A Dictionary of the Sunda language/P

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Pa, is a particle of very extensive use, and is always placed before a word, often a monosyllable, to which it gives a substantive form. As Chul the idomatic expression of throwing away = Pachul, a hoe, an implement for digging away earth and flinging it out. Pajĕg, a fixed tax, anything set firm, from jěg, which see. It is of still more extensive use in the formation of derivative words , when put as the beginning of a word, which is followed by an, as Gawè , to work, Pa-gawé-an, work, occupation. Gunung , a mountain , Pa-gunung-an , mountain districts or tracts. Pa in composition is often pronounced very short, and as such is frequently expressed below by . Amongst the words below, which are monosyllables, with Pa before them, the meaning of the crude monosyllable has often been lost or become absolete, as in Patuk , the bill of a bird, which is, however, sometimes heard as Patok , and means thus an instrument for knocking or tapping with. But the Chok of Pachok is never heard singly. Pago , Pahul &c. admit of no solution to their meaning from the monosyllables go and hul, which are, now at least, not in use , whatever may have formerly been the case.

Pa , father. Probably an abbreviation of Bapa, father. In Clough occurs at page 37 , Appa, father, as well as at page 459, Bapa, father.

Pabégal, a highway robber; a robber who attacks travellers.

Pabéyan, a toll-house, a customhouse, any place where toll is paid. See Béa or Béya.

Pabinihan, a small compartment fenced round in every sawah, in which the seed paddy is sown and where it is allowed to grow from 40 to 60 days, and is then planted out into the sawahs where it has to bring its grain to perfection. See Binih.

Paburantak, scattered about , lying in confusion. Dispersed.

Paburial, dispersed , scattered about. Said especially of any thing scattered about in water.

Pabuwatan, deed , act , performance. The simple word Buwat, to do , to act — is Malay and not used in Sunda.

Pabuyar, dispersed , gone from one another, scattered about.

Pachar, also Pachar kuku, name of a plant or tree, used to dye the nails red. Kuku means the nail of the hand. Lausonia iners.

Pachar lěuwěung, the forest balsam. Balsamina latifolia. Found growing among the mountains in cool, moist situations. It bears pretty pink flowers the whole year through.

Pachěmut, coming often and in numbers. Confusedly coming in numbers so that no distinction can be made between one another. Eagerly trying who shall be first.

Pachět, a leech which lives on trees, in moist mountainous jungle, and not in water. It is very troublesome by getting inside the clothes and drawing blood. These land leeches are still more abundant and troublesome among the mountains of Ceylon where they are called Kudaella, Clough 135. They are. called in Malay Achih, MARSDEN page 3.

|Pachi-pachi, name of a common weed growing every where about gardens or cultivated land ; seldom more than a foot high with narrow leaves and labiate white flower, growing on axillae. Phlomis linifolia, also Leucas linifolia of the family of Labiatae. The leaves are used for doctoring horses. BLUME gives the native name as Daun Sétan or Devil's leaf, which name is unknown among the mountains.

Pachikěr, awkward walking in fits and starts, limping. Pachikrak, name of a small pert bird, which wags its tail up and down at every hop.

Pachinan, the quarter of the Chinese in any town. Where Chinese live.

Paching, a scitameneous plant, Costus speciosus.

PacHok, to peck at as a bird does. To pull down or away anything with a hooked stick, a pachul or the like. Di pachok manuk, it has been pecked by the birds. Tanĕuh di na gawir kudu di pachok ku pachul, that earth on the bank must be pulled down with te hoe. (Batav. id. Jav. Pĕtjók, to peck through. Cf. Malay Pâtjak, a spit.)

Pachorok, taken by mistake. Confounded. Got the wrong one.

Pachuan, D'ont by any means. Pachuan di béré, D'ont give it by any means. Pachuan pĕupĕuli, D'ont tell on any account. See Chuan.

Pachul, a hoe , a very common agricultural implement. The etymon of this word is Chul, the idiomatic expression of flinging away. (Jav. Mai. Batav. idem).

Pada, respectively, all; a word implying distribution; rather than, now that, seeing that, since. Pada lĕumpang, they respectively (or all) went. Pada bogah, each one has some. Pada mandi, they respectively (or all) bathed. Pada di béré milih, seeing that we may pick. Pada daik mayar, kajĕun di dawa, rather than pay let him sue me. (Batav. idem. Jav. Para en Pada (Javanese characters))

Padagang, a trader, a merchant. See Dagang.

Padalaman, or Padalĕman, the abode or residence of a Dalĕm a native of high rank, such as a Regent. The enclosure, house and grounds where a high native chief lives.

Padalang, the man who performs at a native wayang. The man who sings and recites the story, a sort of native Bard. (Mal. id. Javan. (Javanese characters) Dalang id).

Padoman, a mariner's compass. This word might easily be derived from Du-um, to divide, and Pa-du-um-an, would elide into Padoman, anything which is portioned out in divisions, to which the card of the mariners compass not only anwers, but without it, a native, who had never seen such an instrument would naturally form the idea of division, by having to turn himself to nearly the four cardinal points, which they well know, and which are called by them Papadon opat, which see. This word is also good Malay; see Marsden, page 216, though no word like Du-um exists in Malay for to divide. Padoman, may also be derived from Dhom in Javanese, a needle, but Dhom is neither Sunda nor Malay. With Dhom meaning needle, the compass would then be—an instrument with a needle—which is also a very apposite etymology. The Sunda people never having been apparently much of mariners, perhaps the Javanese Etymology from dhom a needle, must be allowed to preponderate. (Jav (Javanese characters) Dum, according to Gericke R., Division, corresponds with Sd. Du-um, Jav. Dom, Padomman, the compass; also a needle.)

Padri, Portuguese, a Priest; a European clergyman; a Christian priest.

Padu, to oppose, to resist, to have a dispute, to resist each other. Altercation , dispute. To compare by placing together, so that each may, as it were, assert its claims. (From Adu, Jav. Mal. Fighting, quarrelling. Padu in Javan. the same as in Sunda). Padudan, an opium pipe.

Paduka, an honorary title given to a great man, or a Sovereign. Pādukā, Clough 385, a shoe , a slipper , a sandal. It has usually Sri before it , which means illustrious : thus Sri Páduka , the illustrious slipper, as if the person using the expression, dared not to look higher than the slipper of the great man. (In Set. are similar expressions.)

Paduli, see Pĕrduli.

Padung, a plank, a thick dubbed plank not sawn. The planks used for setting round the dead in their graves.

Pagah, and Pagahan, to teach, to instruct, to give lessons. To accuse, to point out as. Di pagah maling , he is accused of stealing. Di pagah goréng , I am pointed out as a bad man; it is made out to be bad. Pagahan ka nu hadé, teach him how to be good. Budak kudu di pagahan, children must be taught.

Pagalangan, chocks to set a boat or ship upon when building or repairing. Any frame work to support some other object. (Galĕngan, Jav. Galangan, Batav. the frame work for rice-fields. The dams of the sawahs. Galanggang, Galâgang , Mal., MARS-DEN, the (square) room pepared for cockfighting).

Pagaléntor, to dispute with noise, many people talking to gether, an affray.

Pagas, to cut away the seed strings from the end of the fruit stem of the Kawung Palm, preparatory to obtaining Toddy, (Javan. Pagas, cut.)

Pagawéan, work, occupation. Yearly plantation of paddy. To bogah pagawéan , I have no yearly cultivation — also I have no work, or am without work. Pagawéan-ulin, playing work, child's play. (Javan. idem, in the first meaning. In Malay exists Pagáwei فكاۏې, contracted Pāwei, instrument, utensil, from the same root gawé.)

Pagĕlaran, a place in front of a Kraton or native palace, where the Sovereign shows himself to the people. See Ngĕlar. (Javan. idem.)

Pagér, a fence, a hedge; a paling, a palisade, a wall. Ngabĕuntas pagĕr to break down the fence. Per simile — to exceed your rights , to go beyond your power. (Jav. Mai. id.)

Pagĕr hirup, a live or quick set hedge.

Pagĕr ruyung,a fence made of some Palm wood split in slips.

Pagĕr sari, literally a fence of flowers, implies the collection of handsome young women who surround the person of the Sovereign.

Pagĕr témbok, a walled fence.

Pagĕto, the day after tomorrow.

Pagĕuh, firm, fixed, set fast, secure. Strong and tenacious. Tali pagĕuh, a strong (or tenacions) bit of rope. Said of a person who is not to be talked over. Eesolute, determined. Pagĕuh to mĕunang di chabut, it is set firm and cannot be pulled out. (Kawi idem.)

Pago, a reading stool, when the natives read a book, the koran for example, they place it upon a low stool, 6 or 8 inches high, before which they squat. They write also on such a stool. (Cf. Mai. Pagū, floor.) Pagonan, to keep or hold firm or fixed. To make steady. To keep at any particular rate. To make permanent. (Jav. Gon, Ĕnggon, place. Panggonan, place, where a person, or thing stands.)

Pagulingan, a great man's bedstead or sleeping place. (From Guling , Jav. to lay stretched oat, to sleep. Also a cushion. Mal. Guling, to turn round, to wallow, to roll.)

Pagunungan, mountain districts. Places where mountains exist. Pah am, ar. Fehem, skilled, well- versed, intelligent, (فَهِم, Fahim, intelligent.)

Pahang, having an obnoxious smell. Frouzy. Smelling of urine, when soaked into cloth.

Paharé, emulating each other — same as Papaharé, which see.

Pahěut, a chisel. The same as Tatah. In Malay it is called Pahat, but Pahĕut is good Sunda; and occurs as the name of a mountain rivulet, Chi-pahĕut.

Pahing, the second day in the old Javanese week of five days. Vide Manis.

Pahit, bitter. It may be derived from Titta, C. 231, bitter; pungent, with the Polynesian Pa before it, dropping the initial T. Hoih pahit, the bitter rattan, resembles hoih kĕsur, and is used for like purposes.

Pahugikĕn, to offer in a present to a sweetheart. Pyamangĕun di pahugikĕn ka bébéné he presented his sweetheart with cloth to make adress.

Pahul, a short bit of stick round which to twist string which is being used for binding anything , so as to have a better purchase for drawing it tight. Much used in binding up the bundles of Paddy.

Pahumahan, the place where the humahs or upland rice fields are made. The people who make humahs.

Paido, disbelieving, wanting confidence. An expression of wonder and disbelief. Paido tĕuyn sia to daik pĕupĕuli, there is no wonder you will not tell. Kula di paido, lam not believed. (Jav. idem).

Paih, dead, defunct. Jélĕma paih, a dead man. Kayu paih , dead wood.

Paila, dearth of food, famine. See Pĕchĕklik.

Pais, to cook anything wrapped up in leaves and stuck into the fire. Pais Bakatul, fine bran wrapped up in leaves and stuck into the fire to cook.

Paisan , as Batu paisan , a tomb stone. A head stone to a grave ; such as used by natives. When made flat, they stand over a woman, and when round, over a man.

Pajabungan, coming from all quarters; made up of several different lots. Sédikah pajabungan , a festival made by different persons contributing something.

Pajabur, overflown with water. Musim pajabur, the rainy season, the same as Pajibur.

Pajaga-an, a watch-house, a guard -house. A place to keep watch.

Pajagalan, a butcher's shop, a slaughter house, a place where cattle are slaughtered for sale of the meat.

Pajajaran, the name of an ancient kingdom in Java, situated in the Sunda districts and of which the capital is related to have been situated near the present Bogor or Bui

tenzorg. For its foundation bij Chiung Wanara see Raffles, Java, vol.2 pages 100 — 104. The name is said to have been derived from a row of fern trees near wich the brothers Ariya Bang'a and Chiung Wanara had been fighting , but were reposing from their struggle. Paku in Sunda is a fern; the fern in this case was probably the mountain tree fern Paku-tihang. Pakuan, abounding in such ferns. Pajajaran, set in a row, from Jajar, a row; the whole place being called Pakuan Pajajaran, the place abounding with tree ferns growing in a row. Pajajaran was probably founded at the close of the 13 th century of the Christian era. Raffles, vol 2. page 98 gives the date of the foundation of Majapahit as anno Java 1221, to which must be added 78 years to give the Christian era A. D. 1299, and Pajajaran was founded at about the same period. Pajajaran was destroyed on the introduction of Mohammedanism about the close of the 15 th century, and this empire thus lasted for a couple of centuries, and had ceased to exist before A. D. 1500. In Pantuns is often heard the expression — Ratu Pakuan, Ménak Pajajaran, the Sovereign of Pakuan, and the nobles of Pajajaran.

Pajang, a petty principality near the old Mataram. An appanage of one of the princes of Demak, soon after the introduction of Mohammedanism, and from whom were descended the royal family of the princes of Mataram.

Pajar, to accuse, to charge with.

Pajĕg, a fixed tax. An amount of tax on land, not dependent on the actual crop, but on the land itself, and thus known before the cultivation of it is commenced. Firm unmoving, steady, fixed. Tihang na gĕus pajĕg , the post is firmly set (Jav. Ajĕg , to remain unmoved, steady, immutable. Jĕjĕg, idem).

Pajĕm on, an assembly, a collection of guests; many people. (Perhaps from ar. خَمَعَ , Jam'u, collection, multitude, from the verb خَمَعَ , jama'a, to collect, to congregate, wherefrom is derived خٌمّعَت , juma't , the day of congregation , i. e. Friday. Fr.)

Pajibur, overflown with water. Musim pajibur , the rainy season.

Pajirih, sneaking out of the way to avoid work. Unwilling to put out a hand to do any work. (Jav. Jirih, afraid, cowardly. Jĕrih, fearing, fearful?).

Paju, going forward, advancing. Guzzling, eating greedily. Di pajuan dĕui, he went at it again. Sia di paju maung mĕngké, you will be guzzled up bij a tiger. (Jav. idem, in the first signification).

Pak, the idiomatic expression of patting or striking gently; also of lying flat as if patted down, as Chĕpak, a level bit of land. Papak, level and even at the top. Tĕpak, to clap with the hands, to pat. Pak-prak, to clap or smak with the lips.

Pak, Dutch, a package, a bale of goods.

Pak, the Dutch word Pacht, a farm, a government farm. A department of government revenue farmed out to private individuals. Pak kulit, the farm of hides, the right to claim the hide or a duty on animals killed, especially of the buffaloes. Pak ma-dat, the opium farm. Pak Pasar, the market farm; the right of taking a toll from all who attend a public market. Tukang Pak, the farmer, the man who has bought the right to any government farm. Di pak, to farm out. Tanĕuh na gĕus di pak, the estate is farmed out.

Pakal, to caulk, as a ship or boat. To close a seam between two planks by forcing in oakum &c. (Malay idem).

Pákalongan, name of a residency in Middle Java. The place abounding in Kalongs or flying foxes.

Pakan, the woof or threads in a web which are crosswise in it, from Tépak, to strike or knock together. The Pakan is shot into the web bij means of the Tropong or shuttle. Pakan are also the cross pieces of split bambu wove into a Bilik. (Javan. idem).

Pakapuran, a lime kiln. This word has evidently been borrowed from the Malay, where Kapur is lime, whereas in Sunda it is called Apu, and according to the spirit of derivation would form Pangapuan, which is seldom heard for lime kiln.

Pakaran, implement, instrument, utensil. A weapon in general, as a gobang, kris or spear. Pakarang tinun, weaving implements; the native loom. Sia to mawa pakarang, have you got no weapon with you? (Kârang in Malay, to arrange, to combine or compose artfully).

Pakarangan, garden or grounds about a house, see Karang. The environs of a great man's dwelling.

Pakauman, a place where priests meet or assemble to pray. A mosque and its appurtenances. (From ar. قَوْم, Kaum, people).

Pakaya, subsistance, livelyhood; property. Any work or occupation by which a livelyhood is gained, as a garden, an orchard, a trade or profession.

Paké, to use, to wear, to put on. To make use of. To wear or put on clothes. Kampak ĕukĕur di paké, the axe is just being made use of. Jamang anyar gĕus di paké, the new jacket has been worn.

Pakéan, clothes, dress. Anything which a person makes use of; implements, accoutrements. Pakéan sutra, silk clothes. Parabot pakéan tukang kayu, tools made use of by a carpenter.

Pakon, orders of great personages, mandates.

Pak-prak, to make a smacking sound with the lips, by opening and shutting the mouth in rapid succession. By the sound so made cartmen stop their buffaloes, or induce them to be easy and quiet

Paksa, to force; to compel, to constrain. Sia daik di paksa ku aing, you shall be forced by me. Paksa is probaly the same as Paksha, C. 345 party influence or power, a side, a flank. As if such were brought to bear upon any one—which Paksha in its compounds countenances as—Paksa-grahanaya from a Paksha, side, grahana, seizing—Partiality, taking to one side of a cause or contest; confederating, using party influence. (Jav. (Javanese characters) Pĕksa, idem. Gericke R. give another form tĕksa, of the same meaning. This shows, that neither pa, , nor (tĕr) belong to the root of the word, and the comparison with Scr. Paksha, side, flank etc. can not be admitted. or being Praefixa, remains ksha, from a root kshi or kshái, meaning destruction, which word is found in Wilson. Pĕrksa, or Tĕrksa, originally, put to destruction. Compare kshan, to kill. Fr.)

Paksi, the iron part of the handle of any weapon, as of a Bëdog or Kris. The iron rod which goes within the handle — on which the handle is fixed. Pakshi, plural of Paksha, C. 345 and 346, a bird in general, a wing, a feather. Paksi is never used in Sunda to express a Bird. (Sct. Pakshin, Nominat. Pakshî, is derived from paksha, paksha meaning also a wing, so pakshin having wings i. e. a bird, Pakshî, means besides an arrow, and the Sundas seem to have called the iron part going into the handle, the arrow of the kris, of the pĕdang etc. Fr.)

Paku, a nail, a spike. Paku bĕusi, an iron nail. Paku tambaga, a copper neil. Paku léntah, a leech nail, a clamp with both ends bent and driven into wood.

Paku, a fern. Filix. The Sunda mountains abound in a great variety of ferns.

Paku Alam, title of the independent Prince at Jugjokarta. — The spike nail of the world.

Paku Buwana, a royal title. The spike nail of the Universe.

Paku haji, though bearing much the appearance of a fern, is nevertheless a Palm, and is the Cycas Circinalis. Another variety only found in gardens is the Cycas revoluta.

Paku handam, a fern growing with very thick entangled bushes.

Paku munding, the buffaloe fern, a large coarse kind.

Paku tihang, the tree fern; grows up with a stem like an areca Palm and has a very graceful top. Grows only on the mountains.

Pakuan, abounding in ferns. Part of the name of Pajajaran-which see.

Pakuchĕrut, without order', at random. Said where every one wants to do as he likes and the work gets into confusion.

Pakulahan, a muddy hole in which buffaloes wallow during the heat of the day.

Pakung, to tie an animal by a rope to the head, either to graze, or to have handy to steal. To tie up an animal to a tree, post or other object.

Pakuw-on, the enclosure round a house; gardens and approaches from which animals are excluded. Same as Pakarangan. (Kuwu, or Kubu, Jav. Kawi , a temporary residence , where to remain a night etc. Pakuwon, the place of such a temporary residence).

Pal, the Dutch Paal, a post, a stick of wood. A Pal is, on Java, a mile so called from the distances being marked bij Paals or posts viz. mile posts. A Paal or Paul in Java is 400 Rhineland roods, or Tumbaks of each 12 Rhineland feet, which at each 12.357 English inches will give 4942.800, which taken from 5280 feet in an Englisch mile, gives the Java Paul short of an English mile 337 English feet. Pal is also any boundary mark, which is mostly a post of wood, but the people would say Pal batu, a stone post, if such boundany mark was a stone pillar.

Pala, Nutmeg. Tangkal Pala, nutmeg tree. Myristica Moschata. The word Pala appears to be of Sanscrit origin, and means simply Fruit, applied par excellence to the nutmeg. Pala, C. 372, and Phala, C. 452, fruit, fruit in general. Palabuan, an anchoring place; a bay. See Labuh. Palabuan Ratu or Wynkoops Bay, on the south coast of Java, at westend of Preanger Regencies.

Palagi, customary, usual, in ordinary routine. Palagi na di ala, it is the usual custom to take it. Lain palagi, unusual, unheard of; litterally — otherwise than usual.

Palahlar, name of a tree, Dipterocarpus trinervis. Has much ropy gum.

Palai, desiring, longing for.

Palajang, a plant growing wild, and sometimes planted in gardens. It resembles a variety of Plantain, and has red flowers. Seldom grows above 8 or 10 feet high. Musa Coccinea.

Palal, of unpleasant taste; harsh to the palate.

Palamporan, an enclosure into which Paddy is collected to dry after cutting, viz. that part which has been levied as the tax of the landlord. The word is derived from Lampor, which in the Malay of Bencoolen, see Crawfurd's Dictionary, means a stack or rick of corn. Lampor alone is not used in Sunda.

Palanchasan, conclusion, end, having come to a termination of work, or anything in hand.

Palanchu, a long stake driven into the ground for any purpose, as a support to a fence or the like.

Palang, a cross beam, a horizontal bar of wood. Anything laid athwart. In Malay occurs — Alang, cross beams in building; and in Javanese it means across — athwart. The Malay name for the long tall grass of the plains alang-alang is probably derived from its barring the way, being entangled and bad to get through. This grass is called in Sunda Eǔrih.

Palangan, indisposed, unwel. Anything which interferes with what we propose doing. Měurěun datang lamun to aya palangan, I shall undoubtedly come if there is not something to prevent me.

Palangké, a litter, a sedan, a Palanquin. (Scr. Palyangka and Paryangka, originally a bed, bedstead.)

Palapah, the fronds or leaf stems of Palm trees. Palapah kalapa, cocoanut branches. Palapah Kawung, branches of the aren tree.

Palasta, done, accomplished, fulfilled. Gěus palasta, it is all done, or accomplished. (Kawi, according to Gericke R. Palastra, dead, died. Set. root Las, to be an artificer, to exercise an art. ! ? Pa, Polynesian Praefix).

Palatuk, a short stake or peg of wood driven into the ground, either as a mark or to tie an animal to.

Palawan, an opposer in any contest, as at games or in active exercises, such as in Ujungan or fighting with rattans. A champion. (Persian Pahlawan, a champion).

Palé, pomatum, or any unguent used for stiffening the mustachios. A little is carried by young dandies about the golok or gobang handles. Kumis di paléan, his mustachios were pointed with pomatum. Palédang, a maker of copper rice pots or Sé-éngs.

Palélé, in proper order; having made proper arrangements. Systematically. Not in confusion or unadvisedly.

Palémbang, name of an old native government on Sumatra opposite the island of Bangka, established by a Javanese colony in the 12th century. The name is derived from Lémbang, to wash ore or metals, such as gold dust.

Paléndéng, set on one side, disregraded, to walk on one side of. To follow the course of. Amusing oneself; unwilling to conform to. La ilah paléndéng, God being disregarded. The expression occurs in a Badui Jampé. Paléndéng chai, to follow the course of the river.

Palěngkung, twisted in a circle, curved, bent over.

Palér, not longing or wishing for women; an aversion to sexual intercourse.

Palias, may it be for from us. God forbid; ward off. Palias těuyn chelaka kitu, may such misfortunes be far from us. Hayang něda palias, would entreat that God should forbid. This word may be a derivative of Paliha, C. 374, a shield, a buckler, or from • Palisa which is of the same meaning C. 374.

Palias, name of a grass, with long narrow leaves; grows in moist cool situations.

Palid, carried away by water; swept away in a stream. A drift.

Palipisan, the temples of the head.

Palis, said of a light or candle which has been blown out by the wind. Driven or drifted away, as heavy black clouds which threatened to send down rain, but have now been drifted away by the wind.

Palisir, cloth or hangings about the upper part of a bed, often ornamented with Hanjéré and tinsel.

Palita, a lamp, an oil lamp, a candle, a light. Quere? Palita, C. 374, heat, burning.

Palobah, about, near to; Palobah tangkal kadu, near the Durian tree. Palobah imah batur, somewhere about my neighbour's house.

Palu, a hammer. Palu gědé, a big hammer, a sledge hammer. Palu, C. 374 a knot, a joint, the joint in a bambu &c. (Malay, Javan. idem).

Paluan, to strike with a hammer.

Palungpung, the Orchis parasite plant, with pretty white flowers, frequently found growing on cocoa nut trees.

Palupuh, bambu flooring, viz large kinds of bambus split open lengthways, till the whole piece can lie flat like a board. (Jav. Plupuh. Mal. Palūpuh idem).

Pamabokan, a Drunkard.

Pamainan, a toy, a plaything. Amusements, entertainments.

Pamaja, the chisel used for turnery work done at the lathe called Pamindo, in making spools.

Pamajikan, a husband or wife; literally the „good one”—or as we should say „the good man” „the good wife”. Probably derived from the Javanese Běchik, honourable, trusty. The word is applied by labourers towards their employer, and frequently occurs in the sense of „Master.”

Pamakasan, name of a district in the middle of the island of Madura.

Pamaké, custom, habit, what is made use of. Pamaké orang kulon goréng, the habit of the people from the westward is bad.

Pamalěs, retaliation, retribution, requital. (Mal. Bâlas, to retribute, to requite, pembâlasan, retaliation, requital, Jav. Walěs en pamalěs, idem.)

Pamali, forbidden by some moral feeling of wrong. Prohibited as unlucky. An interdict, often superstitious, but respected for fear of incurring the displeasure of God or of some overruling power. The Chipamali, or river of Prohibition, in the district of Brebes, in the residency of Tagal, was of old, the boundary between the Sundaese and Javanese people, and their respective governments.

Pamalingan, a thief, a robber.

Paman, an uncle or aunt when younger than the parents of the person using the expression. A friendly term of respect addressed to any person even though no relation. See Uah, and Mama. Evidently compounded of ama father in some Polynesian languages. In Engano ama-ama is father. (Jav. id. An uncle, a younger brother of the father or mother. Mal. An uncle from the fathers side).

Pamanching, a fisherman; a man who takes fish with a hook.

Pamangsén, an inkstand.

Pamarat, what comes from the westward. Musim pamarat, the westmonsoon, the rainy season, from November till April. (Mal. Bărat, West. Jav. id. Wind, storm; the storms in this country coming usually from the westward).

Pamarat hérang, a fair west monsoon. When the wind blows steadily from the west-ward but is not accompanied by the usual rain it is called Pamarat hérang, which is very injurions to young planted crops, especially paddy, which require plenty of rain and usually get it at the season, but now and then a year occurs when the rain fails and the stiff westerly wind does much harm.

Pamasangan, an assortment of sweetmeats set ont on a tray for a stranger or visiter. (From Pâsang, Jav. Mal. made ready, put in order. Masang'i, Jav. to make ready, to prepare).

Pamatang, a person who hunts deer on open plains by mounting on a horse and galloping up alongside of them, cuts them down with a sword or gobang. This is much practised in some parts of the Preanger Regencies bij order of the chiefs. The horse so ridden is also called kuda pamatang.

Pamatil, the rays or sharp bones in the fins of some fish, viz in the fins near the head. These serve as weapons of defence te some fish and sometimes inflict painful wounds, as is the case with the Lélé.

Pamatuk, the bill of a bird. (Jav. Patuk, idem. Matuk, to peck with the bill).

Pamautan, the last leaf which sets itself upon the Paddy straw before the grain makes its appearance. When being cut, the straw is snapped just below the insertion of this leaf, which is immediately stripped off the straw, and this is called di pautan, to strip off, to pull away.

Paméan, a place to keep rice in. A vessel in a native's house for holding rice.

Paméntahan, demand, request, what is asked for.

Paměuntasan, a ferry, a place at which to cross a river, or any water.

Paměupěuh, a stick to beat anything with. A bludgeon, a mallet.

Pamichěun, an outlet, an escape, an opening or place at which to throw something away, or be able to dispose of anything. The word most frequently means an outlet or escape for a canal, where surplus water can be discharged.

Pamidangan, the place where birds are in the habit of flying to. The place where wild animals stroll out to, to feed. A lounging place for human beings, a place to stroll about in. (Jav. Midang, to go to a place for pleasure, to amuse himself.)

Pamikat, something set by way of bait or allurement. (Jav. Pikat, a trap set to catch birds. Mikat, to catch birds).

Pamilih, choice, alternative. Po-ék pamilih, a choice in the dark, not knowing what to do; at your wit's end. (Jav. Pilih, choice, chusing. Milih, Mal. Pilih, Memilih, to chuse).

Pamindo, a small turning lathe for petty purposes, such as making the kisi, spindles or spools on which thread is wound.

Pamipitan, the first few heads of paddy which are cut. See Pipit.

Pamondokan, a house of reception for travellers, or temporary sojourners. A place where a traveller spends the night. (From Pondok).

Pamor, the damasking on iron; the wavy lines which are brought out of iron by lying it to soak in a solution of Arsenic and which natives consider as so great an ornament. Any inherent good quality which is not every day evinced. Lamun raja di rurugan, mohal di bijil pamor na, if you attack the king, he is sure to show his pamor (or inherent power). (Jav. Pamor, mixed metal. Mal. Pâmur, the veins, or damasking of the blades of weapons).

Pamoras, a musketoon, a blunderbuss. A short thick gun, generally with a wide mouth.

Pampéngkěn, to fling from one; to fling away. To throw down with force. To fling away in a rage.

Pamujahan, a place of offering, or of adoration. The word is derived from Puja, with the usual pre- and suffix Pa and an. Puja C. 414, offering, sacrifice, worship, homage, adoration. These Pamujahans are very frequent amongst the mountains, being often found at their top, where some one of yore is supposed to be buried.

Pamuk, a great fighter, a valliant man. A man who in battle makes amuk.

Pamukti, a fall of good luck. Exceedingly lucky. Prosperity. See Bukti, which word it is, with the Polynesian preposition Pa.

Pamukulan, a place where some beating is going on. Indigo works. Pamulu, shape, appearance, form, description. ( Jav. or Kawi according to G. R. face; shape, form. From Mulu, to see).

Pamuna, see Raja pamuna, in which ossociation ouly it has been heard.

Pan, a prefix in compounding words, of much the same force and use as Pa and Pang.

Panagan, a building raised on posts, a little off the ground, usually made of bambu, and provided with a moveable atap roof, so as to expose the contents, at pleasure, to the sun and in case of rain, to be able to speedily cover it up. A small Panagan is found in every paddy field when cutting, in which the short heads and refuse of grain are collected and dried. Such Panagans, only on a large scale, are used for drying Coffee in the pulp. The word appears to be derived from Naga a snake or serpent, thus Pa-naga-an, the place of the serpent, and a serpent or dragon called Anta Boga is mentioned in the Manék Maya, where it is connected with the account of early paddy-growing on Java, as a kind of presiding genius. See Raffles Java 2 vol, appendix Page CCXIX.

Panah, a bow (for shooting). Bāna, C. 467, an arrow. The bow here appears to have been coufounded with the arrow. In Sunda an arrow is called Anak panah, the child of the bow. (Mal. id. Jav, an arrow.)

Panaitan, or Pulo Panaitan, an island lying close to Java Head, called" Prince's Island" by Europeans. It is probably derived from the Sunda word Jait or Jayit, to take up or out of the water anything which has been put therein to soak. This probably was a rendez vous place for the old Hindu traders, who came from India and proceeded along the South Coast of Java to reach Bali and the Eastern islands, without venturing among the pirates of the inner seas of Java. Pa-nyait-an = Panaitan, the place of coming up, or taking up (out of the Ocean).

Panakawan, a domestic, a retainer, a follower.

Panambah, augmentation, what is added. (From Tambah).

Panamping, on the borders of, adjoining. Panamping Chidurian, along the course of the Chidurian. (Batav. Samping, side, border).

Panang'an, a respectful modification of Tang'an, the hand. A refined expression. Ku panangan Puachi, with the hand of Puachi.

Pananggalan, the first day of a moon. The first day of a new month. Bulan gĕus pananggalan, the moon has begun afresh. See Tanggal.

Pananggung, a carrying stick. A stick laid across the shoulder, to which objects are attached to be carried. See Tanggung.

Panangguran, heedlessly, without having an earnest intention. Casually. (Jav. Tanggor, to run against a thing, to hurt. Nanggor, to knock).

Panapak, the foot—a refined expression. (Tâpak, Tĕlâpak Mal. the palm, the sole of the foot. Jav. Trace. Tĕlápakkan, the sole of the foot.)

Panarima, thanks, acknowledgment, obligation.

Panarukan, name of a district in the residency of Bazukie, the seat of an ancient trade in Java, before the arrival of Europeans. Panas, hot. Vehement, passionate. Eǔkěur panas poi, during the heat of the day. Panas lěungan, hot-handed, or a person in whose hands nothing prospers. The reverse of this is Ti-is lěungan, cold handed, which see.

Panasaran, a feeling of uneasiness or distrust that matters are not all in order An anxiety to know something. Panasaran nu léutik, the diffidence of the lower orders- the anxiety of a man of small degree to know or get something. (Jav. Sasar, mistaking; Nasar, to mistake the road, to get out of the right way. Kasasar, confused.)

Panataran, the name on Bali for inferior village temples, derived from Natar, a court. In these Panatarans, offerings are made to Durga, Kala and and the Butas or goblins, by placing the objects offered on the ground. Friederich Bat. Trans. Vol 22 pages 32/33. Natar on Bali is the innermost part of a house where offerings are made. Ditto Page 56. Natar is probably only a modification of the word Latar, which in Javanese is the court before a house. There still exists on Java, in the Residency of Kědiri, near Blitar, an old stone temple called Panataran, which evidently has had a parity of origin with such places on Bali.

Panawar, a remedy, an antidote, a charm. See Tawar.

Panawar Jambi, a celebrated remedy, especially for staunching blood; brought from Jambi on Sumatra. It is the leaf-bud of a fern tree, aud the mossy matter adhering thereto is the Panawar. It is the Cybotium Glaucescens of Botany. This plant is also called the Scythian Lamb, and was formerly considered to be some animal.

Pancha-bagah, having difference of opinion. Differing in wish or in will. Pancha, C. 347 is the numeral five, but is prefixed to a great many words, and seems to be at the bottom of a system of reducing every thing to fives, as the five senses, the five tastes, the five royal insignia &c. &c. Bhaga, C. 490, part, portion, a share. Thus the five divisions - or perhaps points of dispute.

Pancha-baya, a critical period; a period when any harm may come over us. Gěus liwat pancha-baya, he has got over the critical period, when fear might be entertained. (Bhaya, Scr, fear, alarm. The word pancha, five, added to this and the preceding word means many or universal, as it is a holy number; there are five elements, five superior deities (on Bali); five Bhûtas or demons etc.)

Panchalang, an emissary of the police. A person sent out as a spy. Prahu panchalang, a man of war vessel or ship sent out to keep the police at sea. A cruizer. Panchalang Bogor a police spy from Buitenzorg. (Jav. Ohalang, watching, observing, spying.)

Pancha-lima, a book or written paper for ascertaining lucky or unlucky days, and what must be done at any particular period of any day. Astrology. A sort of Psychography. A kind of divination book arranged under five heads, somewhat after the fashion of the old Javanese week of five days. Over these five days Hindu deities preside, viz Mahiswara or Siva—Bisnu or Vishnu—Barahama or Brahma—Asri or Sri who is the goddess Lakshmi—and Kala who is also Yama, the Regent of death. All sorts of rebels to constituted authority generally have, or pretend to be provided with a Pancha-lima, with which they dupe their followers. Pancha is Sanscrit for five, C, 347 and Lima is also five in Malay, Sunda, and many other Polynesian tongues and the compound word seems therefore to be tautology, of which the uninitiated are not conscious. As Pancha, however, is indisputably Sanscrit for Five, we might fairly expect that the other part of the expression would have its origin in the same language and as Lima does not occur in Clough in any admissable shape, it may perhaps be a contraction of some more extended word. The nearest approach which presents itself is Gaelima C, 186, sinking,- in the composition contracted to simply Lima and the „five sinkings“ may have indicated some method of drawing or selecting lots.

Panchar, a bundle of reeds or split bambus used for a flambeau.

Pancha-téng'ah, in the midst, middle, mid.

Pancha-Warna, party-coloured. Pancha, C 347 five, Warna, C 625 colour, to paint. Pancha-Warna, C, 349, the five colours which are reflected by the body of Buddha, viz blue, gold-colour, red, white and black.

Pancha-Wati, the place for keeping a concubine; a concubine's dwelling, apart from the husband's abode with his legal wife. Wati, C, 618 a woman of property, a female possessing great wealth.

Panchĕr, the tap root of a tree. Applied to a man who is the lineal descendant of some family, or chief person as if he was the tap root of his stock. (Jav. The principal root of a tree, the ancestor; descent in a straight line.)

Panchĕran, having a tap root Firmly rooted.

Panchi, taken out. Picked out and removed. Driven out, as a bolt by driving another bolt against its smaller end. To separate from something else. (Jav. Panchi means measured, determined).

Panching, name of a kind of wild Plantain, Heliconia Buccinata, Heliconia Indica.

Panchir a wedge. A wedge or peg driven into wood work.

Pancho, a method of taking fish, by setting a circle of stones, which have an opening to be closed by a bit of net when the fish enter. Similar to Kombongan, only done more easily and in a hurry.

Panchuran, a spout, a channel, a gutter, a bit of bambu, set for the purpose of leading water, when fixed and immoveable. A spout to bathe at; set in the ground so as to lead water from any reservoir or spring. The etymology of Panchuran, is the strictly Sunda word Chur indicative of pouring out, with Pan and an, the usual pre and suffixes. See Talang. {Panchuran Jav. the falling stream; Batav. Talang, or Mal. Abangan, is the spout, commonly made of Bambu, wherethrough the falling water flows).

Pandahan, name of a place and sugar—mill in Pasuruan, at the base of the Gunung Arjuno. Dahan and Dahana C. 263 fire, a name of Agni, the god of fire; burning, combustion. Pandahan, the place of combustion. Can this place in old Hindu times have been a place where the dead were burnt? Pandak, short, lowly. A modification, or sort of diminutive of Pondok, short. (Mal. Pendek, idem. Jav. Péndék (Javanese characters) low, under, beneath).

Pandakawan, and Panakawan, an attendant, a follower; as with natives, generally a young man as an attendant on a chief. Compounded of Pandak, short, lowly, and Kawan, an attendant.

Pandan, the screwpine, name of a genus of plants. Pandanus odoratissimus. The young leaves, especially those about the flower, being shred fine and mixed with flowers, are worn in the hair by young natives when they are busy courting.

Pandan Pudak, Pandanus Moschatus, a sweet scented variety.

Pandan Rampé, Pandanus latifolius, flower shred fine and mixed with the hair. A Sancrit Etymology may be given for the word Pandan. Pan, C, 359, a leaf, leaves. Daha, C. 263, a bud, a young sprout. Pan-däha-an, Pandan, the tree or object which bears the „leafy sprouts” or „branches”, in allusion to the way in which the Pandanus grows, being one main upright stem, surrounded by long broad leaves without any tree branches. See Dahan.

Pandapa, an open hall in front of a house. An audience hall. (By mistake made from Scr. Mandapa, a temporary building, an open shed or hall, erected on festival occasions as at a marriage. The Javanese mistook mandapa for a verbal form, and made accordingly the substantive Pandapa. But there is yet in the district of Jasinga a mountain called Mandapa according to his form.)

Pandawa, the sons of Pandu in the Mahabarat.

Pandé, learned, erudite. Skilled. A blacksmith. From this we see that, at early periods of Javanese history, blacksmiths were considered learned men, and the traditions of the country countenance this idea, the art of the blacksmith being held in great repute, and designated by a sanscrit word. Before their intercourse with the Hindus, the Javanese used stone hatchets which are still occasionally found, aud when the use of iron became known, its workers were looked upon as “learned men”. Pandi, C. 353, learned, erudite, well-informed in theological study, the same as Pandita. In the Singhalese, or at least in their literature, a blacksmith and teacher or preceptor are designated by words nearly alike, aud evidently of a common origin. Clough Page 61 gives — āchāriyā, a blacksmith; āchāyarya, a teacher, a preceptor. So that even on Ceylon and consequently also in India proper, the profession of blacksmith and preceptor were looked upon as one. The Javanese and Balians confound Himpu in the same way, which designates both a blacksmith and a learned man. (Cf. Scr. Pandâ knowledge, wisdom. A form Pandin or Pandya, which might have been altered into Pandé, does not exist. Pandita is known enough. Himpu read Hěmpu or Mpu. Fr.)

Pandéglan, name of a place in Bantam on the Gunung Karang with a fine view-see Négla.

Pandĕurĕusan, a place where fish spawn, from nĕurĕus- which see.

Pandĕuri, behindhand. Later in time or place.

Pandita, a Pundit; a man learned in Buddhistical or Brahminical lore. The word is nowadays, on Java, applied to Christian Clergymen. Pandita, C. 353, learned, erudite, well-informed in scholastic and theological study.

Pandita, viz Pulo Pandita, the island of the Panditas. An island situated in the straits of Lombok, and generally called vulgarly "Banditti Island". The island, however, has its name from Holy men and not from ragamuffins. (The island has no particular name given to it by the native Balinese; it is called only Nusa, the island, in opposition to the continent of the Balinese, i. e. Bali or Bali-angka, the womb of heroes or of perpetual offerings. The name Pandita, given to this island, originates in the ingenuity of some European officers, who thought to correct the Portuguese „Banditti” into a native word! Fr.)

Pandu, The father of Arjuna and husband of Kunti. The father of the Pandawa. Pandu, C. 382, the name of a sovereign of ancient Delhi, and nominal father of Yudhisthira, and the other four Pandawa Princes.

Pané-ér, otherwise called Sunduk; a crossbeam in carpentry.

Panékér, flint and steel to strike a light.

Panél, a balustrade; the horizontal piece of wood along the top of wooden rails. (Seems to be the Dutch Paneel).

Panĕmbahan, a title of high rank, as the Panĕmbahan of Sumĕnap, on the island of Madura, who after a long and reputable life died on the 31 march 1854. Derived from Sémbah, to make reverence or obeisance, with the usual prefix Pa und suffix an, the object before wich we must make obeisance. A. title in general below Susuhunan and Sultan. This same Panembahan of Sumĕnap had for upwards of 20 years borne the title of Sultan under the style of Paku Nata ning Rat, conferred on him by the Dutch, for services rendered them in the war of Java in 1825/30. He was of much service to Raffles in the compilation of the literary parts of his History of Java.

Panéng'ah, the middle one. Intermediate.

Panĕlĕg, any instrument by which something else is held firm or fixed.

Pang, a preposition; a modification of Pa, when occurring before a word beginning with a vowel. Pang also forms the superlative degree, Pang hadé na, the best; Pang goréng na, the worst. The comparative degree is formed by manan, as hadé manan nu lian, better than the other. Goréng manan nu séjén, worse than the other. Pang has also the power of indicating something to be done for another, or for oneself. Pangomongkĕn, talk or bespeak it for me. Pang-hadéankĕn, make it in order for me, or for some one else than yourself. Pang-giringkĕn, chase them awy for me, or for your neighbour.

Pangabakti, an act of adoration, an act of worship; any good deed done under a feeling of its being acceptable to God. See Bakti.

Pangabĕtah, pleasure, delight. What we take delight in. See pĕtah.

Pangaji, to the value of. Amounting in value to-Barang pangaji sa ratus rupiyah, goods to the value of ʄ 100. (Jav. idem. Jav. Bal Aji, idem = arga.) Pang'alapan, the spot where water is admitted upon a lot of sawahs, to be distributed thereon. The place where water is tapped out of a canal. The terrace of sawahs which receives the water coming immediately from the canal or the river and which is usually the finest of the whole lot, getting the most and the best of the sediment.

Pang'ali, an instrument for digging earth; usually a stake of wood sharpened at one end.

Pang'alitan, shamming, pretending to be ill when much work is on hand, and much ordering about may be expected.

Pang'ang'onan, the place where cattle, especially buffaloes graze.

Pang'antén, a bridegroom or bride. Probably from anti, to wait, to long for. Pang'antén lalaki, the bridegroom. Pang'antén awéwé, the bride.

Pangapuan, a lime kiln, more usually called Pakapuran, a case or place to hold lime in.

Pang'arah, the object of our desires. That which we long for.

Pang'arakan, a place or establishment where arack is made.

Pang'arakan, the apparatus for carrying a person in procession. A processional chair.

Pang'ari, a wooden spade, an instrument used to turn over rice in the pan whilst cooking.

Pang'aruh, propitious, efficacious in obtaining: lucky. Used when any prayer to God, or petition to man is granted. Pang'aruh ing jampé, obtained by the efficacious power of incantation.

Pang'asaman, the idea prevails that poisonous snakes whet their fangs on certain vegetables in the jungle, thereby imparting their venom to them. Now if a man gets scratched or wounded by such a piece of vegetable, and the wound festers and becomes an ulcer, the people say it comes from the snakes poison, and such a disease is called Pang'asaman.

Pang'asih, commisseration, pity; anything which we do or concede out of consideration to another. See Kasih.

Pang'asuh, a nurse, a woman to take care of infants.

Pang'awinan, the spear bearers in a procession. Halberdiers, a name given to the inhabitants of certain villages, who formerly held the office of halberdiers. See Kawin.

Pang'ayogya-an, indication, something to serve as a guide; a word compounded in the Polynesian fashion from Yogya, C. 577, suitable, fit, proper, becoming. A calculator of expedients.

Pang'ayogya-an patahunan, the indicators of yearly work. Such are the trees Randu, Kenyéré and Jéngkol coming into flower, which is generally about July, which is a warning to begin to cut down fresh forest for next year's humah.

Pang'ayunan, a royal bed chamber.

Pangbabuk, a short thick stick sometimes carried as a weapon of defence.

Pangbĕdilan, as Sa pangbĕdilan, the distance which a gun will carry.

Pangbĕdol Sambung, a payment made for deserting the cockpit. Name of a tax levied in Bantam by the native chiefs on those who remove from their jurisdiction.

Pangchalikan, a seat. A refined expression. 346 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE

Pang'ěbus, a ransom. The price paid to redeem any object.

Pang'éjoan, the period at which the rice is cooked. The period occupied in boiling a pot of rice. A vague way of indicating time.

Pang'éran, the highest title for a native on Java below the actual sovereignty of Susuhunan, Sultan or Panĕmbahan, and given to princes of the blood. It is most likely derived from Era, bashfullness, shamefacedness, with the prefix Pang, and suffix an. The object before whom we ought to deport ourselves with bashfulness or shamefacedness. The word éra does not appear in Javanese dictionaries, and may in that language have become obsolete. It has, nevertheless, the above import in the Sunda language (vide voce) and is a very common word. Pang'éran is also not unfrequently used to designate God, and as such is used as a vocative in addressing the Deity.

Pang'éran Adipati, the title of the heir apparent in Java.

Pang'ěrok, the strike of a corn measure. A curry comb. Something to perform the act of Kĕrok, which see.

Pang'érong, the prods or bambu skewers used in fastening on the covering along the ridge poles of a thatched house. Derived from Kérong , to wind round, as a rope twisted round two sticks, and in this case the Pang'érong holds the ropes which secure the thatch.

Pang'ĕurĕut, a cross beam or rafter in house building. The beam running at right angles to the Lambaran, and binding together the two sides of a building.

Panggal, a top, a childs plaything.

Panggalak, the priming of a gun; the powder which rests in the pan. Liang Panggalak, the touch hole of a gun.

Panggang, to roast before or on the fire; to roast, to grill. Panggang kotok, roast fowl.

Panggangsoran, a bambu cut so as to present a sharp edge against which yams or other soft vegetables are cut up, or reduced to shreds.

Panggawa or Punggawa, high officers of state before the introduction of Mohamedanism. Prime ministers or deputies of the Sovereign. The word is given in Marsden's Dictionary as of Javanese derivation and meaning „an officer," „a warrior," „a hero." In the Tijdschrift voor Ned. Indië, 9de jaargang, 9de aflevering, year l847, page 290, the following passage occurs, when giving a description of the „Usana Bali,"which is a popular description of the institutes of the Hindu religion on Bali. „ There are in attendance upon the Prince, all his Punggawas (chiefs, who are also the stadholders in the Provinces; thus on Bali, the seven other princes are the Punggawas of the Déwa Agung of Klonkong. Punggawa is correctly speaking a Bull ; it is Sanscrit, and thence derived to imply a Brave and Conspicuous man". — The derivation of this word is Sanscrit. — Pun, Clough page 405, means, male, masculine; Gawa, Clough page 170, an ox, a bullock, and thus a masculine animal of the cow kind = a Bull, in reference to the superstitious regard which Hindus entertain for the bull. There are more examples of great men's names being derived from animals. See Maisa, Kěbo, Lombu, Rangga. Panggawa is a title among the Dayaks of Sarawak and among the Bugis. (Brooke's Journal, vol. 1, page 22, page 46). Panggawa is also a title of rank on the East Coast of Borneo in the Tanah Bumbu. (Tijds. voor Indischo Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 1853, page 343). Panggawa is also derived by some from the Javanese word Gawa, to bear, to carry, hence Panggawa is a bearer or a carrier of the orders of the sovereign, whence it also means a principal minister of state.

Panggawé, a workman, a labourer, a man to do work for another.

Panggĕbug, a bludgeon, a stick to thrash with.

Panggiling, a roller. Any contrivance to turn round-as a windlass; name of the long bambu, with a short spoke through the lower end, by which, in native sea-going boats the mat sail is rolled up perpendicularly, aud which can thus be partly or wholly furled or reefed, according to the wind.

Panggilingan, any machine with which grinding can be done, a mill; from Giling, to grind. Panggilingan Béas, a rice mill. Panggilingan Tiwu, a sugar mill.

Panggitik, a switch, a stick to strike with. Award, adjustment. Any contribution levied, literally, what is got by striking.

Panggul, to carry on the shoulder, as a heavy weight.

Panggulingan, the bed place of a great man.

Panggung, an elevated stage; a platform; a look-out house.

Panggung, high, tall. A word used towards nobles.

Panghadéan, goodness, kind endeavours, kindness.

Pangharăngan, a place where charcoal is made.

Pangharti, meaning, signification.

Panghulu, a mahomedan priest. Panghulu properly means Headman, from hulu, the head, but is restricted in Sundanese to a Headman of the mahomedan religion, a priest. On Sumatra a Panghulu means the head of a Suku or tribe; and is thus there a civil designation. On the island of Nias, on the Westcoast of Sumatra, the chief of one or more villages is called Si-Ulu; his power is despotic aud hereditary. (Tijds. voor Ned. Indie, January 1854, page 2).

Panghulu tandang, a great man whom it is difficult to approach. A ringleader.

Pangidĕran, a revolution, a turn, the act of revolving.

Pangimpian, a dream, the act of dreaming.

Pangiring, a follower; suite, train. Vide iring.

Pangiwa, an assistant, a petty official. A subordinate officer. It may perhaps be derived from Iwa, Clough page 71. Scent, the power of smelling at a distance after the manner of hounds. With the usual Pang prefixed, would thus imply a very useful officer in scenting out information for a Sovereign.

Pangjadian, the time required for seed to come up out of the ground after planting.

Pangjĕpit, nippers, pincers, blacksmith's tongs. Any contrivance for nipping or jamming together. A vice. Pangkalan, a place where boats stop or congregate, and consequently where a kind of market takes place. A quay, a wharf. Pangkalan China, a place where Chinese reside or stop with their trading boats and hold trade. See Mangkalan.

Pangkat, rank, office, gradation. Tier, row, stage.

Pangkéng, a room, an apartment shut up from public view.

Pangku, to take on the lap, to cause to sit on the lap. The lap itself. See Mangku.

Panglai, a plant, the root of which is much used in native doctoring. It is the Zingiber gramineum. It is found growing in every village, and no native Dukun can exercise her calling without it.

Panglaku, a messenger. A man sent to communicate the orders of the authorities. A petty village police man.

Panglima, a title not used by the Sunda people among themselves, but used as applied to some other foreign native chief. In Sumatra Panglima is a Governor or Chief, a commander of forces. The word Lima means Hand in the language of the Sandwich Islands, and in most other dialects of the Pacific, but with this acceptation has become obsolete in most of the more civilized languages of the Archipelago, particularly in those of Sumatra and Java, though it is retained as such, viz the hand, by the Bugis and Balinese. Lima in Malay and Sunda, as well as in most Polynesian languages means also the number Five, no doubt originally derived from the five fingers of the hand or the five toes of the foot. The gradation of rank as called after parts of the human body, may be traced also in the words Panghulu, headman, and on Bali they also use Chukurda, as a designation of rank, derived from Chukur, foot.

Pangling, growing up speedily; shorting up. Said of plants or men who grow up quick.

Pang'onan, a troop of deer, a herd of deer.

Pang'ot, a variety of Péso-raut, or curved knife for paring anything.

Pangpang, a dead branch still attached to the tree.

Pangparang, a piece of wood or bambu tied against a bambu pager so as to be able to set it up firmly. A bambu cross stick, the same as Tégér.

Pangpĕurĕuman, to let fall any juice or liquid into the eye by way of medicament to cure its weakness. See Pĕurĕum.

Pangrang'o, name of the conical top of the Gunung Gĕdé near Buitenzorg, which contains the crater of that volcanic mountain. No satisfactory explanation can be given of its meaning, but seems to imply — uppermost pinnacle.

Pangrasa, taste, feeling, opinion.

Pangriyĕusan, a flat stone for rubbing or grinding down any vegetable matter or curry stuff, or any medical preparation. Called also Batu giling. See Riyěus.

Pangsét, of a salt taste, saltish.

Pangsar, name of a tree with a gum.

Pang'ukuyan, what is scratched or scooped out of a hole in the ground. See Ngukui. Pangwidangan, a frame or loom for stretching anything, especially cloth which has to be embroidered.

Paniti, a pin, the Portuguese word Alfinite.

Panitik, a bit of steel for striking a light with a flint.

Panjak, a mountebank. A man who makes grimaces. A man who goes about with every troop of Ronggéngs, and dances with them for the public amusement. A buffoon.

Panjang, long, lengthy. Lĕungan panjang, long-handed, means a thief. Sa panjang jalan, the whole length of the road; all along the road.

Panjang, name of a kind of dish. A large dish of earthenware for setting out food for guests.

Panjĕr, earnest money. An advance paid on some agreement.

Panji, a title for a young nobleman, for sons of chiefs of rank. His not in use among the Sunda districts, but is heard as applied to the Javanese. Panji is a celebrated hero in Javanese romance, called also Ina-Karta-pati, and husband of Chandra Kirana. Pana, C. 385, a lamp, a light of any kind; life, animation; Jiwa, C. 212, life, existence, beautiful, pleasing. Pana-jiwa, dropping the final wa, which is the constructive particle — Panji, the Lamp of the Soul. Panji was the son of Ami Luhur, Sovereign of Janggala, and is said to have been killed in a war with Nusa Antara or Madura in A. Javae 927, plus 78 = A.D. 1005. (Raffles, vol. 28, p. 94).

Panon, eye, eyes. A refined expression. Panon kiai Pangéran, the eyes of the revered Pangéran. Panon poi, the eye of the day; the sun.

Panamat, a Spanish dollar; a dollar. A corruption of the Dutch expression Spaansche mat = Spanish dollar.

Pantang, forbidden, unlucky; interdicted by some superstitious custom.

Pantaran, somewhat resembling, such as, the like of. Pantaran bĕunang di gunung, such as you get from the mountains. This word is evidently derived from the Malay word Tara, Marsden 63, equal, fellow, counterpart, but Tara simply does not occur in Sunda, in this sense.

Pantég, driven home; driven in as far as it can go. Fully arrived and present. Pantég kapoi, the day is upon us, the day has come.

Pantég, in an exceeding degree, excessively. Pantég ku hayang papanggi, I very much long to meet him, or her.

Pantĕs, fit, proper, becoming, graceful, neat. Hanto pantĕs sia bogah kalakuan kitu, it is not proper that you shauld conduct yourself in that way. Maké jamang pasmént pantĕs nakĕr, he was very gracefully wearing a jacket with gold galoon.

Panto, a small door made of split bambu; a wicket.

Pantong, to drive in with a mallet; to thump in with a block of wood.

Pantun, a legendary tale; a tale or narrative told by a professional story-teller, and relating to ancient times, mostly to the times when Pajajaran flourished, and of which a love story forms the stock in trade. The man tells his story in a singing and argumentative manner, accompanying himself on an instrument called a Kachapi. Tukang pantun, the man who tells the story of the Pantun, and is the actor on the occasion, though that consists in sitting still, playing on his Kachapi, and reciting his story.

Panuduh, an accuser. A person who discloses a crime.

Panuduh, the fore finger, the index finger, Explanation, instruction.

Panuhun, entreaty, solicitation. What is humbly requested.

Panuilan, anything used to assist in driving any object into a hole, as a piece of wood or iron, which being struck drives pegs of wood or nails deep into their places. A toothpick (from being used to drive meat from between the teeth). See Tuil.

Panuju, a dagger, usually called péso panuju, a stabbing knife. See Tuju.

Panulung, aid, assistance, help.

Panunggu, a guard, a watchman, a porter. A sentinel, a warder, a keeper. See Tunggu.

Panutup, termination, the last of anything; any piece laid on the top of a lot. The crowning piece. A bribe given to keep a bad matter secret. Derived from Tutup, which see.

Panyabrangan, a ferry, a place to cross a river at.

Panyabungan, a cock-pit, a place to fight cocks. The word occurs as the name of a village on the Jambu Estate, reported in old times to have been a great place for cock-fighting.

Panyakit, sickness, malady, disease. Sakit in Malay is ill, sick, diseased;—not used in Sunda.

Panyana, as I should have thought; as I should have imagined. Panyana mohal mĕunang, as I should have thought he would never have got it. This word is the Sanscrit Nyana, C. 216, or Gnyana, C. 215, wisdom, understanding, intelligence, knowledge; religious knowledge, such as is acquired by the reading and study of the sacred books. The Sanscrit word has thus the Polynesian Pa before it, and Pa-nyana is — “the act of understanding.” Panyana kula, the act of my understanding; as I understand it. So also may be explained the Malay word Tranyana, I should never have thought it; compounded of Nyana, and Tra, the short for Trada in Malay, no, not. To nyana, I should not have thought it.

Panyapu, a brush to lay on paint or whitewash.

Panyĕupahan, the time taken to chew a quid of sĕurĕuh.

Panyĕusĕup, name of a handsome but small bird of a bright crimson colour, called also Kalachés.

Panyiraman, a watering pot.

Panyisi, on the outside, from Sisi, side; people living on the borders, and who have no influence and are looked down upon or oppressed with impunity.

Papadon, a cardinal point—either due N. S. E. or West. Papadon opat, the four cardinal points. Apparently derived from Padu, to oppose, to be in opposition to. Pa-padu-an = Papadon.

Papag, to go out to meet and to receive. To go to meet on the road a person who is coming, and then escort him to your house. This is a compliment paid to all persons of consequence.

Papag or papagan, the bark of trees when pulled off in strips.

Papaharé, side by side, emulating each other; trying who shall be first; striving with others to attain some object.

Papai, to fellow the course of; to track, to trace. Chai na di papai, he followed the course of the river. Papai urut, to track a mark.

Papak, level and even on the top; flat. Gĕdong papak, a stone building with a flat roof. Sawah pinuh ku chai sa papak ing galangan, the sawah was full of water, till it laid level with the ridges.

Papalayĕun, a kind of remonstrative expression against any one who wishes to excuse himself from doing anything. Di titah naik kalapa, papalayĕun sasari bisa, you are ordered to go up the cocoa-nut-tree, for the simple reason that you are daily in the habit of doing so.

Papalayon, a pleasant and harmonious sound of the gamĕlan, or of people singing to musical instruments.

Papaliaskĕn, and Pangpaliaskĕn, to entreat God to ward off evil; I beseach that disaster may be far from us. See Palias.

Papan, a plank, a board, flooring.

Papandayan, name of a mountain in the Preangĕr Regencies. South South East from Bandung, generally called Papan Dayang, though the correct word is Papandayan, the place of the blacksmiths, from Pandai or Pandé, a blacksmith. Mr. Friederich has heard the mountain very distinctly called Papandayan, by the natives in its immediate neighbourhood. In Kawi the word is written Pandai or Panday, of which there are more similar examples. It has been changed, in the colloquial language, into Pandé. Panda, Clough 353, is wisdom, understanding, science, learning. Pandita, Clough 353, learned, erudite, well informed in scholastic and theological study. Blacksmiths or workmen in iron have, in early ages, been looked upon as learned men, and hence in Java, till this day, a blacksmith is called a Pandé. These men well deserved the title amongst a people who, till the arrival of Hindus amongst them, knew not the use of iron, but made use of stone wedges for the purpose of cutting. A similarity of thought must have prevailed with the native when he named a volcanic mountain a Papandayan, or blacksmith's shop, as with the ancients of Europe when they applied the name Volcano to a mountain in a state of eruption; which word is generally supposed to be derived from Vulcan, the god of subterraneous fire, who was also reputed for his skill in blacksmith's work, in fabricating armour.

Papanggungan, an elevated shed from which a prospect may be enjoyed; a look-out house. See Manggung.

Paparah, to adjust, to arrange according to will or testament, and not according to the law of Mahomet. Paparon, to divide, to each take a share. From Paro, which see. Paparon lĕutak, to divide the mud, an expression used in sawah making, where one man owns the sawah, but having no buffaloes to plough it, gives the sawah to plough to some one who has buffaloes. When the ground has been all ploughed and rendered fit for planting, the parties divide the ground; the owner of the sawah plants his own share, and the man with the buffaloes retains the other half in payment for ploughing, and then further takes care of his own share alone.

Papas, to dubb off wood with an adze. To cut and square wood with a baliyung.

Papasah, separated, divided; what was lately united now put asunder. Separating on a journey, each going a different way.

Papasan, to square wood , to dubb off wood with an axe or adze.

Papasan, name of a running plant, which is often boiled as a greens and given to a woman after her confinement.

Papatah, orders, instructions, directions, precepts. Lain papatah, that's not the way you were taught; that will never do. Papatahna hadé, his precepts were good.

Papatahan, to instruct, to give precepts, to teach, to show how to act. To warn. Kudu di papatahan éta jélĕma, you must show that person what to do.

Papatong, a neuropterous insect called a Horse stinger, or a Dragon fly; Libellula. A common variety is Ashna Viatica.

Papatungan, see Patung, having a share with, associated, connected in business. Trading together.

Papayon, a roof or covering. A temporary covering. Anything set up by way of shelter.

Papégon, the Chinese plough drawn by a single buffaloe.

Papĕlakan, whatever is planted; plantations.

Papisah, separated, put apart. See Pisah and Misah.

Papolah, to cook victuals, to make cooking preparations.

Papotongan, anything which has been separated from something else. A piece broken off. A piece cut off. A man's wife whom he has repudiated or divorced.

Paprangan, warefare, fighting, battle. Wartime.

Para, of the order of, of the rank or number of. Bangsana para Raden, his race (or descent) is of the order of Radens.— Para puachi, of the rank (or number) of Puachi. Para putri, princesses collectively. Vide also Parahiang below. Para becomes Poro in Javanese and is usually translated by: all, every.

Parab, food, sustenance. Naun parabna, what does it feed on?, or what is its food? Parab kotok, food for fowls. Parab kuda, food for horses.

Parabah, goods, chattels, property. In a collective sense: gear, tackle. A compound of Para, of the number of, and Abah, effects. Parabah dapur, kitchen traps, cooking pots, etc. etc. Parabah tinun, weaving gear; all the implements necessary for weaving.

Paraban, to feed, to give food to, to provide with food. Jélĕma na kudu di paraban, the men must be fed.

Parabot, tools, implements. Parabot tukang kayu, carpenter's tools. Apparently derived from Para, of the number of, and Habot, heavy, = things which are heavy, implements- Habot is rarely used in Sunda, for heavy, though sometimes occuring.

Parabu, and Prabu, a title given to ancient chiefs in Java, in pre-mahomedan times. Derived from Pra, Clough 430, a particle and prefix implying excess, much, very exceeding, excellence. Phu, to be, see Clough 443. Thus Pra, pre-eminent and Phu, to be, A master, a chief, a lord. As an adjective, strong, able.

Parada, to help in difficulties.

Parada, (Portuguese), tinsel. Leaf or thin plate of any metal. Parada mas, gold tinsel.

Paragan, suddenly attacked with violent stomach ache which terminates in death. The Cholera Morbus when taking off many people suddenly is called Paragan. Kĕbo paragan, a buffaloe suddenly taken ill, which if not killed would soon die of itself. Such animals are immediately slaughtered, and the flesh is still good.

Paragat, accomplished, perfected; got through. Gĕus paragat, we have got through the work.

Parah, a ledge or kind of shelf in native houses, close up under the roof, mostly at one end. This place being out of the way of children and people in general, is used for kind of store room.

Parahiang, a proper name frequently occuring in the districts of Sunda. The natives tell you that in such places, their heathen forefathers vanished from the earth on the introduction of Mahomedanism, and they derive it from Para, of the rank or number of, and hiang, to vanish. See Priangĕn and Hyang. Such places may have possibly had, in former times, a Buddhist or Brahminical temple or offering place at them. The word Parahyangan is still current on Bali, and means a collection of temples for all the gods and for the Pitaras or ghosts of deceased mortals. See Mr. Friederich's account of Bali in 22d vol of the Bat. Trans. Para in this sense is the Javanese Poro, all, every one.

Parail, and Parailkěn, to divide the jěkat or priest's dues among those who attend upon the services of the mosque, as the panghulu, katib, and měrěbot.

Parakan, a place in a river which has a gentle slope, and where the stones are numerous and mostly bare except in times of floods. See Marak.

Parakasa, troubled, in difficulties; overworked, etc. etc.; having unnecessary annoyance. Parakasa tĕuyn di bawa ka sabrang, why make so much trouble by taking it across the river.

Parakkěn, to set to work, to superintend work. Jelĕma lamun di parakkĕn ku aing, mohal to anggĕus, if I superintend those people at work, you may be sure that it will be done.

Parako, the fire place in a native house. It consists of four bambus, or pieces of wood tied in a square, which is filled with earth, well rammed down, on which to light the fire. Parampang, gaping in holes, standing open. Pierced with numerous holes.

Paraman, to seek out, to go for an explanation, to challenge. To dare any one.

Parang, a small agricultural instrument for cutting grass, weeds or small bushes. Called more commonly Arit. Parang is the usual Malay word for the implement, but still it is sometimes used in Sunda, and in confirmation of this idea we may instance the name of a district in South Bantam called Parang kujang, which means a particular kind of Parang. See Rang.

Paranggi, a man who carves kris heads. A man who carves wood or bone, especially for kris heads.

Paranjé, a place to keep fowls in,—generally a compartment fitted up under the native's house. A sheep pen raised on posts from the ground.

Parantéan, a person condemned to work in chains. A prisoner in chains.

Paranti, usual, customary; for the purpose of, in order to. Paranti sasari, what is every day usual. Paranti mandi, for the purpose of bathing. Paranti narik, for the purpose of dragging. Aya paranti na, there is the necessary apparatus, or means.

Parapag, drift wood in a river jammed fast. What is called a snag in the Missisippi.

Parapat, cut or made into regular uniform shape; made ship shape. Regular and even. To shave the hair of the head in shape of a cross by way of punishment.

Parasabĕn, forgiveness.

Parasi, name of a jungle plant, Curculigo minor, or recurvata. Kawung parasi, a small badly grown Kawung palm, which will not give much toddy for sugar, which soon dies out If after eating the fruit of the Parasi, a person drinks water, it has a pleasant, sweet taste, thereby often leading people astray as to its real flavour. From this circumstance the plant may have got its name, which sounds like Sanscrit, and may be a contraction or corruption of Parastri, from Para, other, Stri, woman, and in Singhalese occurs the expression Parastri Séwana, C. 364, adulteration, fornication. Sèwana is serving. Parastri or Parasi, may therefore have the meaning of „adulteress,“ from enticing the people to eat it, or to work the palm for sugar, and finding it deception.

Parat, cut through; having a passage through. Liang parat, a hole with a clear passage through; a hole gaping open from end to end.

Parawantan, a kind of superstitious offering of cocoa nuts, sugar cane, plantains etc. hung up to the ridge pole of a new house whilst building, under the idea of driving away evil spirits. Probably derived from Wanta, C. 621, destroyed or subjugated (viz the evil spirits). The natives of Ceylon have a similar custom when putting up any building.

Parayoga, great and strong; substantial, well made, perfect in all its parts. Parayoga is compounded of Para, of the number or rank of, and Yoga, C. 576, religious and abstract meditation, refraining the mind from external objects, and fixing it in profound absorption. Fitness, propriety. Magic, or the acquisition of supernatural

powers by the mystical or magical worship of Siwa, Durga and Kartikeya etc. Parayoga thus probably originally meant those who had attained celebrity by religious meditation or tapa, in Buddhist or Hindu times, and hence became used to mean anything which had attained perfection.

Paré, paddy, Oriza sativa. Rice in the ear or husk. When ground it is called Béas, and when cooked Kéjo. The Sunda people have an idea that paddy was called Paré originally from growing up regularly to same height, and bearing fruit evenly, and thus Papaharé, side by side, emulating each other; the word was shortened into Paré. The Sunda people have a well known tradition that a time existed when their ancestors were not acquainted with paddy, but lived on Jégéng. Paddy is either grown on irrigated lands and hence called Paré sawah, or on uplands dependent upon rain and called Paré humah or Paré pasir. It may be useful to subjoin a list of the varieties known at Jasinga, distinguishing the sawah from the humah, giving the colour of the rice and noting whether the ears bear awns or beards or not. The following is a list of Paré sawah.

1 Angsana Bahĕula, white, bearded.
2 Angsana lĕutik, white, bearded.
3 Banténg, white, bearded.
4 Bénténg, white, bearded.
5 Bĕurĕum gĕdé, or Rabik, red, bearded.
6 Bĕurĕum Huis, red.
7 Bĕurĕum Loyor, red, bearded.
8 Bĕurĕum Séksék, red, bearded.
9 Chĕré Bogor, white, beardless.
10 Chĕré Changkaruk, red, beardless.
11 Chĕré Gadog, red, beardless.
12 Chĕré Kadut, white, beardless.
13 Chĕré Malati, white, beardless.
14 Chĕré Pichung, white, beardless.
15 Chĕré Taropong, white, beardless.
16 Chĕré Tigaron, white, beardless.
17 Chĕré Tongsan, red, beardless, a variety introduced from China; ripens in 80 or 90 days.
18 Chindé, white, bearded.
19 Chokrom, white, beardless.
20 Gajah mĕnur, white, bearded.
21 Gĕbang, white, bearded.
22 Génja, white, bearded grows quick.
23 Giliran, white, bearded.
24 Gimbal, white, bearded.
25 Grogol, white, beardless.
26 Gudélan, white, bearded.
27 Kadut, white, beardless.
28 Kamuning, white, bearded.
29 Katunchar, white, beardless.
30 Kĕtan Bébék, white, bearded.
31 Kĕtan Bĕlĕdug, white, bearded.
32 Kĕtan Bĕurĕura, red.
33 Kĕtan Hidĕung, black, bearded.
34 Kĕtan Huis, white, bearded.
35 Kĕtan Jaýanti or Bogor, white, bearded.
36 Kĕtan Minjangan, white, bearded.
37 Kĕtan Sénggolan, white, bearded.
38 Lampuyang, white, bearded.
39 Madura, white, bearded.
40 Manglar, white, bearded.
41 Mataram, white, bearded.
42 Sĕri kuning, white, bearded.
43 Sikĕp, white, bearded.
44 Sisit Naga, white, bearded.
45 Sogléng, white, bearded.

Now follows a list of Pare humah, which are more than three times as numerous as those growing on the sawahs:

1 Ambon, white, bearded.
2 Badigal, red, bearded, an early sort.
3 Baduyut or Lĕubĕut, white, bearded.
4 Bagoan or Ujung Gunung, red, bearded.
5 Bangban, white, beardless.
6 Bantan or Siyat, white, bearded.
7 Banténg, white, bearded.
8 Batu, white, beardless.
9 Bĕntik, white, bearded.
10 Bĕuntĕur, red, beardless.
11 Bĕurĕum Banggala, red, bearded.
12 Bĕurĕum Barudin, red, bearded.
13 Bĕurĕum Gěbang, red, bearded.
14 Bĕurĕum Jalani or Paré Maringgui, red, beardless.
15 Bĕurĕum Kanchana, red, beardless.
16 Bĕurĕum Kapundung, red, beardless.
17 Bĕurĕum Karudin, B. Bidur, B. Badui ox B. Karang, all four are the same kind. Red, bearded. 18 Běureum Kěsur, red, beardless.

19 Běureum Lopang or Pulung, red, beardless.

20 Běureum Limar, red, beardless, much planted.

21 Běureum Loyor, red, bearded, much planted.

22 Běureum Manggala, red, bearded.

23 Běureum Ngéngé, red, beardless, much planted.

24 Běureum Pěutěui or Baduyut, red, bearded.

25 Běureum Rachik or Tiwu, red, bearded.

26 Běureum Randa, red, bearded.

27 Běureum Ranji, Warna, Oja, red, beardless.

28 Běureum Ronyok or Gimbal, red, bearded.

29 Běureum Salir or Riji, red, beardless.

30 Běureum Séréh, red, bearded.

31 Běureum Seungkěk, red, beardless.

32 Biluk, white, bearded.

33 Birus, white, beardless.

34 Bubuai or Bali, white, bearded.

35 Bujang, white, beardless.

36 Bunar, white, bearded.

37 Buntut Ajag, white, bearded.

38 Champaka,. white, bearded.

39 Chandana, white, beardless.

40 Chauk, white, bearded.

41 Chěré Běurěum, red, beardless.

42 Chěré Kalapa, white, beardless.

43 Chěré Malati, white, beardless.

44 Chěré Pingping Kasir, white, beardless.

45 Chěré Ratus, white, beardless.

46 Chěré Satak, red, beardless.

47 Chindé, white, bearded.

48 Chokrom, white, beardless.

49 Dĕlĕs, white, bearded.

50 Dirah, white, bearded.

51 Gadog or Gintung, black, bearded.

52 Gajah Měnur, white, bearded.

53 Gajah Pulen, white, bearded.

54 Gandréng or Kolélét, white, beardless.

55 Gimbal, white , bearded.

56 Gumang, red, beardless.

57 Gundět, white, beardless. 58 Hapit, red, beardless, grains grow together in twos and threes.

59 Injuk, white, bearded.

60 Jalawara, white, bearded.

61 Jainbon, white, bearded.

62 Jambu, white, bearded.

63 Jampang, white, beardless.

64 Jěruk, white, beardless.

65 Kadaka, white, bearded.

66 Katunchar, white, bearded.

67 Kawalu, yellow, beardless, a peculiar kind planted by the Badui of Bantam.

68 Ketan Asmara, red, bearded.

69 Ketan Banténg or Smut Lutang, white, bearded.

70 Ketan Běurěum, red, bearded.

71 Ketan Buntut Kuda, white, bearded.

72 Ketan Buntut Ayiruan, white, bearded.

73 Ketan Chěuri, white, beardless.

74 Ketan Chikur or Nangka, red, beardless.

75 Ketan Hiděung, black, beardless.

76 Ketan Huis, white, bearded.

77 Ketan Jaléha or Salasi, white, bearded.

78 Ketan Jalupang, white, bearded.

79 Ketan Kěrud, white, bearded.

80 Ketan Kidang, white, bearded.

81 Ketan Loyor, white, bearded.

82 Ketan Padi laki or Poho di laki, white, bearded.

83 Ketan Pěndok, white, bearded.

84 Ketan Ruyung, white, bearded.

85 Ketan Saja, red, beardless.

86 Ketan Salompét, white, bearded.

87 Ketan Tigaron or Kasumba, white, beardless.

88 Kěuyěup, white, bearded.

89 Kidang, white, bearded.

90 Koas, white, bearded.

91 Konéng, white, bearded.

82 Konyal, white, bearded.

93 Léndi, white, bearded.

94 Lilitan, white, bearded.

95 Lopang, white, bearded.

96 Lulut, white, beardless.

97 Malaman, white, beardless.

98 Mandala, white, bearded.
99 Manjara, white, bearded.
100 Marah, white, bearded.
101 Marukan or Langkap, red, bearded.
102 Mas or Golden, white, bearded,
103 Mayang, white, beardless.
104 Mayangan, white, bearded.
105 Mayor, white, bearded.
106 Ménténg, white, beardless.
107 Minyan, white, bearded.
108 Mohong, white, bearded.
109 Molog, red, bearded.
110 Munding; white, bearded.
111 Naga wuling = Black Dragon, white, beardless.
112 Nandi, white, beardless.
113 Ngaléng, white, beardless.
114 Nurun, white, bearded.
115 Odéng or Marukan, white, beardless.
116 Pandak, white, bearded.
117 Pĕndok, Mĕgai or Kokod, white, beardless.
118 Pĕutĕui, white, bearded.
119 Pĕutĕui lěuběut, white, bearded.
120 Pichung, white, beardless.
121 Rachik, white, bearded.
122 Rajah Pamuna, all the Invocations, red, beardless.
123 Raja Sana, white, bearded.
124 Rogol or Munchang, white, beardless.
125 Rumbai, white, beardless.
126 Ruyuk, white, beardless.
127 Sabagi, white, bearded.
128 Salak, white, bearded.
129 Salak charang or Salak madur, white, bearded.
130 Salak Gading, white, bearded.
131 Samarang, white, bearded.
132 Sampang hurang, white, bearded.
133 Sancha, white, bearded.
134 Séréh, white, bearded.
135 Séréh Pĕndok, white, bearded.
136 Sĕupa, white, beardless.
137 Sikulan, white, beardless.
138 Singgul, white, bearded.
139 Sisit Naga, Dragon's Scales, white, beardless.
140 Sondo, white, beardless.
141 Tamblĕg, red, beardless.
142 Tanjung, white, beardless.
143 Tanggai, white, beardless.
144 Tanggai lopang, white, beardless.
145 Timbun, white, bearded.
146 Tundun, white, bearded.
147 Tunggul, white, bearded.
148 Wahangan, white, bearded.
149 Walén, white, bearded.
150 Wasiyat or Changkaruk, black, bearded.


Paréksa, to examine, to investigate, to enquire, to search. Prékshā, C. 450, from Pra, before Iksha, to see. Intellect, understanding; viewing, looking, observing, seeing. Parikshawa, C. 366, from Pari, intense, Iksha, to see. Searching, trying, examination, investigation, test, trial, experiment.

Préksa-an, investigation , inquiry , examination.

Parémpéng, name of a small tree, Croton laevifolium.

Parĕndang, the rainy season, say from about Nov. till March.

Parĕng, agreeable, conceded; willing, granted. Lamun parĕng, hayang ménta ngahutang, if it is agreeable, I would wish to buy on credit.

Paréngpéng, name of a tree in young jungle, Croton laevifolium. The same as Parémpéng.

Paréngréngan, by mutual consent or general agreement. Said when several authorities agree upon a line of conduct or decision.

Paréntah, order, command, direction, injunction. Authority, government. Njĕkĕl paréntah, to be endowed with authority. To hold sway.

Parérédan, a sledge. A conveyance consisting of a wooden or bambu frame dragged along the ground, on which anything can be loaded, as paddy or the like. Derived from Séréd, which see.

Parĕum, extinguished, put out. Blocked up, discontinued. Damar na parĕum, his torch has gone out. Jalan na parĕum, that road is blocked up; no longer used; impassable.

Pari, the ray-fish;—its skin is very rough, and when dried is used for rasps.

Pari, a variety of Manggah so called.

Pari, viz Chandi Pari. The Pari temples in the delta of Sourabaya, three pauls W. N. W. from Porong. They are built of brick. Pāri, C. 389, one not having known a woman; a quantity of water; a water jar. Pari, C. 365, homage, respect; ornament. If the first meaning be adopted, they might be temples of Buddhist priests, who are devoted to celebacy. Or they may be homage-temples, or temples which are an ornament of the land. Paria, a cucurbitous liane giving a fruit with bitter taste, and covered with short stumpy knobs. Momordica Charantia.

Paribasah, an expression; a method of expressing oneself. A maxim, a saying. Paribhāsā, C. 368, play, sport, amusement; a grammatical maxim given as a summary explanation of certain rules of grammar: (in medicine) Prognosis.

Parigěl, suitable, fit, proper, becoming, appropriate.

Parigělkěn, to put in order; to set to rights; to arrange matters.

Parigi, a ditch, a trench, either deep or shallow. A fosse dug round a house, or round any enclosure, with a view to using it as a defence or means of defence. Parikha, C. 366, from Pari round, Khā to dig, — a moat, a trench, a ditch round a fort.

Parihatin, careful; paying proper attention to all requirements.

Parit, to wind a running string round any fence work; to interlace pieces of wood or bambu, but not to knot each stick separately.

Paro, part, portion. To divide. Kudu di paro lima, you must divide by five, only take on fifth. See Saparo and Paparon.

Parol, to gather fruit by drawing the branch or stem through the hand, so that the fruit drops off. To strip off roughly. Kopi na ulah di parol, do not pull the coffee off roughly.

Parrai, name of a small but plentiful fish, in stagnant water, in swamps or small streams, seldom above a couple of inches long. Leuciscus Argyrotaenia. Ki-parrai name of a tree, Lepisanthes montana.

Parsi, Persian. Kuda Parsi, a Persian horse.

Parud, to rasp, to reduce by filing.

Parudan, a bit of plank set with fine spikes, on with cocoa nut is rubbed down to fine shreds. A fine rasp.

Parung, a place in a river where the water has a long and gradual but rapid fall over a rough bottom. When over a smooth bottom it is called Bantar.

Parungpung, the hollow in the stem of a tree. Any hollow in a growing tree.

Parut, paid off, discharged in full — as a debt.

Pas, a passport. The Dutch word Pas, a passport.

Pas, occurs only in Jalan pas, said of a horse which is running at a peculiar pace, where by it moves both legs on one side, at same time. The word Pas is most likely of Portuguese origin. The „Jalan pas" is a very easy pace for the rider, as the jolting of the usual European galop or canter is avoided, and the rider sits comfortably and moves quickly.

Pasah, a plane; a carpenter's tool for smoothing wood.

Pasal, the Arabic Fasal, article, section, paragraph, subdivision of a writing.

Pasalisihan, missing each other, not meeting in consequence of travelling somewhat different routes. In Malay Sělisih, MARSDEN 178, to differ, to vary from, to be at variance. Difference (in quality or in opinion). Pasang, a pair, a couple. Sa pasang, one pair. Dua pasang, two pairs.

Pasang, the wild oaks or Querci, on the mountains, generally go by this name of Pasang. There are several varieties, but the Quercus Robur, or common oak of Europe is not among the number, and none of them have indented leaves like it, but bear acorns in great abundance and variety of size and shape.

Pasang, the flood tide, the advancing tide. Laut ěukěur pasang, the tide of the sea is setting in.

Pasang, to apply, to put in motion or in use. To join together; to set up, as machinery or the like. To lay bricks, to build them up. Panggilingan tachan di pasang, he has not yet set up his mill. To yoke a buffaloe or horse. Kěbo gěrrah di pasang, look sharp and put to the buffaloe (to the cart or plough). Pasang bandéra, to hoist a flag. Pasang omong, to join in conversation.

Pasang Batu, name of a tree on the mountains, Lithocarpus Javensis.

Pasangan, a yoke, a piece of wood laid over the necks of two buffaloes when yoked for use. The one which is the fellow; the pair; the match — of something else.

Pasangan, auxiliary marks on Javanese letters. Grammatical offices. Sanga, C. 695/6, derived from Sam, a particle and prefix implying union, with, together, (as a prefix it corresponds to Co, Con, Com etc.) and Gna, to know, name, appellation, sign. The technical name of any grammatical affix. To this Sanga are added the Polynesian prefix Pa and postfix an = Pasangan, something where with to make a union. A uniting mark.

Pasangrahan, a resthouse. A house built for the accommodation of government servants or travellers. The word Sangrah does not occur in Sunda, but would appear to mean: refreshment, or something of the kind, and thus Pasangrahan, is a place of refreshment. Such Pasangrahans serve as a kind of inn often in the interior, but all they afford without previous notice is only shelter.

Pasantrén, a place for Santris, thus in some sense a school, an academy.

Pasar, the Arabic Badzar, MARSDEN 211, a Bazar, a regularly constituted market, a know ledged by government, held usually once a week, and in some populous places twice a week. Formerly all pasars paid market dues; each person coming within the the limits of the pasar, with anything to sell, was subject to a tax. This tax at length became, on the government lands , so great a means of extortion, in the hands of Chinese farmers, that the government abolished the tax in a great measure in 1852, on lands subject to their own immediate controul.

Paséa, to fight, to quarrel, to dispute, to wrangle.

Paséban, an open audience hall before the dwelling of every native chief, see Séba. An open hall for people to collect in and await the orders of the chiefs. CRAWFURD gives Séwa, Sanscrit, to appear before a superior. Séwa, C. 764, to serve, service; worship, homage, — and thus the place of homage, where the people may pay their respects to their chief. </noinclude>Pasěk, firm, hard, compact; having consistency; fitting tight.

Pasěmon, like, resembling.

Pasěr, an arrow shot from a blowpipe; now a days used only by children to kill birds.

Pasétran, a place for exposing the dead, according to the ancient practice of the Javanese. Crawfurd.

Pasěuk, a prod, a wooden pin; a peg.

Pasi, a small piece of anything; a half or part of, a slice. A clove of fruit, said especially of a fruit; a segment cut off a round fruit.

Pasingkěn, to separate, to put apart or asunder.

Pasini, conversation, verbal agreement, talk, saying. To nyaho di pasini na, I do not know what talk has been had about it.

Pasinikěn, to talk over a matter; to arrange by conversation.

Pasir, a hill, a ridge, something less than a mountain. This word seems to be derived from Pa, the usual prefix, and Sir, the noise made by wind passing over a hill, or past any obstacle. Paré pasir, upland paddy, such as is grown on Pasirs.

Pasisir, the country lying along the sea coast; apparently derived from Sisi, which see, but this still leaves the final R unaccounted for. See Palisir , bed hangings , probably from the air playing amongst them.

Pasmat, a contraction of the Dutch words Spaansche Mats = Spanish dollar, which ought to certain 3709 grains of silver, and be of the sterling value of 4/ 33/4. The old Spanish pillar dollar is much used as a standard in weighing and estimating the value of both silver and gold.

Pasmént, galoon, gold or silver lace. Passement, in Dutch, galoon. Jamang pasmént mas, a jacket with gold galoon.

Paso, a large earthenware vessel for holding water, such as an infant is bathed in. A bathing tub.

Pasti, indeed, certainly, undoubtedly, assuredly. A term of strong asseveration.

Pastikěn, to make certain, to assure. To determine.

Pasuliwěr, denotes the movements of people in a crowd, as in a crowded market. Passing and repassing in all directions.

Pasumbon, the touchhole of a gun, or other instrument to be fired off. Derived from Sumbu, which see.

Pasung, a variety of Kuéh or pastry made of rice flour and put up in leaves.

Pasurandog, met, encountered, come in contact with, clashed.

Pasuruhan, name of a Residency at the East end of Java; meaning literally: abounding in Sěurěuh, or in Javanese Suruh, Betle.

Pat, the idiomatic expression of being cut off even with something else, of having equality or evenness in some shape. Sapat, cut through. Evenness of scales when weighing. Pat bai matang, it is exactly level (said of scales).

Patah, vide Ariya Damar. Patahunan, a yearly occupation, from Tahun, a year. This name is given to the yearly cultivation of paddy. To bogah patahunan, I have got no yearly occupation,— which means that the man does not plant paddy.

Patakar — patékér, walking gently on tiptoes. Said most of animals which often set down a small pointed foot in walking, making a rapping noise in so doing.

Patala, seven imaginary spheres below the surface of the earth, or the infernal regious of the Hindu mythology. The word occurs in Pantuns. See Sapatala. Pātāla, C. 383, the regions below , the abode of the Nagas or serpent race. The infernal regions under the earth; hell; an abyss. (Also seven celestial spheres. N.).

Patangkapan, a trap set for a wild beast. A rattrap, a snare.

Patapa-an, a place for Tapa or penance. See Tapa.

Patat, a scitameneous plant with broad long leaves, which are much used for tying up articles, in same way as we would often use brown paper.

Patěran, a mud hole or boggy place where a horse or buffaloe gets stuck fast. A bad place on a road where a cart sticks fast in the mud. See Tipatěr.

Patěuh, seriously sprained. Broken as a bone of the body of man or beast. Kěbo patěuh, a buffaloe with a badly sprained leg, or broken leg.

Pati, name of the chief place in the Residency of Japara.

Pati, particularly, to any extent or degree. To pati hadé, it is not particularly good. To pati luhur, it is not particularly high. The word generally occurs after the negative to or hanto. To pati, not particularly.

Pati, a sort of prime minister of a native Regent. The man who actually does the official work. Pati, C. 355 and 383, a master, a lord, a husband. In this sense it helps to form many proper names, as: Adipati, Bupati, Senapati, etc. etc.

Pati, Death. Occurs in a form of incantation, and is there said to denote the North. See Sěri.

Patik, a small adze. The same as the Javanese Pĕtél.

Patimah, the daughter of Mahomet, and wife of Ali. Fatima.

Patma, the Lotus, more usually called Taraté. Occurs sometimes in proper names. Patma, C. 357, and Padma, C. 358, the Lotus.

Patri, solder, to solder, borax. Patara, C. 354, anything which diffuses itself, as water etc., powder, any pulverized substance. Our Sunda and the Malay word Patari, Marsden 215, appear to be Patarayi, with yi added to give it a verbal form.

Patuha, name of a mountain in the Prěangěr Regencies, forming part of the Bréng-bréng range, south of Bandung and thus towards the South coast. The word has no meaning in Sunda, and may perhaps be a slight modification of the word Patuka, C. 383 , the declivity of a mountain , a precipice; falling , descending. The last consonant K has been elided and an aspirate put in its place. Or it may be derived from Pātha C. 383, the sun, fire. Huwa, C. 797, a sound of calling, hallo, the same as Hu, C. 797, a particle of shouting or halloing,— elided into Pathuwa, a roaring or bellowing fire, which would answer very well for an active volcano. Patuk, the beak, the bill of a bird.

Patuk manuk, literally bird's bill; name of a plant; Modecca Macrophylla.

Patulayah, lying in confusion, heads of some one way, and feet of others the reserve. In all directions.

Patung, in partnership, associated. Di patung, to divide equally, each to have a fair share.

Patut, right, just, proper, fitting, suitable, becoming. See Tut.

Patutkěn, to make a fair arrangement or award, to adjust. To compromise; to put in order. To make to fit; to adapt.

Pauk, di pauk, to deceive, to cheat, to mislead, to do out of. Name of a bird.

Pauk-pauk, some undefined, indefinite spot at a distance. A distant place not exactly ascertained. To nyaho di pauk-pauk na, I have no idea where it is to be found , I don't know where to look for it.

Paul, a light blue colour, — called in Malay Biru.

Paut, to pull out the hair straight; to disentangle and make straight any hairy or grassy matter. Kumis na di pautan, his mustachioes he kept stretching out, or stroking out. Paré na mémèh di gédéng kudu di pautan, before tying up the paddy in bundles, you must slough off the superfluous straw. See Pamautan.

Pawarang, the wife of a nobleman. A wife of rank. A consort.

Pawitan, capital, something to begin with. The first wife. The first child. The etymology of this word may be Witta, C. 646, thing, substance, wealth, riches, property, gain; acquirement. Pa-witta-an, what becomes riches or gain, as natives look upon their children as a source of wealth. Wit in Javanese means a tree, a plant, a stem, a beginning, origin, and in this sense Pa-wit-an might be the stem, or a genealogical tree, — something to begin with with, capital.

Pawiwirang, fine for breach of promise of marriage. Derived from the Javanese word Wirang, shame, modesty, thus a fine to cover the shame of the disappointed party.

Payah, suffering severely; being hard punished; being in indigent circumstances; badly used; hard up, distressed.

Payang, as di payang, to bear up a raft in a river or in water by men walking or swimming with it.

Payilah, famine, hunger. The season of scarcity.

Payingan, assuredly, there's no wonder, that is a natural consequence. Payingan sia masakat, lamun to daik di gawê, there is no wonder that you are poor, if you will not work.

Payogya-an, what is suitable, fit, or proper, becoming. Payogya-an patuhunan, certain indices of the seasons of the year observed by the humah makers, viz the flowering of certain plants. Yogya, C. 577, suitable, fit, proper, becoming; a calculator of expedients. A vehicle, or any conveyance.

Payu, sold, saleable, disposed of. To pass current. Paré na payu, the paddy is saleable, or has been sold out. Musim payu béas, in the season when rice can bo sold. To payu omong sia, what you say will not pass current. Payung, an umbrella, a parasol.

Payungan, to screen with an umbrella, as a state umbrella held over a great man. To hold an umbrella over the bier on which a dead person is being carried to the grave.

Payus, (difficult to translate). It indicates certain transactions between three parties , as if A owes B, and B owes C. A is ordered to play direct to C which is called Payus. If a man has two pieces of land or sawah on each side of a third bit, and the third is coveted to form one compact whole, that is also called Payus.

Péchak, one eyed; blind of one eye,

Pĕchat and Pĕchatan, to loosen cattle from work, from the plough or cart.

Pĕchat-sawad, literally, loosening the yoke band, viz indicating about 9 o'clock A. M. year when the cattle are released from ploughing.

Pĕchĕklik, dearth of food , famine. Musim pĕchĕklik , the season of dearth , occurs every year during the few months previous to cutting the new crop of paddy.

Pĕching, a slip of bambu, or bit of stick, with a piece of rag or bit of cotton, which is soaked in urine , tied round the end of it ; or a little hair of the human head stuck in a cleft at the top. These sticks so prepared are stuck in round about a humah or paddy plantation, under the idea that where they stand, no wild swine will pass.

Pĕchuk, a large web-footed water bird, with long neck and of black colour.

Pĕchut, a whip.

Pechutan, to whip, to drive by whipping.

Pĕda, a small sea-fish, generally about four inches long, preserved in brine (like herring) and much carried inland. It is the Kĕmbung fish so preserved.

Pédah, for the reason that, seeing that; in order to give pleasure, to make matters easy. Jalan gĕdé di hadéan aya pédah na , when the great road is made , it can easily be travelled over, it will facilitate communication. Pédah sia to bogah ayěunah sia di béré, seeing that you have not got any, I will now give you some, I will make matters easy by now giving you some.

Pĕdang, a sword. The etymon of this word appears to be Dang, which, however, does not occur simply in Sunda, and perhaps means curved, bent; it is heard in the word Nyungkadang , curved like a scimetar. In the Malay of Batavia and in Javanese, Dangdang is the name of a tall cylindrical copper rice pot, called in Sunda Sé-éng, and conveys fully the meaning of something curved in circle.

Pĕdati, a cart, a buffaloe cart.

Pĕdĕs, pepper, common black pepper, Piper nigrum. Of a peppery taste.

Pĕdĕs putih, white pepper, which is only black pepper blanched.

Pĕgat, broken, as a string; snapped asunder, as a rope. Dissevered. Divorced. See pĕpĕgatan.

Pégo, inarticulate in speech. Speaking indistinctly.

Pĕjĕl, stiff and firm; adhesive and bad to cut; said of earth which resists the cuts of a pachul. Said of stiff clay which sticks to the pachul when worked amongst. Péjét, a speckled fowl, white and black.

Pĕkih, arabic: a high priest; a man well versed in the Mahomedan religion. A Mahomedan high priest attached to the old court of Bantam; an official of this designation is still consulted in some of the native law courts in Bantam.

Pěkir, arabic: a man well versed in the Mahomedan religion. A theologian.

Pěkir masakat, the poor theologian, a man who stadies the Mahomedan religion, but being poor is forced to beg. A religious mendicant.

Pělak, to plant, to put into the ground. Pělak guriang (vide voce) said of fruit trees and bambus found growing wild in the forests and mountains. Planted by the mountain spirits.

Pělěkat, instructions, mandates, precepts, behests. (From the Dutch plakaat, publication, notification).

Pělěkatan, to give instructions or precepts, to issue behests.

Pělěm, pleasant and luscious to the taste. Anything which is grateful to the taste, neither too dry nor too moist, as for instance ripe fruits, or well savoured meat.

Pělén, entire, ungelded, — is usually applied to buffaloes or bulls. Kěbo pělén, an entire buffaloe.

Pělěpěs, said of seed-paddy which will not come up, being either too old, or from having laid piled in large heaps by sweating has lost its power of vegetation. Said of a fire when burning off jungle, which has subsided or is dying out.

Pělér, the penis, — used as a word of insult.

Pělés, the Dutch flesch, a flask bottle, a case bottle; square bottles, such as gin is imported in.

Pélét, the wood naturally mottled black and white, and which is in great request for kris sheaths. It is procured from the Tangkélé tree.

Pělit, deceiving, fraudulent. Acting contrary to promise. Pělkara, same as Pěrkara, which see.

Pélla, viz Hoih pélla, name of a variety of rattan. Makes good lashings when split up, and much used in house building.

Pélor, a ball, a bullet, for cannon or gun. Pelouro, (Portuguese), a ball.

Pěluh, imbecile, wanting in manly force. Non potest feminam subire.

Pěluk, to hug, to clasp, to embrace, to hold in the arms. The idiomatic word Luk, a bending, with the prefix Pa, made short = Pěluk , a bending or embrace (of the arms).

Pělus, a very long and thin gourd, about a couple of feet long.

Pěmpěurěuman, an involuntary twinkling of the eye.

Pěmpuhunan, the place in a paddy plantation, either in sawahs or in humahs, where the first paddy is transplanted in a sawah, or the first grain dropped in a humah, which is done with many superstitious observances. The Pěmpuhunan consists of the twigs of several various trees, which are considered emblematic of healthy growth. The etymon of the word is from Puhu, the lower stump of a tree, hence Puhu-an = Puhun or Puhon, which in Malay means a tree. Our Sunda word with Pěm — before, and an after the word makes Pěmpuhunan, that which answers for a tree, and is thus emblematic of the future paddy stems.

Pěndak, met, encountered, jumped with.

Pěnděm, to bury in the earth, to secrete by burying. To throw down into a bole in the ground. To thrust into any place out of sight.

Pěnděng, to shut off by an enclosure, to fence off. A division in a house forming a room or rooms.

Pěnděutan, to shut up, to close, to block up. Chai na gěus di pěnděut, the water has been shut off. Pěnděutan lawang na, shut the door.

Pěnding, an ornamented plate of gold or silver, embossed with various devices, and forming the clasp of a belt or girdle worn mostly by women, round the waist, the pěnding or clasp being placed right in front.

Pěndok, a silver or gold kris sheath, made to pass over the sheath of wood.

Pěng'ék, holding the nose shut with the fingers, pinching the nose so as not to be able to smell.

Pěngging, viz Ratu Pěngging, see Andaya ning Rat.

Pěngki, a shallow wattled bambu basket, two of which are suspended, one to each end of a pole, and carried across the shoulder for the purpose of removing earth or any other objects.

Péngkolan, a bend, a turn, especially in a watercourse, or in a road.

Pěngpěk, to stop up, to shut up, as a sluicegate in a canal, or a hole in a fence etc.

Péngpélangan, the inner side of the thighs.

Pénna, a European's pen for writing; a pen made of a goose quill.

Pěnta, the same as měnta, to ask. Assumes this form after the preposition di. Di pénta to di béré, when asked for, it was not given.

Pěntang, to stretch out a fresh hide with pieces of stick in order to dry it. To cut a fresh hide in strips for making rope and hanging the same out in the sun to dry, stretched from tree to tree. To distend; to stretch out. To tie up a man who is to be flogged to a frame work, so that he cannot move.

Pěntil, small sprouts setting for fruit. Any small fruit when first forming from the flower. The nipples of a woman's breast.

Pěnyakit or Panyakit, sickness, disease. Pěnyakit bongsor, the small pox. Pěnyakit muriang, the fever.

Péot, shrivelled up, gone down as a swelling; very lean and poor; nothing but skin and bone.

Pěpanting, a kind of wasp.

Pěpantér, a small worm or grub which attacks and eats the tender leaves of growing paddy.

Pěparěm, any medicinal warm or pungent preparation rubbed on the body externally.

Pépéd, to cut and collect stray heads of paddy which have been broken or injured, and cannot be reaped with the straw to tie up in the usual way. Pěpěd, blunted, worn out by use; the sharp edge gone.

Pěpědan, said of the fruit stem of the Kawung palm which has been cut and tapped so long for sugar, that said stem is off even with the trunk of the tree, and will give no more toddy.

Pěpěgatan, divorced, — literally snapped asunder like a rope which breaks. See Pěgat

Pépéh, said of any iron instrument, especially a bědog or arit, which is heated in the fire, in order to be repaired, or the edge mended. To repair any old iron or other tool by putting a new edge on it.

Pĕpĕndĕman, anything which is hidden in the ground. Hidden treasure. See Pĕndĕm.

Pĕpĕsék, to tear in shreds; to tear in pieces.

Pépét, the fin of a fish.

Pĕpéték, name of a small fish taken in the sea, dried an carried inland for sale. Equula in several species.

Pĕpéték, usually called Orai pĕpéték, otherwise called Haphap, which is a small flying lizard, and no Orai or snake at all.

Pĕpéték, the name of the pieces of wood inserted into two planks which have to be rabbeted together, and are buried out of sight when the planks are joined together.

Pĕr, a prefixed particle in the formation of derivative nouns.

Pérah, the handle of any instrument; the wooden or bone handle adapted to any instrument or tool. Pérah bédog, the handle of a chopper. Pérah tatah, the handle of a chisel.

Pérahan, to put a handle to any instrument.

Pĕrailkĕn, to divide fairly; to apportion anything as well as Jĕkat. See Parail.

Pérak, silver. Wang pérak, silver money. Di lopak ku pérak, it is plated with silver.

Pĕranakan, any person or animal of a cross breed. From the etymon anak, child, offspring. Pĕranakan China, a half east chinaman, a chinaman born in Java, and thus of a mother not genuine Chinese, or come from China. Kuda pĕranakan Parsi, a horse of Persian cross breed.

Pérang, withered up and dead. Scorched up by the sun.

Pĕrangkat, a set, an assortment. Sa pĕrangkat kanching, a set of buttons. When worn at the wrists, the set is nine buttons on each wrist. Waistcoat or jacket buttons ought properly to be the same number of 18, but is really seldom half of that quantity.

Pĕrapat, a fourth part, a quarter. Tilu pĕrapat, three quarters. Opat is the Sunda for four, modified in this case into Apat = pĕrapat. The Pĕr is probably a modification of Paro, to divide, division, share.

Pĕrchaya, to believe, to trust, to confide in. Ch'hãyã, C. 203, radiance, beauty, splendour, lustre, — with the Polynesian Per before it, giving it a verbal form; to have lustre, or light, where matters are clearly seen.

Pĕrchumah, of no avail, useless, helpless. More usually simply Chumah, which see. Gratis, for nothing.

Pěrdah, the handle for the Baliyung or native axe, being a straight shaft with a naturally turned up end, upon which the iron axe is lashed with thongs of hide, having a long round tapering head for that purpose.

Pěrduli, arabic, also Paduli; properly Fadluli, MARSDEN 208. To care for, to be concerned about; meddling. To pěrduli, I don't care for that. To di pěrduli, he does not care about it, he neglects it.

Pěrěba, sort, variety.

Pěrěbu, the same as Parabu, which see.

Pěrěkan, a concubine, a woman kept in addition to the four lawfull wives allowed by Mahomedan law.

Pérélék, to let grain fall in continuous shower, but in small quantities at a time. Said especially of rice putting into a measure, allowing any small grains to fall lightly, as into a gantang, in order not to give too much.

Pěrělu, necessary, indispensable, obligatory. A necessary obligation; what is absolutely necessary. Pěrělu kudu di turutkěn, it is obligatory that he should be obeyed. Feredl and ferudlu. Arabic, MARSDEN 207, obligatory observances (by divine institution).

Pėréng, name of a ficus variety with multitudinous small seeds all over the stem, Picus Ribes.

Pěrés, to squeeze out water from a cloth, to wring out. To milk a cow. The word sounds like the English press in press out. In Malay it is Pruh, with same meaning as the Sunda Pěrés. See MARSDEN p. 221.

Pěrěték, steep and rugged; said of a road or way which is very bad and almost impassable from its steepness.

Péri, Persian, a fairy; a class of supernatural beings residing upon earth but invisible, whose nature is beneficent.

Pěrih, same as Prih, auxious in endeavours. Striving.

Pěrjanjian, agreement, bargain, contract, treaty, convention.

Pěrkara, circumstance, affair, thing; kind; section, head. A case in court or referred to some one for adjudication. An action, a suit. Occurrence. This word is probably derived from the Polynesian Pěr, and Kara, a form which the verb Karanawa assumes. Karanawa, C. 108, to do, to act, to make, also Karana, C. 108, an act, an action, business, occupation. This word would thus be formed with a Polynesian Pěr in the same way as the word Perchaya, or the Malay word Pěrmana, MARSDEN 220, measure, rate, derived from Māna, C. 536, a measure in general, whether of weight, length or capacity. Pěrapat, a quarter from Pěr and Opat four; Pěrampuan, in Malay a woman from Pěr and Ambuwa, C. 44, a wife.

Pěrkutut, a variety of small wild dove which the natives are very fond of keeping cages, under the idea that they will bring luck. These doves when they coo cheerfully, and are supposed to turn themselves towards the house of the owner when so doing, often command great prices. Columba Bantamensis. Quere is the etymon of this word Katut? going along with, accompanying - in death. See Japati. Pěrlénté, a coxcomb, a dandy; showing airs. The pride of adolescence. Dissolute, debauched.

Pěrmasuri, a queen consort, a royal female. Pěr and Iswari, C. 73, the wife of Siwa, otherwise named Lakshmi, Durga or Saraswati. The letter m has been intercalated between Pěr and Iswari, for the sake of euphony.

Pěrnah, and Pěrnahkěn, to make arrangements for, to accommodate; to show respect to.

Pěrniti, neat and decent in dress. Perhaps from Nita, C. 336, well behaved, modest, humble, obedient, or Niti, C. 336, guiding, directing, leading.

Pěrsagi, square, a cube; at right angles. Sagi, however, is not only square, that is four sided, but may imply any indefinite number of sides, as tiga pěrsagi, ampat pěrsagi, lima pěrsagi, three, four or five sided.

Pěs, the idiomatic expression of a candle, light or fire going out. Damar na pěs bai parěum, the candle blew out, or became extinguished.

Pésék, flat nosed; having a small flat nose.

Pěsék, to tear in shreds; to split up into a small pieces. To tease out.

Pésian, to take the skin off a fruit, to peel. Pésian kanas, to peel a pine-apple, which is done by cutting off all the outer rind and eyelets.

Pěsing, smelling of urine, stinking of piss.

Péso, a knife. Péso chukur, a shaving knife, a razor. Péso raut, a whittling knife, to pare rattan with. Péso těunděut, a dagger. Péso penuju, a kind of dagger, a poignard, from Tuju.

Péstol, European, a pistol.

Pěta, arrangements made preparatory to any work or operation, a basis for working on. A sure footing. A place to stand on. Kudu bogah pěta, you ought to make arrangements, Ari turun ka jěro kawa kudu ngilikěn pěta, if you descend into a crater, you ought to look out for standing places, or places to rest on.

Pétak, a garden bed; a bed of anything planted.

Pětakěn, to make arrangements for commencing work. To make dispositions.

Pétangan, divination; finding out lost goods by necromancy.

Pětét, a seedling plant, any small plant raised from seed. Offspring.

Pěti, a box, a trunk, a chest. Pettiya, C. 417, a basket, a box, a trunk, a coffer. Pěti wang, a money box. Pěti běusi, an iron chest.

Pětis, a mixture of sugar, salt, délan or trasi, and chabé, with a little water, and used as a sauce with green unripe fruit.

Pétor, Portuguese feitor, a factor, a superintendent of trade; the chief European at a subordinate settlement. On Java it often means the resident or chief civil authority.

Pétot, any fruit which is not full formed, not well developed, thus stunted, and in this sense is sometimes applied to animals which are poor and small.

Pĕtot, to pick out. To disengage or disentangle anything from a place where it is fixed. Evidently the same etymon as Tut, which has been in this instance contracted into Tot with the prefix Pa or . Indeed the word is sometimes heard pronounced Pětut.

Pěuchang, a diminutive deer about 6 or 8 inches high, with prominent bright goggle eyes. The animal is only 8 or 10 inches long. The body is of a darkish brown, and the breast bears some peculiar black and white stripes. The pěuchang never has any horns, and is very active. Called in Malay Kanchil. Tragulus kanchil.

Pěu-ěung, the toddy drawn from the Kawung palm, and much drunk by the Badui people in South Bantam. See Wayu.

Pěuhěur, having an astringent and sourish taste; harsh to the taste, nearly the same as Kěsěd. Ki-pěuhěur, name of a tree, see voce.

Pěuhpěur, to lop the branches off trees which have been felled, in order that they may dry quickly, and then lie close together, so as to burn well. This done especially in the humahs.

Pěujit, the guts, the entrails.

Pěuuchit, to cut the throat, to kill an animal for food. To slaughter.

Pěunděut, and Pěunděutan, to shut, to close. Pěunděutan lawang na, shut the door.

Pěungkěur, firm, not soft, hard. Said of the consistence of boiled rice which is not watery. Consistent.

Pěupěuh, to strike, to knock, to hit.

Pěupěus, broken, smashed as an egg, a plate, a cup or other light material. Burst; to come to a termination, to have an issue. Endog na pěupěus, the egg is broken. Pinggang na pěupěus, the cup was broken. Bisul na pěupěus, the bril has burst. Said of an unpleasant event which has come to a crisis, which has blown ever. Pěrkara na pěupěus, the suit or action has come to a termination.

Pěupěuskěn, to smash, to break in atoms, to burst open.

Pěupěutěuyan, the round muscle of the upper arm , — as if it resembled the Pěutěui fruit.

Pěupěuting, as Sa pěupěuting, the whole night through. The dualization of the first syllable of the word Pěuting, night; — implies continuity.

Pěurah, the spittle or saliva of snakes; at least such is the meaning given to certain frothy secretions found sometimes on plants in the jungle, and which is very malignant if it gets into any wound or sore.

Pěurěuh, water or medicament dropped into the eye. Some particular trees are known for their good qualities, and when fresh cut, their juice is let drop into the eye; — this is Pěurěuh.

Pěurěuhan, to drop water into the eye; — see Pěurěuh.

Pěurěum, eyes shut; eyelids closed; sometimes blind, but then the lids must be closed, otherwise the blindness in called Lolong, which see.

Pěurěup, the clenched fist.

Pěurěus, sore, smarting when touched. Chafed, as any part of the body. Suku na pěurěus, his foot is sore. Pěurěus ka na awak, having a sore feel to the body.

Pěurěut, to squeeze out water or juice. To wring out a wet cloth. Pĕurih, feeling sore, aching; smarting pain. In Malay Pĕdih, also Prih, pain, ache, smart, Marsden 216. Rahĕut di chichian barandi, pĕurih to kawawa, when brandy is poured into the wound, I cannot endure the pain.

Pĕusing, an animal wild in the woods, a sort of ant-eater. It is covered with scales, and can roll itself up into a ball. Called in Malay Tanggiling. The Manis of Linnaeus. A variety is also called Pangoling in Malay, which is the Pangolin of European naturalists, and is a Myrmophaga. Marsden, page 225.

Pĕutag, name of a tree, Helittophyllum Javanicum. The same as Pingko.

Pĕutĕui, called in Malay Pété. Name of a large tree, a variety of Leguminosae, Parkia speciosa, which produces a long pod enclosing beans, of which the natives are very fond, though they stink most abominably when eaten.

Pĕuti, the round fat lice on cows and other animals. They get round and bloated by sucking the blood of the animal on which they fix.

Pĕuting, evening, night, night-time. The distances of a journey, especially of extending beyond one day, are counted by so many nights. Jauh na tilu pĕuting, its distance is three nights, — that is you have to sleep three nights on the road.

Peutingan, to pass the night with any one. To watch by night.

Peuyeuh, hoarse; having nearly lost the voice from cold and wet, or from loud roaring. A sore throat.

Pĕuyĕuh, to stow away, or put in a position to ferment. To put into stagnant water, or to cover up close with any materials, so as to exclude the air, in order to ferment. To keep secret. To prevent being known. Hatĕup di pĕuyĕum, to soak ataps. Pĕrkara di pĕuyĕum, to hush up an affair.

Pi, is a prefix of considerable use and of frequent occurrence in compounding certain forms of words. Now and then it occurs simply, but these cases are rare, as in the following: — Piagĕm and others seen below; but in general the word to which it is prefixed must have after it ĕun, when it gives the word the sense of „being used for some purpose", „of acting in some capacity", but with a prospective view, as Pi-hadé-ĕun, something that will turn out well. Pi-omong-ĕun, something to talk about. Pi-baya-ĕun, something that will cause disaster; — and thus many words will be constantly occurring in the Sunda language which will not be found in this dictionary. To ascertain therefore their meaning, it will be necessary to divest such words of the prefix Pi and suffix ĕun, and seek the crude word in its place, and to its meaning there found, add the prospective idea conveyed by Pi and ĕun, as Hadė, being found to be good ,— with the Pi and ĕun = Pi- hadé-ĕun, it gives something good in future, or at a time merely in advance of the present, which may, however, be the next moment.

Piagem, a rent roll or schedule given to the chiefs of villages on Government lands, showing what the village must pay, and on which the various instalments are marked off when paid. See Agĕm. Pi-agĕm is thus literally: the wherewithall to be dignified.

Pias, pale and delicate; looking unwell about the face.

Pibaya-ěun, something which will cause disaster.

Pibibitěun, something to serve as seed. Grain to be planted.

Pichahan, a term used in rice mills to express the husking of the grain,—from the Malay word Pichah, broken. Pichahan paré, to break open the husk from the grain in grinding paddy.

Picha-piring, name of a large shrub with pure white flowers. Gardenia florida. More frequently called kacha-piring. Picha piring sounds like Malay and would literally mean „broken plate,” as if the white flowers were like broken bits of pot stuck upon the tree. The word Kacha or Picha, however, is most likely derived from the Sanscrit word Pichcha, C. 392, a jasmine, from the white colour and sweetscent of the flowers, and the plant was very likely introduced from India. May not Piring perhaps be part of the verb Piranawa, C. 403, to comb, to dress the hair with a comb,—and thus the jasmine used in dressing the hair. The Malays have evidently seized upon the words as resembling Picha-piring = broken pot, whereas they in reality mean: jasmine for putting in the hair. In Malay it is also called Sang klapa, which may allude to its being hid amongst the hair.

Pichara, a lawsuit, any question to be discussed. Gědong pichara, the town-hall, a court-house. Kudu di pichara, we must discuss the matter; a lawsuit must be instituted. Probably derived from Achāra, and the Polynesian Pi before it. Achāra, C. 61, an established rule of conduct, an ordinance, an institute; a precept.

Pichěun, to throw away; to fling away; to get rid of; to discard, to put away. Pichěun ka jauh, throw it far away. Ewé na, gěus di pichěun, he has flung away his wife (or been divorced from her).

Pichis, any small coin or money. Originally meant the China cash with square hole in the centre. Called also Kupang. To bogah pichis, I have no money.

Pichung, name of a tree, Pangium edule; has large brown nuts from which an inferior dark coloured lampoil is extracted.

Pidangdaněun, materials; tackle, gear.

Pi-éwé-ěun, a woman to make a wife of. Aya loba pi-éwé-ěun nu ngora di lumber éta, there are lots of young girls to make wives of in that village.

Pigasol, a sort of tiger trap, being two pinang or other straight trees, set side by side, at an angle with the ground, with one end on the ground and the other bearing the bait, a lump of flesh, so fixed to a doorway erection, that the tiger creeping along the pinang stems and pulling at the bait, lets the whole fall, and he himself is caught on spears or sharpened bambus set below.

Pigati-ěun, a difficulty, a hindrance, an impediment. Anything which causes difficulty.

Pihadé-ěun, something which will turn out well; amelioration. Lain pihadé-ěun, that will never do; that will not answer.

Pihané-an, an instrument with upright stanchions, about a foot high, and which can be adjusted to different distances. Around these the different coloured threads are wound and thus the pattern to be woven is given.

Pihapé, to consign to the care of another. To give in trust. To place for security with some one else. Anak kula di pihapékěn ka batur, I entrusted my child to the care of the neighbours. Banda ulah di pihapékěn kaděungan, do not entrust your property to strangers.

Pihatu, an orphan. One without connexions or friends.

Pihutang, debts receivable, money that is owing us. Money due on credit.

Pi-it, name of a small bird, very troublesome to standing, ripe paddy. Called about Batavia Prit. The bird nestles about houses like the sparrow.

Pijahěut, a soreness or scab on the skin, which is very itchy.

Pikat, to allure, to decoy, to entice. To entrap. A method of catching birds in a cage in which there is a decoy bird. This is the way by which the Pěrkutut is caught.

Pikir, Arabic, to meditate, to consider, to think, to cogitate. Fikir, Marsden 208, of same meaning.

Pikiran, thought, idea. Pikiran kula, as I think, according to my idea.

Pikul, a certain weight consisting of 100 catties or katis. The word itself is Malay and means to carry on the shoulder. The weight and its divisions were no doubt originally Chinese, who call the picul, Tan, and its subdivisions kati, Kin. The English generally reckon the pikul at 133⅓ ℔s avoirdupois; but on Java the picul is 125 ℔s Amsterdam weight, which are equal to 135,64 ℔s avoirdupois or 61,52 kilogrammes. The picul of Java is generally taken in commerce at 136 ℔s avoirdupois. The Malays may have given the name of Pikul to the Chinese Tan, as for occasional use the Dachin or weighing yard is provided with a ring, through which a staff passes which rests on two men's shoulders, whilst weighing is going on.

Pikul, to carry by means of a stick laid across the shoulder. Rarely heard, the more usual expression being Tanggung.

Pilěulěuyan, adieu, farewell. Compliments at parting.

Pilih, to pick, to select, to choose; to assort.

Pilihan, to pick, to select. Choice; the thing chosen.

Pilihaněum, what is still to be picked. Anything which has still to be assorted.

Pimahi-ěun, wherewithall; sufficient for any purpose. Competency.

Pinang, the Areca nut palm. Areca Catechu. The Areca nut or Betle nut is in universal daily use among the natives for chewing with sěurěuh. This palm is slenderer in the stem than the cocoa nut tree, and is very graceful.

Pinang réndé, name of a dwarf Areca nut tree, Areca Pumila. Réndah is Malay for lowly, humble, but is not used separately in Sunda, in which language even the original word Réndah has been corrupted into Réndé.

Pinara, the bank of a canal or watercourse. The side of an artificial waterway. Apparently a modification of Pāra, C. 387, a way, a road, a path; the further, or opposite bank of a river. Pinarěng, agreeable, with the consent of. Quere literally—„having one common way or road.” Modified from Parěng, which see.

Pinatih, in ancient times the name of a petty state in Bali, being the Eastern part of the present state of Badong. Friederich, Bat. Trans., Vol. 23, page 26.

Pinchang, lame, limping.

Pindah, to remove, to shift or change place. To change the place of our abode; to migrate.

Pindahan, to remove oneself to a place. Sawah kudu di pindahan, you must remove to your sawah.

Pindahkěn, to shift or move something. To remove any person or thing from one place to another. To transcribe; to translate.

Pindang, a method of cooking and preparing meat so that it will keep some time. Said especially of fish from the river or sea, so cooked to be carried to a distance for sale.

Ping, in the direction of. Ulah ka ping harěup, do not press forward. Ka ping buri, behind, in the after part.

Pinggan, a plate, a dish, a platter, a saucer; a bowl, a cup. Pingana, Clough, Vol. 1, page 427, a plate.

Pinggělan-lěung'an, the wrist of the hand.

Pinggul, to round off the edges. To cut away the sharp corners.

Pingko, name of a tree, Helittophyllum Javanicum. Same as Pěutag or Kiboma.

Pingping, the thigh, the upper part of the leg above the knee. Dulur pingping, a nickname for a wife or husband. A brother or sister of the thigh.

Pingping Kasir, literally the thigh of a Gryllus, name of a variety of grass.

Pining, a scitameneous plant, Geanthus minor.

Pintas, a short time, a while. Sa pintas, a while long; for a short time.

Pintěr, knowing, cunning, sharp in understanding. Long-sighted.

Pintonkěn, to bring and show; to produce, to exhibit.

Pinuh, full, replete. Pinu, C. 396, Punu, C. 403, full, complete, fulfilled.

Pinuhan, to fill, to make full.

Pinyu, a turtle, a sea turtle. The species which yields the tortoise shell of commerce. Kulit Pinyu, tortoise shell.

Piomongěun, something to talk about.

Pipi, the cheek.

Pipir, the side of, proximity to anything or place. Pipir imah, the side of the house. Pipir kebon, the side of a garden. In both cases the outside is implied. Sa pipir, side by side, close together.

Pipit, to cut the first of any growing crop, especially of paddy. This is done with certain ceremonies and invocations, and the few heads so cut are set apart and religiously preserved; they are called by the name of Pamipitan.

Pipit, to procure oil from vegetable substances, especially from the Kachang Taněuh or groundnut, by steaming the beans and then subjecting them to pressure. Pipitan, an establishment for extracting oil from the Kachang taněuh.

Piraku, not to be expected, against probabilities, unreasonable to expect it, quite out of the question. Piraku kudu onggĕl poi, it is quite out of the question that it should take place every day. Piraku daik, it would be unreasonable to expect it. Piraku daik méré mindĕng tĕuyn, it would be unreasonable to expect that I should give it frequently.

Pirang, how many; so very many. In Javanese the simple word Piro or Pira occurs, how many? In Sunda it has a terminal ng added. Pirang lawas na to kapanggih, how long ago it is I have not met him. The more usual form is kapirang-pirang, which see, indicating any great quantity, or length of time.

Pirĕu, not able to speak, born dumb.

Piring, a plate, a broad plate such as used by Europeans. The smaller Chinese plates which are more used by the natives are called Pinggan.

Piruang, a pit-fall, a hole dug and then covered lightly over, so that when man or beast steps on it, it will give way, and let him down into the hole set with sharp bambu stakes.

Pirus, as Batu pirus, a stone used for finger rings. It is blue with some white stripes on it. These stones are brought from Arabia. Firuzeh, Persian, Marsden 208, the turquoise stone.

Pirusa, the tenon in carpentry. The end of a beam cut small, so as to fit into a joist. The joist is called liang pirusa, the tenon hole. A corruption of Purusha, male, masculine, C. 410. See Pupurus.

Pisah, apart, separated, disconnected.

Pisahkĕn, to separate, to disunite, to disconnect. To set aside.

Pisan, utterly, totally, extremely, entirely. Ruined, dead. Hadé pisan, totally good, extremely good. Rusak pisan, entirely destroyed. Gĕus pisan, he is dead, he has gone to the extreme.

Pisĕrĕt, a knot upon a rope to prevent a running noose from drawing too tight, especially upon a halter or other rope by which a horse, a buffaloe or other animal is tied.

Pisitan, a fruit resembling the Duku.

Pisuhan, to scold, to be angry with.

Pita, a riband, tape;—Portuguese.

Pitangkĕup, a trap set to catch a wild animal alive; a mouse trap; a trap in general.

Pitĕs, to rend in shreds, to tear in slips.

Pitĕuk, a big horse-fly, a gad fly, which gives a severe sting; it is found only in forests. Probably Hippobosca or Forest fly,— or Ostrus, Gad fly.

Pitik, as Tali pitik, the split bambus wattled round a stake or pole called ranchatan, used in dams in rivers, to hold the stones in their place, and not allow them to be washed away one by one,—the whole constituting an Angkul.

Pitrah, a present made by every soul to the priest on the day of Labaran. This must consist of a Kulak of rice, of which about three Kulaks go to one ordinary gantang. Man, woman and child must each present this offering, which is thought very obligatory. Pitu, seven. Properly Javanese, but is sometimes heard in composition. Vide Na-as or Na-as pitu.

Pitua, instructions, orders of the elders; instructions handed down from father to son.

Pituwin, goods or property earned by our own means, by our own exertions, not inherited from others. Bogah na pituuin, he owns it by having worked for it, or earned it.

Piwarang, to order, to command. To send on a message.

Plérét, name of a place and district in het province of Mataram near Jugjakarta, where there is an old palace of the former sovereigns of Java.

Plok, the idiomatic expression of any small object falling to the ground, and in so doing making a small report.

Po, a chinese game, a way of gambling.

Pochong, a quantity of paddy tied up in some regular and even weight, usually 8 catties. Two Pochongs make one Gédéng.

Pochot, fallen out, slipped out. Displaced. Dismissed from an employment.

Podang, withered, died away, faded, scorched up.

Podol, excrement, dung, — a very coarse word.

Po-ék, dark, obscure. Anything which causes perplexity.

Pogor, the abrupt termination of a hill, where it suddenly ends, and the land beyond is level.

Poho, to forget. Poho di éra, forgets modesty. Ulah poho, don't forget.

Pohpor, name of a bird.

Pohpor, the stock of a gun.

Poi, day, daytime — 24 hours. Sabraha poi, how many days. Mata poi, the eye of the day = the sun. Sometimes Poi alone is used for the sun. Bang'at amat poi na, the sun is excessively oppressive.

Poikĕn, to put out in the sun. To expose to the sun's rays.

Pojok, a recess; a distant out-of-the-way place.

Pok, the idiomatic expression of speaking, giving utterance, of opening the mouth to speak. Pok bai lémék, and opening his mouth he spoke. Gĕrrah pok kunaun, be quick and speak, why not.

Pokal, a person's own act, his own fault; our own individual work or deed. No one else to blame. Sia chělaka-an pokal ku manéh bai, that you have got an accident is your own deed, or fault. Sawah iyo pokal sorangan, this sawah is my own from having made it (not bought or inherited it).

Pokék, short trousers, not reaching to the knees. Most probably derived from the words Puk-kék which you sometimes hear the natives make use of to denote the bursting of old trousers, when sitting down. Puk = squat, Kék = torn.

Poko, or di poko, to inject or squirt at into a hole. To poke at in a hole. Lauk nyalindung di na chadas kudu di poko, the fish hides itself among the rocks, and must

be squirted — or poked at (to get it out). Poko is a hole or aperture in the Marquesas and Sandwich Islands. CRAWFURD, Dissert., page 143.

Pola, a model, a model made of wood to work by. A block around which anything is made, by way of a model.

Poléh, tired , knocked up

Poléng, any rectangular or square pattern on cloth, which is woven with the cloth, hence such cloth is called Kain poléng. Rectangular pattern painted on or platted into any fabric, as on a Dudukui or native hat.

Polés, silver plate. Brass or copper implements plated with silver. (The Dutch polijst = polish).

Polo, the brain. Mola, C. 560, the brain, marrow.

Polo Déwo, is the name given to one of the old Hindu temples on the Diyĕng mountains in Pakalongan. Polo is the plural of Polowa, C. 424, the Earth. Déwa or Javanese Déwo, a god, — thus the Earth or abode of the gods, as the Javanese even now express themselves: Bumi Radén Adipati, the earth, the world of the Raden Adipati, when they merely designate his house or palace, — the enclosure in which it stands.

Polong, pease, garden pease. Pease of European origin.

Pond, a pound weight (ic — Dutch). 125 pounds Dutch make a Picul.

Pondang, name of a tree with large coarse leaves. The wood is much used for making gauls.

Pondok, arabic Fondok, the huts or sheds where young men put up when they go to live near a master to instruct them in the Koran, or to learn to read and write. Chiching di pondok bai, he always remains in the pondok, — which means he is always studying the Koran or reading religious books. Pondok is also a hut of any kind. Pondok ronggéng, a ronggéng's hut, a house of ill fame. Pondok bujang, the huts for paid labourers to live in.

Pondok, short, low in stature. Kayu pondok, a short piece of wood. Jelĕma pondok, a short man. Pondok umur na, his life was short.

Poné, a variety of wild pigeon, with green feathers. Columba Jambu. It is the same as Walik, which see. MARSDEN, page 238, gives Punei, a wild pigeon or green dove.

Pong'an, name of a shrub covered with thorns.

Ponggawa, see Panggawa.

Pongkĕl, a small piece detached from a larger mass.

Pongkor, a joint or tube of bambu; as much as is between two joints.

Pongpok, the innermost recess, the sanctuary. It is applied to the sun and wind, whose sanctuary or abode is unknown: — pongkok mata-poi, — pongkok ang'in. The back or after part of anything. That part which is opposed to the face. The reserve.

Pongporan, name of a large tree, leaves used medicinally.

Ponyoh, famished, very hungry.

Po-os, disappointed, not getting what we want or expect. Done out of anything. Popoi, as Sa popoi, all day long. The dualization of the first syllable of the word Poi implies continuity.

Popol, a semi-fluid mass of ground leaves and roots, brought to the substance of a paste and then laid on the forehead or temples by way of medicament.

Porang, a standing panier to hold fish in a boat as caught.

Porgol, gilt, overlaid with gold. A corruption of the Dutch, word verguld, gilt.

Porog, a net-bag set in the jungle, into which Minchĕk are driven and taken.

Porokokok, name of a river fish.

Porot, slipped through between anything, as between two beams. Porot suku na di na chukang, his foot slipped through the bridge. Ceased, terminated, left off. Gĕus porot nyĕkĕl pagawéan, he has ceased to have charge of that work.

Porowulon, an eight part, the eighth.

Pos, European, the post, the means of conveying letters. A post or stage, the distance between an exchange of horses in travelling, which on Java is 5 or 6 English miles. Kantor pos, the post office. Kreta pos, a post carriage, a stage coach.

Posong, a jĕlér fish trap.

Pot, the idiomatic expression of letting go. Pot bai di lésotkĕn, dropping it he left hold. Gĕus pot, he has let go. Pot! let go.

Potlod, a lead pencil. The Dutch word Potlood, lead pencil.

Potol, miserably poor, not worth a rap. Not able to command the first necessaries of life.

Potong, to cut, to hack. Kudu di potong, it must be cut.

Potong, cut, broken, separated, disjointed.

Poyok, to jeer at, to laugh at, to ridicule.

Prabu, see Parabu.

Prada, tinsel, see Parada.

Prah, as tanĕuh prah, loose, open, good soil, the opposite of tanĕuh tĕula, stiff clay.

Prahu, a boat, a ship,--a general term for all vessels afloat. Pārūwa, C. 389, a flat bottomed boat.

Prahulu, a scitameneous plant. Amomum Aculeatum.

Praja, subjects. a Occurs in the composition of proper names. Praja, C. 433, progeny, offspring, people, subjects.

Praji, a midwife, an accoucheuse. Probably the feminine of Praja, C. 433, progeny, offspring —— and thus the person who assists offspring.

Prajurit, a soldier, a warrior, a fighting man. Pra, a particle and prefix implying excess, much, very, exceeding; or Praja, C. 433, people, subjects ,—— and Jurit, Kawi, war ;—— thus pre (eminent) in war, or people for war.

Prak, the idiomatic expression of commencing any undertaking, setting to work or the like. Ari gĕus prak, if we have once set to work. Prak bai di sélla-an, and he clapped the saddle on (the horse).

Praku, weak, feeble. Prambanan, the name of a place on the confines of the territories of Solo and Jugjo, where numerous remains of Hindu temples are found. CRAWFURD tells us that the priests of Bali usually designate Mahadéwa by the name of Prama Siwa, or the Lord Siwa. Pramatha, C. 443, is an attendant or follower of Siwa. The word Prama is derived from the particle and prefix Pra, C. 430 implying excess, much, very, ex- ceeding; excellence, — with the constructive Ma suffixed to give it a substantive form. This pra corresponds to the Latin prae. The two last syllables of the word are idiomatic particles, by the help of which the Javanese form derivative words; thus Pra-ma-an would be a person or place having excellence, and prama-na-an, would be the abode or place of persons having excellence. The word has then been softened down into Prambanan, by inserting a b to avoid the hiatus. Prambanan was therefore in all probability a place devoted to the worship of Siwa. In the 22 vol. of the Bat. Trans. Mr. FRIEDERICH also reports Parama Siva, as one of the designations on Bali for Siwa, as well as Sada Siwa and Maha Siwa. On Bali, Siwa is also called Prameswara, the Highest Lord. Dito, page 34.

Pranaraga, called also by the Javanese Pronorogo and Ponorogo; a town and district in the Residency of Madiun, lying East from the Gunung Wilis. It is celebrated for Mahomedan academies kept there, and the Sunda people go there often as Santris. Prana, C. 441, old, ancient. Raga, C. 589, affection, love; the quality or property of passion, — mental affection in general.

Prang, war, battle. Prang di laut, war at sea.

Pransman, the Dutch Franschman — French; Orang Pransman, a Frenchman. Chita Pransman, French chintz.

Prapat, to cut a man's or woman's hair off in two streaks, at right angles to each other so that four corners are visible. A punishment inflicted by the Mahomedan priests on some occasions.

Prawira, a hero, a warrior. A word often occuring in the composition of proper names. Prawira, C. 445, from Pra, preminent, Wira, a hero. A hero, a warrior, a chief, a person of rank.

Prawu, the name of a range of mountains between Pakalongan on the north coast, and the Residencies of Banyumas and Bagělén to the Southward. The upperpart of these mountains is called Diyěng, which see. Many remains of Hindu temples and other antiquities still exist upon the Prawu, which is probably derived from Prabhu, corrupted into Prawu, and derived from Pra, C. 430, a particle and prefix implying excess, much, very, exceeding, excellence; — in short it is the same as the Latin Prae, — and Bhu, to be. See voce Prabhu, C. 443, a master, a chief, a lord, thus Gunung Prawu, the pre-eminent mountains. The word Prawu or Phraw is still used in Ava and Birmah as a high distinction. In its original sense it signified the Sun, and was applied to the sovereigns and the priesthood, as the representatives on earth of that splendid luminary. See Constable's Miscellany. Symo's Embassy to Ava, Vol. I, page 219. Préayi or Priayi, petty noblesse, the younger relatives of chiefs. Petty functionaries. Priya, C. 450, is most probably the etymon of this word, meaning — love, affection, joy, pleasure, delight, what pleases, from Pri, to please.

Priangan, the native name for what Europeans call the „Prianger Regencies" in Java. The etymon of the word may be found in Hyang, divinity, vide voce. Vide also Parahiang, — with the Polynesian an suffixed, to indicate place, and thus originally Para-hyang-an, contracted into Priangan. The Prianger Regencies are for the most part, especially the inhabited parts, an inland upland plateau, surrounded by stupendous mountains and volcanoes, — a fit place for a superstitious people to locate their gods in, and a fit neighbourhood for the adjoining territory of Bantam, which see. It will thus mean, — the abode of the divinities. Priangan was also the name given to the capital of the inland and central parts of Sumatra, called Menangkabau, and had no doubt its name in a parity of origin with the Priangan on Java.

Priěuk, a wide mouthed, coarse, earthenware cookingpot.

Prih, anxious to rival another; earnest in endeavours.

Prih-hatén, earnest, stirring, striving, using exertions. Literally: sore-hearted, or with a striving heart.

Probolinggo, name of a town and residency on Java. Probala, C. 442, much, great power or strength; Linga, C, 607 , the phallus or Siwa under that emblem, viz the penis.

Progo, name of a river, which, taking its rise among the Prawu mountains, flows through Kadu and Jugjokarta, till it falls into the South Sea. With the peculiar intonation of the Javanese, it is called Progo, but would otherwise be Praga, derived from Pra, C. 430, exceeding, excellence, pre-eminence; Gama, C. 167, which dropping the constructive final ma, will leave Ga in its crude shape, meaning: going, moving, and thus Pra-ga implying pre-eminent movement or going, or the chief river of the land. On this river is situated the village of Dikso, which Dipo Něgoro selected for the purpose of making his first stand in the great rebellion of 1825/30, it being considered a place of mystic authority and importance. The word itself conveys this idea. Diksha, C. 273, sacrificing, offering, oblations, engaging in a certain course of religious austerities.

Pruk, the idiomatic expression of going together, of uniting, of joining in marriage. Pruk bai ėwéan, he took unto him a wife.

Pua, the globural nest of ants which is found hanging on trees, made of earth and arranged in avenues and compartments.

Pua, a title of respect or honour made use of in old mythology or romance, and as such prefixed to some proper names, as Pua Putri, Puachi. Probably derived from Puwa, C. 411, former, prior, ancient, — the Elu form of Purwa. The word Puang occurs in Bugis for Lord, God.

Puachi, a name given to some kind of ancient divinity. Puwa, as above, ancient.

Wāchchya, C. 634, success, prosperity, literally: ancient prosperity, old luck. Para puachi, of the number of the Puachi, which may have been a designation of lower household penates. See Achi. In general terms Puachi means fairies, genie male or female; supernaturally endowed beings.

Puachi Rumbayang Jati, the genius who presides over dyeing cotton yarn of a red colour. Rambhā, C. 586, one of the Apsaras or courtezans of Swarga. Hyang, divinity. Jatya, C. 210, well born, of good family;—— thus the goddess , the courtezan divinity who is of good birth,—— who is invoked to lend her aid in making so difficult yet fine a dye as the Red for cloth. The Rumba is probably an easy corruption of Rambha.

Puak, to fart.

Pua-pua, a person with a frizzled head of hair. A negro of the Indian Archipelago. This word may be a duplication of the word Puwa, C. 411, former, prior, ancient, the Elu form of Purwa,—— and might have originally been used, by the people from continental India, to designate the former inhabitants of the land, whom civilization tended to drive Eastwards. In Malay they are called Puwah-puwah or Papuwah,—— vide CRAWFURD in voce,—— which latter is the same word with the usual preposition Pa, and in that language means the woolly headed race of men who now inhabit New Guinea or Papua. A small population of these woolly headed black negroes still exists on the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal, and some also linger in the Malayan Peninsula under the name of Samang and Bila; but from Sumatra, Java, Borneo and Celebes they have disappeared, nor is there even a tradition that they ever existed there, though a curliness in the hair of many natives would seem almost to indicate a trace of such original connexion.

Puas, or Puwas, efficient, satisfactory as to strength or other requirements. Likely to answer any purpose. Panggilingan puas amat, a mill that is complete and fit for work. Puru, C. 410, much, many, exceeding; Asū, C. 65, wish, desire;—— contracted into Puwas, exceeding desire, all that you can desire.

Puasa, fasting, abstaining from food. Puwasa, C. 412, greediness, avarice, covetousness, miserliness. Bulan Puasa, or the fasting month, is also known by the Arabic name of Ramalan, which is the ninth Mahomedan month, during which no Mahomedan may eat or drink, whilst the sun is above the horizon. From the above Sanscrit derivation we may infer, that the professors of Hinduism on Java, or in the Archipelago, derided the early Mahomedans with their fast, attributing it to mere miserliness not to eat in the day time. As Hindu worshippers they had also their abstinence or penance, which they called Tapa, by which was meant fasting entirely both night and day. See Tapa.

Puchat, pale in colour, wan; pale or sallow from illness.

Puchuk, the outermost end of a branch; the top branchlets of a tree. The tender sprouts or shoots of any leafy plant coming up out of the ground, as paddy. The fresh leaves of a palm tree, as they are developed from the spadix. Leaf buds. Puchuk sulang, said of seed paddy which will not come up, or which only throws up sickly white plants which soon die away. This is attributed to the seed being to old, or to its being stifled by lying piled in heaps, or that the air could not get at it.

Puchung, an intonation or tone in singing.

Pudak, a fragrant variety of the Screw pine. Pandanus Moschatus.

Puguh, assuredly, clearly understood, anything about which there is no doubt. Definite. To puguh, that is neither one thing nor the other. Not clearly understood. Indefinite. Ari gĕus puguh, karuan, it is clearly understood, so and good.

Pugur, a tree still standing but deprived of branches. Said especially of palm trees which have lost their terminal and only foliage. Kawung pugur, a Kawung palm without any branches or leaves. See Muguran.

Puhu, the lower or stump end of a tree. The lower end of any plant. The lower end of a stick of bambu, viz of that part which grows next the ground. Used in contradistinction to Chong'o, the upper part comprising the branches. NB. The Malay word Puhn or Puhun = a tree, is no doubt derived from our Puhu, with the addition of the constructive an, and thus means: having a stump end. The Sunda people have not, however, this very simple and easily derivative word according to their own language, to designate a tree, but make use of the word Tangkal. Marsden, page 239, gives—Puhn, a tree, the stem of a tree as distinguished from the branches; the part of the stem next the root;—thus in Malay a particular part gives the name to the whole plant.

Puhun, and Puhn, a title of respect given to an old man who has no title by birthright. Thus also the chief of the Badui heathen in South Bantam is called Girang Puhun. Girang meaning: up the river, superior, when mention is made of a river. This name assimilates the head of a clan or family to the stump or trunk of a tree. The rest of the community representing the branches and leaves. A very natural simile for a people living in primeval forests. Puhun is a designation still made use of in the commencement of some native Jampé or invocations, and seems to refer to some divinity or supernatural being, and has very likely a similar origin. Pu-un in the language of Talaga in the Philippines means: chieftain, elder. Crawfurd's Dissertation, page 239.

Pu-ih, to twist and twirl round a bit of string, rattan, liane or the like to give it consistence and fit it for binding or tying anything. Haramai beunang mu-ih, hemp which is twisted.

Puja, a Sanscrit word of same import as given by Clough, page 414, offering, sacrifice, worship; homage, adoration. The idea and the practice are the remnant of Bhudistical or Brahminical superstition. See Pamujahan.

Puji, a prayer, an adoration. Pujya, C. 415, worshipful, deserving admiration. See [[wikt:muji|Muji]. Pujita, C. 414, worshipped, adored.

Puk, the idiomatic expression of squatting down on the hams. Pukul, to strike, to knock, to whip; to divide, as in arithmetic; to levy upon, as a tax; to apportion a contribution. Di pukul rata, every one paid an equal share. Also to take an average.

Pukulan, a place to beat in. An indigo vat, from the water being beaten to separate the feculae.

Pulang, to return, to go home, to revert.

Pulang anting, to go and return the same day.

Pulangkĕn, to give back, to return anything borrowed.

Pulas, to rub on paint, whitewash or the like. To daub.

Pulasari, name of a plant, Alyxia Stellata, used medicinally. Quere—Pula, C. 411, the erection of the hairs of the body considered as a proof of exquisite delight. Sari, used much in compound words on Java to denote, a flower, or beauty.

Pulasari, name of a mountain in Bantam, a little way to the south of the Gunung Karang.

Pulĕn, said of any food, but especially properly boiled rice, which is glib and easily swallowed.

Pulé pandak, name of a plant used for a strong drastic. Given to horses, dogs or other animals on which it operates very powerfully. Ophyoxylon Serpentinum of the family Apocyneae.

Pulĕs, name of a class of plants, the leaves of which have stinging properties, the same as the common nettle in Europe, Urtica Dioica, only in a more violent degree.

Pulĕs, simply, Urtica Stimulaus, of the family Urticeae.
Pulĕs munding, Urtica Astuans, of the family Urticeae.
Pulĕs maléla, Urtica Ardens, of the family Urticeae.
Pulĕs arĕui, Cnesmosa Javanica, of the family Euphorbiaceae.

Pulĕsan, name of a variety of Rambutan or Tundun. Nephelium globium.

Pulihan, same as Mulihan, to weed a humah a second time. To go over again.

Pulir, to twist, to twirl, to turn round, especially something small. Mĕngké chĕuli sia di pulir ku aing, I will pull your ears—I will twirl them round.

Pulo, an island, land surrounded by water. Pulina, C. 411, an island of alluvial formation, or one from which the water has recently with drawn; or a small island or rock left in the middle of a river upon the falling of the waters. Polo, C. 424, the plural of Polowa, the Earth.

Puluh, the decimal adjunct. Sa puluh, ten. Dua puluh, twenty. Lima puluh, Fifty. Puluh probably originally means: to gather up, and is heard in Pulung, with final nasal ng. The natives perhaps originally counted by putting down some trifling object—a pebble—as in still heard in satu = sa-watu, or a grain as sa-hiji, and at every ten, they gathered them together to keep a tally, and thus sa-puluh will be one tally, dua puluh, two tallies, and so forth.

Pulung, to gather up, to collect, to pick up; to adopt. Pulung buah, to gather up

fruit. Pulung minantu, to gather up, to adopt as a son in law. Pulung anak, to adopt as a child. Anak pulung, an adopted child.

Pulur, feeding, entertainment, see Pupu1ur.

Pulut, to draw or pull, as to draw a net up out of Water. To pull away out of a bundle; to pull out even.

Pumpuran, name of a plant. Calosanthes Indica.

Pumpurutan, name of a shrub. Triumfetta Suffruticosa.

Pun, Divinity, Godhead, as applied to the gods of the Hindu religion, or perhaps of anti-Hindu periods. The word Pun! is often used at the commencement of an invocation. Pun, C. 407, from Purna, full, complete, fulfilled; also from Puma or Puman, male, masculine. Pun, on this supposition might mean: your fullness, your completeness. — It may also be a contracted form of Pohon, MARSDEN 239, to desire, to beg, to request, solicit, supplicate. See Muhunkĕn. The commencement of an invocation is Pun! ulah gédėr, ulah rowas! Divinity! be not startled, be not surprised! The chief or supreme godhead of the Badui in South Bantam is called Pun.

Punchak, the top of a mountain. The peak.

Punchĕlak, top, pinnacle, summit, point. The top of a mountain.

Punduk, the hump or round boss on the top of the spine, or at the insertion of the neck of some men, especially such as are in the habit of carrying loads on their shoulders. The hump of a Bengal or native cow.

Pundung, sulky, being inwardly vexed.

Pung, name of a shrub, Kembang Pung, called in Malay Nagasari. Acacia Pedunculata.

Punggas, broken, as a beam or stick breaks. Broken, as anything stiff and strong.

Punggawa, see Panggawa.

Punggĕl, to cut off short; to cut in short lengths, as logs of wood or something large and rough. To cut the top and branches off a tree, so as to leave only the stump standing.

Pungkil, well-fed, in good condition, in good case; round and well filled. Obese. Full and perfect. Showing a round heap.

Punglak, teeth fallen out. Kuda punglak huntu, the horse has lost his teeth, — is old.

Pungsat, short and dumpy. Paré pungsat, paddy short in the ear.

Punjul, a remainder, something over, a balance. Aya punjulan? is there anything over? is there any remainder? Punjul siji, one remains over.

Puntang, to swing backwards and forwards. Anything pendulous.

Puntangan, to move along by swinging to something, — as to move along under a roof by holding en to the rafters.

Pupon, anything collected. A tax which has been received. Tukang pupon, a tax gatherer; a man who goes about collecting a tax.

Pupu, to gather fruit; to make a collection of any kind. To collect a tax.

Pupugan, ataps which have been used and thrown away collected and used again. Anything which has been used and thrown away collected and used again. Pupul, to collect, to gather together.

Pupulih, to tell, to say, to communicate. Pupulih ka batur, tell your companions. Ulah pupulih, don't tell.

Pupulur, and [[wikt:pupulur|Pupuluran, to give a treat, a blow out, a feed, an entertainment. Hadé pupulur na, he gave a good blow out. Nu di gawé kudu di pupuluran, you must feed well those who work; givo them plenty to eat and drink. Pulur simply occurs more rarely in Sunda, but CRAWFURD gives it as Malay, meaning: meal, farina, the pith of plants (and thus probably alluding to the pith of the sago palm, which however, it does not imply in Sunda).

Pupundukan, having a hump or bump on the top of the spine at the insertion of the neck. Said also of the hump on cows. See Punduk.

Pupur, a lotion or cosmetic for the skin, composed of a solution of fine rice meal. Called in Malay Bĕdak.

Pupurus, a tenon in carpentry, the same as Pirusa. Pupurus is said to be properly Malay, but is nevertheless often used in Sunda. Most likely derived from Purusha, C. 410, male, masculine per simile. In the Polynesian word the first syllable, by a common practice, is doubled, when similitude is implied.

Puput, to blow, to breathe into. To fill with air, — as by blowing into a bladder, the fire etc. To blow with a bellows.

Puputan, the native bellows, which are two long cylinders of wood set side by side and standing upright. A tube leads out of each to a common point at the fire to be blown. In each cylinder moves a piston so arranged that it admits the air when drawn up, and closes when forced down by a rod, and thus prevents the air from again escaping upwards, but drives it into the fire. These pistons are moved by one man, and being alternately depressed and withdrawn, a constant blast of wind is kept at the fire.

Puputih, a disease in young paddy caused by a diminutive grub eating away the green epidermis of the leaf, and leaving it white, which Putih implies.

Puputih ĕndog, the white of egg.

Pura, used in composition to denote a town, as Singapura, the Lion town. Pura, C. 409, a city, a town, a cluster of houses walled in.

Puraga, an offering of the monkeys of one of their number to a tiger. The monkeys sometimes shove one of their number off the branches, when a tiger makes his appearance, at least so say the natives, and they call the unfortunate monkey so circumstanced Puraga. Puraga sounds Sanscritic. The nearest intelligible solution which presents itself is — Puru, C. 410, much, many, exceeding; Aga, C. 6, amongst many other meanings: sorrow, distress, fear; and thus the exceeding fear, at the presence of the tiger, to which they offer one of their number.

Purah, occupation, about (any occupation), engaged upon; for the purpose of. By chance, fortuitously. Purah naun sia, what is your occupation. Purah ngéjo, for the purpose of cooking rice; or, I am engaged in cooking rice. Purah ngala chai, my oc

cupation is fetching water. Aya nu purah, there are such folks! such things do happen! Owoh nu purah hadé, there are none by chance good.

Purai, broken in pieces, pounded up, smashed, as a clod of earth, a lump of sugar or the like.

Puraikĕn, to break up small. To dash to pieces.

Pura-pura, shamming, feigning, pretending.

Purasani, fine tempered steel. The loadstone, probably from being applied to a bit of steel. This word is probably the same as Khorasani, MARSDEN, page 125, Persian, fine tempered steel of Khorasan.

Purĕk, short hold of a rope, — the reverse of Lair or Layĕr. Short in the hold (by a rope). Tali na purĕk tĕuyn, the rope is too short. Ulah purĕk tĕuyn, don't hold so short.

Purilkĕn, to twist as a rope or bit of string. To twist or turn round anything. To twirl. Purilkĕn chĕuli na, twist his ear for him.

Purut, name of a tree. Artocarpus Glauca.

Purwa, old, ancient; in the commencement. Haji Purwa, the ancient Haji, — is a person who occurs in the history of Pajajaran. See RAFFLES vol. 2, page 97. Kiyo purwa na, in this way it was originally or anciently. Purwa, C. 416, first, prior, former, preceding, initial. Eastern Purwana originally.

Purwadadi, name of the chief place in Grobogan, East from Samarang. It is situated in a low flat country often covered with inundations in the wet monsoon , and from this circumstance may have derived its name. Purwa, C. 416, first, prior, former, preceding, initial. Udadhi, C. 76, the sea, the ocean: formerly a sea; the pristine sea. The word udadhi in composition loses the initial U as in Mahodadhi, C. 534, the Ocean, from Maha, great, Udadhi, sea.

Purwakala, in ancient times, of old.

Pusaka, inheritance, hereditary property or rights, heir-looms. Patrimony. Pu from Puwa, C. 411, former, prior, ancient. Saka, C. 691, his, his own, ones own. — Thus ancient possessions or ones own from olden times.

Pusaran chai, a whirlpool. Pusar in Malay, MARSDEN 237, to turn horizontally (as a mill stone). To turn (as water in a whirlpool).

Pusing, giddy, dizzy. To revolve, to turn round, to twirl. Involved in business ; taking much trouble with any matter. To daikkĕn pusing, he will not trouble himself about it.

Puspa, name of a forest tree, very common at Jasinga; does not grow under an elevation of 600 or 800 feet above the sea. Schima Noronhae. The name is Sanscrit and is found in Clough, page 412/13, Pushpa or Puspa, a flower. The pure white flowers of the Sunda puspa are found scattered under the tree, at intervals, throughout the whole year. Puspa occurs frequently in the composition of proper names, where it has evidently the meaning of flower.

Putal, name of a weed growing in the humahs; it has a thick fleshy leaf and dies or withers with difficulty, even when put up on the stump of a tree, especially if the weather is wet. Putat, name of a large tree. Gustavia Valida.

Putĕr, properly a Malay word. To twist and turn in an argument, or in giving evidence; to quibble, to evade a direct answer. Putĕr balik, prevarication.

Putĕr, to dig round a plant so as to get it out of the ground, along with some earth adhering to the roots, with a view to transplanting it.

Putĕr, name of a plant. Gomphrena Globosa.

Putĕran, a windlass.

Putih, white. Orang putih, white peoples = Europeans. Kain putih, white cloth. See also Bodas. Puti, C. 415, purity, purification. Puta, C. 414, pure, purified, cleansed; sincere, honest. In Sunda also Putih means sometimes pure and sincere, — not implicated in any dirty mess, — in which sense Bodas is not used.

Putri, a male child, a male royal offspring; a prince, — a refined expression. Putra, C. 407, a son, a child.

Putri, a female child, a princess. Putrika, C. 407, a daughter. A female of royal birth.

Putu, a grandchild and all further descendants.

Putus, terminated, as a law suit, or case submitted to a judicial authority. Concluded, settled; — from Putus in Malay, broken in two.

Putus-an, a decision, in a law suit; judgment, award.

[[wikt:putuskĕn]|Putuskĕn]], to give a decision, to award.

Pu-un, object of reverence. Seems to be a modification of Pun, which see.

Puwa, see Pua.

Puyud, viz Tanjung Puyud, is the native name for St. Nicholas Point, just inside the Straits of Sunda.

Puyuh, quail, a bird so called. Colurnix Tetras.

Puyuh-gonggong, literally the barking quail. Perdix Javanica. This bird is found only amongst the mountains in the forests. It has a peculiar and loud cry, whence it has got the name of Gonggong, barking. The bird is a kind of native partridge and is excellent eating.