A Dictionary of Artists of the English School/K

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KAUFFMAN, John Joseph, portrait painter. He was born in Switzerland, and practised in this country for several years, but was a very indifferent painter. He contributed sacred and poetic subjects, with an occasional portrait, to the exhibitions of the Royal Academy, from 1771 to 1779, and in the following year retired with his daughter to Rome.

KAUFFMAN, Angelica Maria Catherine, R.A., history and portrait painter. She was daughter of the above, and was born October 30, 1740, at Coire, the capital of the Grisons. She very early developed a talent for music and drawing, and when between 10 and 11 years of age drew portraits in crayons. Brought up to art from a child, she was taken by her father to the Academy in boy's clothes, to improve in drawing. In 1754, when in her 15th year, she went with him to Milan, and there painted the portraits of some eminent persons. She afterwards spent about a year in Florence, and then, in 1759, accompanied her father to Rome. She had made herself complete mistress of the German, French, Italian, and English languages, and highly excelled both in vocal and instrumental music. With these advantages she had many sitters, and her reputation as a painter greatly advanced.

In 1764 she removed to Venice, and there became acquainted with the wife of the English ambassador, whom she accompanied to England in 1765. Learned, refined, and amiable in manner, she was introduced to the young Queen, and her talents, joined to her elegant person, attracted general notice. In 1769 she was nominated one of the foundation members of the Royal Academy, and the same year she was unhappily deceived into a secret marriage with the valet of Count de Horn, who contrived to pass himself off as his master. Ill-treated by this fellow, he was at last induced by a payment of 300l. to take himself off to Germany, and she was relieved of him for ever. She contributed to the first and every subsequent exhibition of the Academy up to 1782, sending in that year a work catalogued from 'Abroad.' She usually exhibited three or four classic subjects and one or two portraits. After settling at Rome she exhibited a classic picture in 1788, 1789, 1796, and in 1797 a portrait of a lady of quality, her last contribution. She decorated a room for the Queen at Frogmore, still called the 'Flower Room,' where some of her flower-groups remain. She married a second time, in 1780, Signor Antonio Zucchi, a Venetian painter, who had long resided in England, and retaining her maiden name, after travelling with him in Italy, and making some stay in Naples, she retired with him in 1782 to Rome, accompanied by her father. Here she resided 25 years in the full enjoyment of her popularity, and died after a long and painful illness, November 5, 1807, in her 67th year.

Her works are numerous, and will be found in many of the collections which date from her time, though they are now held in little esteem. Her reputation was widely spread by the numerous engravings from her paintings. Ryland, Bartolozzi, and Schiavonetti engraved after her, and Alderman Boydell published no less than 60 of her works. Yet, though her paintings were gay and pleasing in colour, they are weak and faulty in drawing, and lack life and originality. They are chiefly taken from the classics and her own poets, and all partake of the same effeminate stamp. There are some slight etchings by her.

KAY, John, miniature painter and caricaturist. He was born near Dalkeith, in April 1742. His father was a stonemason, and destined him for the same business, but dying early, he was placed with some relatives, who treated him with much cruelty. At the age of 13 he was apprenticed to a barber in Dalkeith, and after serving with him six years came to Edinburgh and set up for himself. The trade was a lucrative one in those days, and he throve in his shop. He had, as a boy, made some attempts at drawing, and he now in his leisure tried some miniatures. His likenesses were faithful, and a wealthy customer assisted him to pursue art, and dying in 1782, his son settled upon him an annuity of 20l. a year; and with this help he abandoned his trade, and depended upon his limning, to which he added etching.

His principal employment was as a miniature painter. His works were minutely finished, and he managed to seize a likeness strong in the peculiarities of his sitter—full of individuality, but without art, of which he was ignorant, or flattery. In 1784 he published an etched caricature of a well-known crazed individual, which attracted notice, and led him to attempt others. These possessed the same qualities as his miniatures—caricatures, but extreme in their resemblance, humorous, exaggerating, and intensifying little points of character, they gave offence. Many were bought and destroyed. The artist was cudgeled and charges brought against him before the magistrates. Yet his works are only the exaggeration of truths, and are not offensive. They are highly interesting, elaborately minute in finish, but, like his miniatures, make no attempt at art—the offspring of great natural, but untaught genius. He died 1830.

He etched nearly 900 plates, perpetuating the characters, during nearly half a century, of persons of every class in Edinburgh, and his small shop-window was filled with these productions. His etchings are published in two quarto volumes, under the title of 'Kay's Edinburgh Portraits.'

KAY, Joseph, architect. Was born in 1775, and was a pupil of Cockerell, R.A. About 1802 he went to Italy, and studying some time in Rome returned in 1805. The east side of Macklenburgh Square was designed by him in 1812. He was appointed architect to the General Post Office in 1814, and designed the new Post Office in Edinburgh. In 1823 he received the appointment of architect to Greenwich Hospital, and designed several alterations which have greatly improved the hospital approaches. He was also architect to the Foundling Hospital. He died in Gower Street, December 7, 1847.

KEAN, Michael, miniature painter. He was born in Dublin, and studied in the Dublin Academy, where he gained the gold medal in 1779. He was originally a pupil of Edw. Smith, the sculptor, but he turned to miniature painting, practising at the same time in crayons. He came to London, and between 1786-90 exhibited crayon portraits at the Royal Academy. At the early part of the 19th century he became a partner in the Derby China works. He died in London in 1823.

KEANE, John B., architect. He held an appointment in the Dublin Office of Works, and practised for many years in Dublin. He sent a 'Design for a Temple' to the Academy Exhibition in London in 1840, but was not again a contributor. He designed two large Roman Catholic churches, and in 1846-50 the Queen's College Galway. He died October 7, 1859.

KEARNEY, William Henry, water-colour painter. His works were chiefly landscape, though he sometimes tried figures. He was one of the foundation members and a vice-president of the Institute of Painters in Water-Colours. His works, which were well esteemed, were careful, simply coloured, and painted in the early pure manner. One of his last exhibited works was 'Love's young Dream.' He died June 25, 1858, in his 58th year.

KEARSLEY, T., portrait painter. He practised in London with some repute about the end of the 18th century. He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1792 to 1802. He painted several theatrical portraits, some of them whole-lengths.

KEATE, George, amateur. He was born at Trowbridge, of a good family, about 1729. Educated for the Bar, he travelled, became fond of art, and was admitted a member of the Incorporated Society of Artists. He was an honorary exhibitor at the Academy from 1770, with some intermission, to 1789, his contributions being chiefly coast views. He published his 'Sketches from Nature, taken and coloured in a journey to Margate,' in two volumes, 1779. The illustrations were on wood, and the writing a weak imitation of Sterne's style. He was a F.R.S. and F.S.A. He died June 28, 1797.

KEATING, George, engraver. Born in Ireland in 1762, he was a pupil of William Dickenson, and practised in London towards the end of the 18th century, both in the mezzo-tint and the dot manner, and was well esteemed. He worked after Reynolds, Gainsborough, Henry Morland, and others.

KEEBLE, William, portrait painter. Practised in London about the middle of the 18th century. He was a member of the St. Martin's Lane Academy in 1754. A whole-length portrait by him of Sir Crisp Gascoyne, lord mayor of London in 1753, was mezzo-tinted by McArdell.

KEEFE, Daniel, miniature painter. He practised in London, and exhibited miniatures at the Royal Academy from 1771 to 1583.

KEELING, Michael, portrait painter. He practised his art in Staffordshire, where his works were well esteemed. He exhibited portraits on two or three occasions at the Royal Academy, 1800-1809. He died near Stone, Staffordshire, in 1820.

KEENAN, J., portrait painter. He first appears as an exhibitor at the Royal Academy in 1792, and was then residing at Bath. From 1794 to 1799 he was practising in Exeter, and was a regular exhibitor, and in 1801 he came to London. He had several sitters of distinction, and was esteemed for his portrait-groups of children. In 1806 he went to reside at Windsor, and about that time painted many miniatures. In 1809 he was appointed portrait painter to Queen Charlotte, and continued to live at Windsor and contribute to the Academy Exhibitions up to 1815, when further trace of him is lost. His wife was an occasional exhibitor of landscapes.

KEENE, Henry, architect. Practised about the middle of the 18th century, and was surveyor to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. He was also for about 20 years the architect to Magdalen College, Oxford. He designed the new building at Balliol College, which forms a handsome front of street architecture, 1769; also the hall, chapel, and quadrangle of Worcester College, and was much employed in Oxford. He died 1776.

KELLY, Richard, architect. He built Hill Hall, Essex, a large quadrangular edifice, commenced in 1548, for Sir Thomas Smith, who was principal secretary to King Edward VI. and to Queen Elizabeth.

KELSEY, Richard, architect. He was a student of the Royal Academy, and in 1821 gained the Academy gold medal for his 'Design for a Theatre.' He became principal assistant to Mr. D. Laing, who built the custom-house. But his name does not appear as an exhibitor, and there is no further trace of his art career.

KEMP, George Meikle, architect. He was born in 1794, the son of a shepherd on the Pentland Hills, and was apprenticed to a joiner. He had acquired a knowledge of construction, and, of an unsettled disposition, his love of Gothic buildings led him to visit the great cathedral towns of Scotland and England, finding the means by working at his trade. He then returned to Glasgow, and after a time removed to Edinburgh in 1817, and continued there, still working as a mechanic, till 1824, when he made his way to London, and visited France and Belgium, where, gaining employment, he managed to remain during two years, sketching and measuring the ecclesiastical edifices and antiquities. He afterwards settled in Edinburgh, and commenced business as a master joiner, but being unsuccessful, he was compelled to return to journey work.

He also gained some employment as an architectural draftsman, and was engaged for two years in making a model of Dalkeith Palace. This led to other engagements. He made the drawings for the 'Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Scotland;' among these were included Glasgow Cathedral, and on the question of the restoration of this edifice, he made, 1837-39, a careful model, representing his project and design for its repair. While so employed, and unknown, the proposal for Sir Walter Scott's monument afforded him an opportunity of distinction. Among numerous competitors his design was selected. He was appointed the architect, and his work was rapidly rising, when the career which had just opened to him was suddenly closed. Returning home on a dark night from a professional engagement, he was accidentally drowned, March 6, 1844, in his 50th year. He left a widow and children, for whom a subscription was raised.

KENDAL, John, engraver and draftsman. Practised in the first half of the 18th century. His works are mostly portraits in mezzo-tint.

KENDALE, John, architect. Was supervisor of all the King's works throughout the realm in the reign of Edward IV.

KENDALL, John, architect. He was engaged from 1805 to his death upon the new works at Exeter Cathedral, where he made several important restorations, which brought him much repute. He died at Exeter in October 1829, aged 63. He published 'An Elucidation of the Principles of English Architecture, usually denominated Gothic,' 1818.

KENDRICK, Josephus, sculptor. He was a student in the Royal Academy Schools, and in 1813 gained the gold medal for his group of 'Adam and Eve lamenting over the dead body of Abel,' and from that time was a contributor to the Academy Exhibitions. In 1815 he sent a 'Model for a National Monument in St. Paul's;' in 1817, 'Prometheus Chained;' in 1819, 'Adam and Eve;' and in that and the following year a 'Model for a National Monument.' With these works he exhibited busts, and was a frequent competitor for public works. Two of the public monumental tablets in St. Paul's are by him, but he appears to have met with little encouragement. He exhibited for the last time in 1829.

KENDRICK, Miss Emma Eleonora, miniature painter. Daughter of the above. She first exhibited at the Academy in 1811, and became successful as a miniature painter, And was a large contributor to the Academy Exhibitions for many years. She was also, between 1815 and 1820, an 'exhibitor' at the Water-Colour Society, sending with her miniatures 'Cupid and Psyche,' 'Cleopatra dissolving the Pearl,' 'Dido expiring on the Funeral Pile.' In 1831 she was appointed miniature painter to the King. After 1835 she exhibited only on two or three occasions, the last in 1840. She also occasionally exhibited classic subjects and portraits at the Society of British Artists down to 1841. She published, in 1830, a work on Miniature Painting. She died April 6, 1871, aged 83.

KENNEDY, William Denholm, landscape and figure painter. Was born at Dumfries, June 16, 1813. He went to Edinburgh early in life, and was well educated there. In 1830 he came to London, and in 1833 entered the schools of the Royal Academy, where he gained the friendship of Etty, R.A., by whom his future art was influenced. In 1835 he was a successful competitor for the Academy gold medal—the subject 'Apollo and Idas,' and in 1840 he was elected to the travelling studentship. He went at once to Italy, where he studied about two years, returning with a large collection of studies and sketches. He first exhibited at the Academy in 1833, commencing with domestic subjects, and was a regular contributor up to 1841, when he went to Rome. In 1844, after his return, he exhibited some landscape compositions with figures, and thenceforth the influence of his Italian studies was apparent. With the exception of the years 1855, 1856, and 1857, he was an unwearied contributor to the Academy Exhibitions up to his death. He tried every class of subject, except portraiture, but his chief works were classic landscape compositions, founded upon Italian scenery— freely painted, rich in colour, and with groups of figures well introduced. But he was unable to maintain his early promise, and did not gain good places on the walls of the exhibition. His health also failed, and he fell into a state of despondency and neglect. He had suffered about two ears from dropsy, and was also tried by the loss of his brother, when on June 2, 1865, having the previous evening been left in his usual state of health, he was found dead in his bed. On an inquest, he was shown to have died from natural causes.

KENT, William, architect and painter. He was born of poor parents in Yorkshire, in 1685. After receiving the rudiments of a common education, he was apprenticed to a coach-painter, but ran away from his master and came to London about 1704. He had at least learnt the use of his colours, and tried to support himself as a portrait painter, making some attempts at history. It is said his genius gained him friends, who made a purse and sent him to Rome in 1710. There he studied painting, and gained a second-class medal. Continuing to devote himself to his studies, his first resources became exhausted, and one of his countrymen allowed him 40l. a year for seven years. Afterwards he gained the notice of Lord Burlington, who assisted and patronised him. He returned to England for a short time and made a second journey to Rome, and then coming back in 1719 he settled in London, and had an apartment in Lord Burlington's house. He first, through his patron's influence, found employment as a portrait painter, but his likenesses had no individuality, and were in every respect meretricious. He painted an altar-piece for St. Clement's Church in the Strand, which Hogarth, who did not spare him on other occasions, caricatured; and the bishop ordered its removal in 1725. He ventured to design the conceited monument of Shakespeare in Westminster Abbey. He then undertook ornamental design, to which his tastes were better suited. He decorated Wanstead House, Rainham, and several ceilings for Sir Robert Walpole at Hampton, in the usual allegorical style of the period, and the praises bestowed upon some of the architecture in these painted designs induced him to try that art, with which he combined landscape gardening, but his chief works are in architecture. He assisted Lord Burlington, who was an amateur in that art. He built Devonshire House, Piccadilly; the Earl of Yarborough's house in Arlington Street; the Horse Guards, Whitehall; and altered and decorated Stowe, Houghton, and Holkham, his favourite work—the elevation of which is mean and poor in its parts. He made another journey to Italy in 1730.

He had great influence on the taste of his day, and was consulted on every description of furniture, utensil, and even dress. He designed some of the illustrations for an edition of Gay's 'Fables,' Pope's Works, and Spenser's 'Faerie Queen,' all of them very poor. As an ornamental gardener he enjoyed great repute. Following the first attempts of Bridgman, he introduced a new style of gardening, and quitting the clipped forms, the prude lines, the trim terraced and walled gardens, which had till then prevailed, he displayed the natural and picturesque beauty which had since characterised English gardens; grouping the fine varieties of trees, and instead of the formal canal and basin, produced streams and lakes in their own true forms. By the patronage of his friends he was appointed master carpenter, architect, keeper of the pictures, and principal painter to the Crown. He died at Burlington House, April 12, 1748, in his 64th year, and was, in compliance with his wish, buried in Lord Burlington's vault at Chiswick. He left about 10,000l. which he had accumulated.

KERRICH, The Rev. Thomas, amateur. He was born in 1747, and educated at Magdalen College, Cambridge, where he held the office of librarian to the University. He had a talent for art, and in 1776 received the gold medal of the Academy of Painters, at Antwerp. He drew in black and red chalk many of the distinguished members of the University. These works possessed much character, and were highly finished. Many of them were engraved. He also etched a few plates of monuments. He was one of the four residuary Trustees of Nollekens, R.A. He died May 10, 1821.

KERSEBOOM, Frederic, portrait and history painter. Was born at Solingen, Germany, in 1632. He studied painting at Amsterdam, and in 1650 went to Paris, and for several years worked under Le Brun. He then went to Rome, where he was maintained for 14 years by the French Chancellor. He came to London to practise as a history painter, but not meeting with encouragement he tried portraiture, with more success; but his colour was black and his drawing weak and loose. He died in London in 1690, and was buried at St. Andrew's, Holborn. There is a portrait by him of Robert Boyle at the Royal Society.

KETEL, Cornelius, portrait painter. He was born 1548, at Gouda. When about 18 years of age he went to Delft, and studied there and at Fontainebleau, where he worked some time, and then returned to Gouda. In 1573 he came to England, where he married a Dutch woman, and found good employment as a portrait painter. He gained an introduction to Court by an allegorical picture of 'Strength vanquished by Wisdom,' and then painted Sir Christopher Hatton, the portrait now at Ditchley; Lord Pembroke, Lord Arundel, and in 1578, the Queen. He practised in England till 1581, when he went to Amsterdam, settled, and painted several important works. Then he laid aside his brushes, and painted only with his fingers; and Walpole says that, increasing in his folly, he next tried his toes. He died 1602.

KETTLE, Tilly, portrait painter. He was born in London about 1740, the son of a coach-painter, from whom he learnt the first rudiments of his art. He studied in the Duke of Richmond's Gallery and the St. Martin's Lane Academy, and for some years practised in London as a portrait painter. In 1762 he repaired Streeter's great ceiling picture in the theatre at Oxford. He was a member of the Incorporated Society of Artists in 1765, and a constant contributor to the Society's Exhibitions. Afterwards he went to the East Indies, where he stayed from 1772 to 1776, and acquired a fortune in the practice of his art. He returned to London about 1777, where he settled and married, and the same year he first appears as an exhibitor of portraits at the Royal Academy. In 1781 he exhibited 'The Mogul of Hindostan reviewing the East India Company's Troops,' with some portraits; and in 1783 exhibited for the last time. He built himself a large house in Bond Street; but, unsuccessful in his art, he became bankrupt. He then left London for Dublin, but did not remain long in that city. He resolved to revisit the East Indies, the scene of his first success; but, taking the overland journey, he died at Aleppo, on his way to Bengal, in 1786. His portraits, though weak in drawing, are agreeable in colour, and the likeness good.

KEYES, Roger, architect. He practised early in the 15th century, and was the joint-architect of All Souls' College, Oxford, and was employed as surveyor and architect by Archbishop Chicheley.

KEYL, Frederick William, animal painter. Was born September 17, 1823, at Frankfurt am Main, and began his art career in the atelier of Verboekhoven. He arrived in London in May 1845, having come to England expressly to study under Sir Edwin Landseer. He was a great favourite with his master and remained his sole pupil, and was introduced by him to the favourable notice of the Queen and Prince Consort in 1847. He frequented the Zoological Gardens, and made many drawings and studies there. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1847, 'Fidelity,' and for the last time in 1872, 'Waiting' and 'Lambs,'—these two works were exhibited after his death. He painted many pictures of her Majesty's dogs, ponies, and other pets for the Royal Collection. In 1852 be sent four works to the Academy; in 1854, 'Halt on the Road;' in 1858, 'Sheep; ' in 1859, 'Companions:' in 1863, 'Setters' and a 'Hillside Flock.' He was very fastidious about his work, and was of a nervous and irritable disposition, so that he had a great dislike to exhibiting his pictures. He died in London, December 5, 1871, of inflammation of the lungs with typhoid symptoms, and was buried in Kensal Green Cemetery.

KEYSE, Thomas, still-life painter. He contributed to the first exhibition in 1760, and was in 1763 a member of the Free Society of Artists, continuing an occasional exhibitor. He was for 30 years keeper of the Bermondsey Spa, a sort of tea-garden, and had great repute as a painter of still-life. In 1768 the Society of Arts awarded him a premium of 30 guineas for a method of setting crayon drawings. He showed a gallery of his own works, in which the master-piece was a butcher's-shop, with its contents admirably imitated. He boasted of a visit from Sir Joshua Reynolds, and a critic wrote of him—

'Keyse's mutton
Show'd how the painter had a strife
With nature, to outdo the life.'

He died at his tea-gardens, February 8, 1800, in his 79th year.

KIDD, William, R.S.A., subject painter. Was born in Scotland, and was apprenticed to a house-painter and decorator in Edinburgh. He came to London early in his career and practised as an artist, painting numerous subjects embodying the pathos, but more frequently the humour, of Scottish life, several of which have been engraved. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1817, and for many years was a constant contributor. About 1840 his contributions fell off. In 1849 he was elected an honorary member of the Scottish Academy, and only exhibited again at the Royal Academy in 1851 and the two following years. He was also an occasional exhibitor at the Society of British Artists. He was a genius, quite incapable of managing his worldly affairs, was never well off at any period of his life, lived from hand to mouth, and towards the end of his days fell into hopeless difficulties. He was assisted by his friends, and was a pensioner of the Royal Academy. He died in London, December 24, 1863.

KIDD, John Bartholomew, R.S.A., landscape painter. He was a pupil of Thomson, of Duddingstone, and one of the original members of the Royal Scottish Academy. He resided at Edinburgh for a while, and left that city about 1836, and then settled as a teacher of drawing at Greenwich. He resigned his membership of the Scottish Academy in 1858. There are a few etchings of highland scenery by him.

KILLIGREW, Anne, amateur. Was born in 1660. Her father, Dr. Henry Killigrew, was master of the Savoy, and one of the prebendaries of Westminster. She painted landscapes and portraits in the manner of Lely, and drew James II. and Mary of Modena, and some pieces of still-life and history. She died in London of smallpox, June 16, 1685, and was buried in the Savoy Chapel. Her portrait, after a painting by herself, was engraved by Becket, the early mezzo-tintist. Three pictures by her were sold at Admiral Killigrew's sale in 1727. She was maid of honour to the Duchess of York, and is highly praised by Antony Wood, who said 'she was a Grace for beauty, and a Muse for wit;' and Dryden celebrated her genius in poetry and painting. Her poems were published after her death, in 1686.

KING, Daniel, amateur. Practised about the middle of the 17th century. He worked in the manner of Hollar, and probably learnt his art from him. He executed some works for the 'Monasticon' of Dugdale, who called him an ignorant, silly knave. He wrote 'Miniatura; or, The Art of Limning,' and published, in 1656, a thin folio of 'The Cathedral and Conventual Churches of England and Wales,' drawn by himself, comprising 50 plates, of which three or four are by Hollar. He also published, in 1656, 'The Vale Royal of Cheshire, illustrated by engravings from his own drawings. He etched, besides many views of castles, churches and ancient buildings.

KING, Captain John Duncan, amateur. Painted landscapes with much ability, and was an occasional honorary exhibitor at the Royal Academy between 1824 and 1851—his subjects, views on the coasts of Spain and Portugal, and later, of Ireland. He had seen much service in the early part of his life, and was for many years of his latter life a military knight of Windsor. He died there August 21, 1863, aged 74.

KING, Giles, engraver. Was born in England, but settled in Dublin, and practised there for many years about the middle of the 18th century. He engraved views of the 'Salmon Leap' and 'Waterfall,' Wicklow, 'The taking of Cape Breton,' and some other works.

KING, George, engraver. Practised in the reign of Queen Anne. His works were chiefly for book ornamentation. He engraved a few portraits, some from the life, but they are poor in manner.

KING, John, history and portrait painter. Was born at Dartmouth in 1788, and showing talent for drawing, he came to London at the age of 20 and gained admission to the schools of the Academy. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1817. He aimed to excel in history, and under much difficulty and discouragement painted several pictures—'Christ in the Garden,' 'Christ Bound,' 'Abraham and Isaac,' 'Lear and Cordelia,' 'Ferdinand and Miranda,' but be met with no encouragement. About 1826 he tried portrait, and might have succeeded better, but he disliked this branch of art. He continued to exhibit up to 1845, and died at Dartmouth, July 12, 1847. His works, most of which remained on his hands, were sold by auction the same year, and produced only small sums.

KING, Margaret, portrait painter. Practised in the latter part of the 18th century. She exhibited crayon portraits at the Royal Academy in 1779, and continued an exhibitor up to 1786.

KING, Thomas, portrait painter. Was a pupil of Knapton, and attained considerable ability, but was eccentric, restless, and dissipated. He died about 1769, and was buried in Marylebone churchyard. There is a mezzo-tint of his portrait of Matthew Skeggs playing on a broomstick; and Houston engraved after him the portrait of Maddox, a celebrated rope-dancer.

KING, Thomas, antiquarian draftsman and engraver. He lived at Chichester, and published a series of plates of the cathedral and other antiquities of the city. He died August 9, 1845.

KINSBURY, Henry, draftsman and engraver. He practised in London between 1750-80, engraving in the mezzo-tint and dot manner, chiefly subject plates.

KIP, William, engraver. Practised in London at the beginning of the 17th century. There are some triumphal arches engraved by him, dated 1603.

KIP, John, engraver. Was born at Amsterdam, and came to England soon after the Revolution. He was employed to engrave views of the Royal palaces and the mansions of the nobility and gentry for the 'Britannia Illustrata,' published in 1714. He engraved the architectural and topographical views in Strype's edition of 'Stowe's Survey,' 1720; and also, on a large scale, the mansions of Gloucestershire, for Atkyns's history of that county. These are bird's-eye views, most minutely and curiously executed. He also engraved some portraits, birds after Barlow, and other plates. He died in Westminster in 1722, when nearly 70 years of age, leaving a daughter, whom he had brought up to painting.

KIRBY, Richard, architect. Built Hill Hall, Essex, a stately structure, in the latter part of the 17th century, for Sir Thomas Smith.

KIRBY, John, amateur. Was originally a schoolmaster at Orford, in Suffolk, and afterwards occupied a mill at Wickham Market, his native place. He then resided some time at Ipswich, where he published, 1735, 'The Suffolk Traveller,' a road-book with antiquarian notices, from an actual survey he made of the whole county in the years 1732-33-34. He died December 13, 1753, aged 63, and was buried at Ipswich.

KIRBY, Joshua, F.R.S., topographical draftsman. Son of the foregoing. Was born at Parham, Suffolk, in 1716, and settled at Ipswich as a coach and house painter about 1738. He was induced by an early friendship with Gainsborough to try landscape painting. He made a number of drawings for an intended county history, and of these he published 12, with some descriptive letter-press, in 1748, the plates etched by himself, followed by a series engraved by J. Wood. He also studied linear perspective, and lectured on that science at the St. Martin's Lane Academy. He was appointed teacher of architectural drawing to the Prince of Wales, afterwards George III., whose favour he enjoyed, and by whom he was appointed clerk of the works at Kew Palace. He edited, in 1754, a second edition of Brook Taylor's 'Perspective;' and in 1761 published 'The Perspective of Architecture,' which was printed at the expense of the King. He was secretary, and was in 1770 elected resident, of the Incorporated Society the faction which had excluded Frank Hayman from that office; but the same year, on the plea of ill-health, he resigned the post, which he had little claim to occupy. He exhibited with the Society, 1765-70, views in Richmond Park, Kew, &c. His views of Kew Palace were engraved by Woollett in 1763. He died June 20, 1774, aged 58, and was buried in Kew Churchyard. William Kirby, probably his son, who was in 1766 a member of the Incorporated Society of Artists, died suddenly at Kew in 1771.

KIRK, John, medallist. He was a pupil of Dassier, on whose death he was much employed. In 1762 and 1763 he received premiums from the Society of Arts. He was a member of the Incorporated Society of Artists, and exhibited medals of the King, Queen, &c, 1773-75-76. He died in London, November 27, 1776.

KIRK, Thomas, painter and engraver. Studied under Cosway, R.A., and practised during the last half of the 18th century. He was an eminent artist. He painted well-chosen subjects in history with great fancy and vigour, the drawing good and the colour agreeable. His vignette illustrations to Cooke's 'Poets' are excellent. He first exhibited at the Academy, in 1785, 'Venus presenting love to Calypso,' and continued to exhibit in alternate years up to 1791. Then, after two years' interval, he exhibited, in 1794, some scriptural subjects, a portrait and a frame of fancy miniatures; and in the following year 12 subjects, evidently designed for book-illustration. In 1796 he exhibited, for the last time, 'Evening' and 'A Dream.' Some few miniatures which he painted are full of feminine elegance, his children also sweet and well-coloured. His engravings were in the chalk manner, and of great merit. Supported in his chair to touch a proof the day before he died, he was cut off by consumption, November 18, 1797, and was buried at St. Pancras. Dayes said, 'He passed like a meteor through the region of art,' 'Titus Andronicus,' for the Shakespeare Gallery, was both painted and engraved by him.

KIRK, Thomas, R.H.A., sculptor. Was born in Cork in 1784, and studied in the schools of the Royal Dublin Society. He practised his art in Dublin, and was an exhibitor at the Dublin Exhibition in 1810. On the foundation of the Royal Hibernian Academy in 1823 he was one of the first members. One of his earliest public works was the colossal statue of Nelson for the memorial pillar erected to him in Sackville Street, Dublin. The statue of George IV. and of the Duke of Wellington are also by him, as are the figures of Justice and Clemency in the court-house, Londonderry; the statue of Lord Monteagle, Limerick; and several of the busts in the library of Trinity College, Dublin. His 'Orphan Girl' and 'Young Dog Stealer* were much esteemed in Ireland; and his marble statue of Admiral Sir Sidney Smith in the Painted Hall, Greenwich Hospital, was one of his last works. He exhibited at the Royal Academy in London, in 1825, busts of Mr. Wilson Croker and his daughter, and was also an exhibitor in 1839, 1845, and 1846. He died in Dublin in 1845.

KIRKALL, Edward, engraver. Was the son of a locksmith at Sheffield, and born there about 1695. He was instructed in drawing in his native town, and came to London, where he found employment as an engraver of arms, stamps, and ornaments for books. He is supposed by the initials to have engraved the plates, which have much merit, for an edition of 'Terence,' published in 1713. In 1722 he published by subscription 12 mezzo-tints, produced by a method he had invented—a combination of etching and mezzo-tint with wood blocks—the outlines and darks printed from copper, the tints printed afterwards from wood blocks; but though the process had merit, he does not appear to have been able to perfect it. In 1724 he published 17 tinted engravings after Vandevelde. He engraved on copper the illustrations to Howe's translation of 'Lucan's Pharsalia,' 1718; and to Inigo Jones's 'Stonehenge,' 1725. In mezzo-tint he engraved the seven cartoons of Raphael.

KIRKALL, L., engraver. Practised about the beginning of the 18th century. There are by him three large engravings—'A Bear Hunt,' 'Wild Boar Hunt,' and 'Stag Hunt.'

KITCHEN, George, engraver. He practised about the middle of the 18th century. There are some clever heads, elaborately engraved, by him, and some views: he also engraved some maps. He was chiefly employed upon book-illustration. Thomas Kitchen practised about the same time, but was mostly engaged on map-engraving.

KITCHINGMAN, John, miniature painter. He was a pupil of Wm. Shipley, and was admitted a student of the Academy, where he gained a good knowledge of the figure. He obtained several premiums at the Society of Arts. He exhibited miniatures at the Free Society of Artists 1766-68, and from the year 1770 at the Academy, some of these being theatrical portraits in character. He also painted in oil some genre subjects, marines, and landscapes. Fond of the water, he gained in 1777 the silver cup at the Thames sailing match; and he painted four pictures, which were engraved by Pouncey, to illustrate the progress of a cutter. These he exhibited at the Academy, his last contribution, in 1781. He married early in life a girl as young as himself, and separated from her after a few years. He then fell into habits of intemperance and irregularity, and died, aged about 40, December 28, 1781, immediately after the amputation of his leg, the bone of which was diseased.

KNAPTON, George, portrait painter. Born in London in 1698, the son of a book-seller. He was the pupil of Richardson, and his early works were in crayons. In 1740 he went to Italy, and wrote an interesting account of the discoveries at Herculaneum. He held the office of painter to the Dilettanti Society, and in 1765, of keeper of the King's pictures. He was associated with Arthur Pond in engraving and publishing engravings from the drawings of eminent masters. At Hampton Court there is a large and pretentious group by him of the family of Frederick, Prince of Wales. The widowed princess forms the centre, with the child born after its father's death in her lap, surrounded by her four other daughters and four sons, and in the background a full-length portrait of her late husband. All the figures are life-size and in action, the portraits, dresses, and draperies carefully painted, and every part defined with a scrupulous care that defied art. The grouping is formal and unpleasant, all the figures cut out from the back-ground. But some of his portraits in the Dilettanti Society give a better opinion of his art, which is by no means without merit. He died in 1778, aged 80, and was buried at Kensington.

KNAPTON, Charles, engraver and publisher. Brother of the foregoing. Published, in 1734-35, some aqua-tint imitations of drawings in bistre; and a number of other works are ascribed to him. He died in 1760, aged 60.

KNELL, William Adolphus, marine painter. Began to exhibit in the Royal Academy in 1835, when he sent 'Folkestone from the Dover Road;' in 1838 he contributed 'The Port of Leith;' in 1846, 'Vessels off the Flemish Coast.' He was a constant contributor to the annual exhibition of the Royal Academy down to 1866. The Queen has one or two of his pictures in her collection which are cleverly painted. He died July 10, 1875, and was buried in the Abney Park Cemetery.

KNELLER, Sir Godfrey. Bart., portrait painter. Was born of an ancient family, at Lubeck, in 1648. Designed for the army, he was sent to Leyden to study mathematics and fortification; but a love of art predominated, and he was for a time the pupil of Bol, at Amsterdam, and had some instruction from Rembrandt. In 1672 he went to Italy, visited Rome, made some stay at Venice, and in 1674 came to England. He did not purpose to remain here, but gaining the patronage of the Duke of Monmouth, who introduced him to Charles II., he was engaged to paint the King's portrait, and the work pleased so well that was induced to stay. Charles was interested in him, sat to him several times, and sent him to Paris to paint the portrait of Louis XIV. He was equally in favour with James II., and the death of Lely left him without a rival. He painted the portraits of all who were most eminent in his day—the 43 celebrities of the Kit-Cat Club, the ten 'Beauties,' at Hampton Court; and no less than ten sovereigns, were his sitters. He held the office of state painter to Charles II., James II.. William III. (who knighted him in 1692), Queen Anne, and George I., by whom, in 1715, he was created a baronet. He was lauded in the verse of Pope, Dryden, Addison, Steele, Tickell, and Prior; and though he lost 20,000l. in the South Sea scheme, he left an estate of 2,000l. a year. He lived in Covent Garden from 1681 to 1705, and afterwards at Kneller Hall, near Twickenham. He died from the effects of a violent fever, November 7, 1723, and was buried at Twickenham Church. There is a monument to him in Westminster Abbey.

His portraits have great freedom, and are well drawn and coloured, but are slight, and have much sameness and want of completeness. The great number of his works was a bar to their excellence. Their chief fault is the absence of all simplicity and nature—steeped in a vicious, common-place allegory, which deprives them of truth and character. Yet to him is due, during a practice of 30 years in England, the remembrance of our greatest men of his time.

KNELLER, John Zachary, ornamental painter. Born at Lubeck in 1635. Was the elder brother of the foregoing, and came with him to England in 1674. He painted architectural decorations in fresco, and still-life in oil, and copied some of his brother's gortraits in water-colours. He died in Covent Garden in 1702, aged 67, and was buried in the church there.

KNIGHT, Charles, engraver. Practised in London in the second half of the 18th century. There are many works by him after Kauffman, Wheatley, Bunbury, Singleton. Hoppner, and others. He was one of trie governors of the Society of Engravers, founded in 1803 for the relief of members of the profession.

KNIGHT, Mary Anne, miniature painter. Was born in 1776, and was a pupil of Andrew Plimer. She was a good miniaturist. She first exhibited at the Academy in 1807, and from that time was for many years an occasional exhibitor. She was unmarried, and died in 1851.

KNIGHT, William Henry, subject painter. Born September 26, 1823, at Newbury, where his father kept a school. He was placed under a solicitor, but he had an early love of drawing, and encouraged by the exhibition of two pictures at the Society of British Artists, and disliking his profession, he came up to London in 1845 to try his fortune as a portrait painter, and entering the schools of the Academy, just managed to live. In 1846 he exhibited for the first time at the Academy, 'Boys playing at Draughts;' and getting over his first difficulties, continued to exhibit at the Academy and the British Institution till his death. His chief painting are—'Boys Snow-balling,' 1853; 'The Young Naturalist,' 1857; 'The Lost Change,' 1859: with 'Peace versus War,' and 'A Troublesome Neighbour,' 1862. His works are of small size, truthfully painted, usually introducing children. He died July 31, 1863, leaving a widow and young family.

KYSELL, Edward, engraver. Practised in London, chiefly in portraits, about the middle of the 17th century. There is an equestrian portrait of Oliver Cromwell by him.

KYTE, Francis, mezzo-tint engraver. He occasionally painted portraits, and there are several by him rather loose and unfinished, but agreeable for tone and colour. He was convicted in 1725 of uttering a forged bank-note, and sentenced to the pillory; from that time he assumed the translated name of Milvius. He engraved two portraits of Gay, the poet; to the first is attached his real, to the second his assumed name