButtMiiy imagined that, before they were admitted among tho dtviniUtSy they must purge awrny Hmt inhei*ent vices and imperAc- tions, hy a temporary resiinfce in some aerial regions between the earth and the planets. Ac- cording to the gcnei-al doctrine of the Stoics all things aresob- ject to a blind irresistible fatal- ity, even the gods themselves; though some explained this late as meaning only the irresis- tible decrees of divine provi- dence.* It was the object of ■ this philosophy to divest mfn of their passions and affections ; \ they taught, therefore, that a wise man might be happy in the midst of torture, and that all (^Aternal things wci'e to hiiii

♦ Dr. Priestley o])scTves, that ** It is not easy to say what the heathen phi- losophcrs, and others thouj^ht of fate, and the relation the gods bore to it. Sorneti'r.es they srcni to have tlioiif;lit that they directed fate; at other times that i'.'.tc was a j)ower iiulepdidf-nt of ihcm, and that controuk-d tliem. Seneca nfcm^ t,) li:ive tliodcrhl that fate \vas iKHhing" tvjorc than the villcFthe gods tncii»Kcivi..'>,'* Sjc I'rksi ley's IIcatlArn Philosophy, p. 244.




• iiidiffbront Their virtues all arose from^ and centred m '"themselvesy and self-approba- tkm was their great reward.^ i: «STRIGOLNlKa^ the most (anoietit sect of Russian Dis- -senters. Theiy appeared in NoTOgurody and were found- ed by ft half-4;hristian Jew, nam- ' ed Horie, who attempted, after fhe manner of the Ebionites, I'to blend the laws of Moses with tte doctrines of the gospel. f^Tbey were at first inconsider- f - able^ but, bj the absurd system t^ of persecution, were rendered 'irery numerous, and dispersed / ^very extensively.^ ■» STYUJTES, so called by 'r-the Greeks, and Sancti Colum- 'umdriifOr FiUar SahUSf by the ^'■liatins. They stood motion- ^> less upon the top of pillars, ex- rr -pressly raised for this exercise - of dieir patience ; and remain- ' ed there for several years, «-!ainidst the admiration and ap- • ( tplauae of ttie populace. . ) The inventor of this disci- fifline was Simeon, a Syrian,

swimmer in the ocean strikes fireely without the impediments of clothes : that, if mere earthly charms have power to influence the soul, the idea of celestial beauty must overwhelm it in ecstatic light. They maintain also thaty for want of apt words to express the divine perfec- tions and the ardour of devo- tion, we must borrow such expressions^ as approach the nearest to our ideas^ and speak of beauty and love in a tran- scendent and tnystical sense; that, like a reed torn from its native bank, like wax separated from its delicious honey, the soul of man bewails its disun- ion with melancholy music, and sheds burning tears, like the lighted taper, waiting pas- sionately for the moment of its extinction; as a disengagement from earthly trammels, and the means of returning to its only beloved. This theology prevails also among the learn- ed Mussulmans, who avow it without iTserve.*

SUPRALAPSARIANS, a title given ' to those CalvinLsts, who suppose that God, in the decree of election, viewed his people merely as creatures^ (or 1-athcr as to be ci-cated,) and hot as faUen creatures, as is supposed by the Sublapsarians just mentioned.

The Supralapsarians consi- der the divine glory to be the great object of the divine de-

crees, whether in the saivattoix of the elect or the punishment of the wicked. Eph. L 5, 6. Prov. xvi. 4. They conceiva that St. Paul reasons on this principle when speaking of Ja^ cob and Esau — the one electa^ and the other not-**when as yet they had << done neither, good nor evil." That the one was chosen and the other rqecteil on the same principle of Mve* reignty, as the potter appointB ^* one vessel to honour and another to dishonour;" ajid that he has forbidden our fur- ther inquiry by the; questiMf << Who art thou, O nian, that repliest against God Z? 8^ Rom. xi. throughout. FinaUyf they consider this principbtp harmonize best with the easp ' of the dect angelSf whoy wit being permitted to sin^ cooU be elected only as pure crea- tures.

Sublapsarians on the ofter hand observe, that the elect arc chosen <^ out of the world,** John xvii. 9 — •that they are called <^ vessels of mercy^*' Rom. ix. 23 ; and that our elec- tion in Christ Jesus is essen- tially connected with, the decree of predestination to adoptioa, sanctification, and redemptioB*

Calvinists, however, are much divided on this question. Among the Supralapsarians rankBesa^ Twissc, and Dr. Gill ; among the Sublapsarians Calvin him- self, Bp. Davenant, most of the

• Middleton's Geo^aphy, vol. i. p. 69, &.?.




English Refoniica*s^ and Mr* Toplady.*


See ^ew Jeruscdem Churchy

SYNCRETISTS, the fol- fowers of Calhctus. See CaliX' this.

SYNERGISTS, (so called from the Greek ovupytim^ L e. ^Mperoi^ion,) a name given to flkose in the sixteenth centnryy who affirmed that man co-ope- mtes with divine grace in the teoomplishment of his salva- ibn.f See *irmmtans.

SYRIAN CHRISTIANS, mmains of the Eastern churches 4ft India, recently visited and Ascribed by Dr. Buchanan. When the Portuguese arrived in India, they were surprised to Aftd more than a hundred chris- tian Churches who knew no- ting of the Pope, but boasted afltttccession of regular bishops ■derived from the Patriarch of Mmtioch, and continued for -pne thousand three hundred ymrs. When the Roman Ca- 'fbelics acquired sufficient pow- ir, they began to persecute; iiM established the Inquisition at Goa,:|: as the cruel instru- ment of their power ; an insti- tution which subsisted lately Wider the protection of the !|ftritish government. At the -fioman Catholic Synod of Di- %iilpor, the Syrian clergy were

accused of the fidlowing taas and heresies : ^< That they had married wives ; that they own* ed but two sacramants, baptismi and the Lord's sapper ; that they neither inv(^ed saintSf nor worshi[qped imagos, nor be- lieved in purgatory : aoid that they had no other ord^ in the church, than bishop, priest, and deacon.'* These tenets they were required to abjure, and to admit the authority of the pope* Many of the churches on the sea-coast compromised matters by acknowledging the p<^, and admitting their liturgy to be purged of what they caJIed its erroursi but still insifited on worsliipping in their own Syriac language, whacb thc^ continue to this day, and ajee called Syro-Roman churcbes. The number of these chuwJ^s is estimated at ninety thousand. The diurolies in the inteii- our, however, were not 6o ido- cile. They concealed their books, fled to the iBMuntains, and sought the protection •f the native princes. These IXr. Buchanan visited, under the sanction of the Rayah of IVa- vancore, in whose dominipiis they reside. Dr. Buchanan^ describes the faith cif these clu'istians as comprehending the doctrines of the trinity, the atonement, and. regeneration.

• GiU's Body of Divinity, vol. i. p. 299. Doddridge's Lectures, p. 460.

rj- Mosheim, vol. iv. p. 33a new ed.

+ The inquisition of Goa has been abolished by an order of the Prince Regent of Portugal. It is said, however, that the Archbishop retains all the power that was lodged in the court of the inquisition. See Mr. NewelVs Journal in the Panoplist, May, 1815.




More particularly* they believe that* in the appointed time, through the disposition of the Fattier and Holy Ghost, the Son appeared on eai*th for the salvation of mankind ; that he was born of the virgin Mary, through the means of the Holy Ghost, and was incarnate Grod and man."*

Dr. Buchanan docs not state the number of these chris- tians ; he mentions forty five churches under the arclibishop of Cranganorc(whei'e the apos- tle Thomas is reported to liave Ifinded) beside sixty four Syro- Roman churches, under the a- postolic virar.f And in another place the Dr. states that besides the Syrians, there are upwards of two hundred thousand chris- tians who speak the Malabar ^Ianguage4

Dr. Kerr, the senior chap- lain of Madras* w as sent by the government of that presidency, in 1806. to investigate the state of tlic Syrian and other chris- tians in Malabar and Travan- core. In his official report he observes, •* It has been believ- ed that the Syrian christians, who have not conformed to the

church of Rome, held the tenets of Nestorius, and that they were obliged to leave their own country in consequence of pei*secution. However, it ap- pears that the creed they now hold denies that doctrine^ and seems to coincide with the Athanasian ci*ced, without its damnatory clauses. Their num- ber is calculated by Dr. Kerr' at seventy or eighty thousand^, Many of the Syrian churches, are destitute of the bible, anjl there is a consequent defect of christian knowledge amonig. them. The late Dr. BuchaOi;' an, who was deeply interest-' ed in the fate of these chris-. tians, whom he had visite^^ was assiduously engaged ia! preparing for the press a Sy- i*iac copy of the scripturis. This excellent man died sud- denly on the ninth of February, 1815, at the viUagc of Bros- bourue, whither he had retired to superintend the printing of an edition of the Syriac bible.$ This edition, begun by him, is continued since his death by the British and Foreign Bibb Society*

• Buchanan's llesearcheSf p. 117.

t Ibid. p. 125, 1:^6 ^ Christian Obsen-er, 1815, 1816.

^ Such wus the prevalence of mind over body, of principle over the Ufy- juor of disease and decrepitude, that, tiU almost the hour of his death. Dr. Buchanan was employed rarely less than nine hours daily, in preparing for the press a Syrian copy of the scriptures.





J T ABORITES, adenomina- tJtoii in the fifteenth centuiy ; so c^sdlcd from a mountain well ^lou n in sacred history. They only insisted on reducing ■ie religion of Jesus to its pri- itive simplicity, but required that the system of eccle- lastical government should be ^ifc*^formed in the same manner ; be authority of the pope de- stroyed, and the form of divine ^V!?orship changed. They main- "tiadned the lawfulness of defend- i»]^ religion by the sword ; and ^^me of them are said to have otpccted Christ's pei*sonal ap- pearance among them. After ^ome time, however, they be- ame moi*e calm and ra^onal, nd relinquished many opinions, "Vrhich they found to be inconsistent with the spirit and genius of the gospel; and thus "»iiBW modelled were the same '^th those Bohemian brethren, '^\ko joined Luther and his ohcccssors at the time of the 3mormation.*

^ «TALMUDISTS, those Jewish doctors who admit the amthority of the Talmuds ; 'Which are collections of Jew- ish traditions and allegorical CMosition^. See Cahhalists.