A Dictionary of the Sunda language/U
Uah, uncle or aunt, when older than the parents of the person using the expression. See Toa, Paman an and Mama. A term of respect in addressing an elder. In Malay the expression Uwa also occurs for uncle or aunt, which Marsden fancies to be an infantine corruption of Tuah, page 20.
Uar, to give public notice, to proclaim. To inform, to apprize. Di uarkĕn ka batur, to apprize the neighbours. Gĕus uar ka sakuliah jagat, the entire country has been apprized.
Uatah, new, not yet used, untouched; said of anything which has not yet been put to the purpose for which it is intended. Jamang uatah, an unworn jacket. Pachul uatah, an unused hoe.
Uatahkĕn, to leave untouched, to reserve in good order. Not to make use of but to reserve for future use.
Ubal, to twist yarn or thread, so as to lay several strands together. This is done with a few very simple implements.
Ubar, medicine, physic. Drugs. Remedy. Naun ubar na, what is the medicine for it. How can it be cured.
Ubaran, to give medicine to. To administer medicine, which is often attended with charms and spells. Ubaran manéh ka gunung, he has gone to the mountains to get himself cured.
Ubĕd, tied round and round with string or rattan. To twist a string so often, and so close round a stick or other object, that it is hidden from view and nothing but the string left visible. See Bĕbĕd.
Ubĕr, to chase, to worry out, to ransack a jungle for wild animals. To thoroughly annoy. To give no peace to. To importune.
Ubĕs, investigated, thorougly searched. Examined in all parts. Ubĕs lĕuwĕung na di saksĕrakan, the forest was thoroughly searched by hunting through it.
Uchap, to say, to speak, to utter a word. Uchap na, his saying, or what he said. Kumaha uchap na, how was his saying, what has he said.
Uching, a cat, the domestic cat. Felis domestica. Called in Malay Kuching.
Uchul, let go, leave off holding , loosened, untied, disentangled. Departing from any place. Uchul tali na ayĕunah, let go the rope now. Uchul ti lumbur gĕus téng'ang'ni, when we left the village it was noon. Uchut, dropped out, displaced, dislocated. Come out. Slipped out. Uchut ngora, slipped out young. Prematurely born. A fausse couche. Kajĕun buruk ulah uchut, let it rather rot than drop out. A Sunda proverb said when much pains is taken with any matter; when a thing is made over-secure.
Uchutkĕn, to shove out, to drop out, to produce. To turn out of a bag.
Udag, to pursue , to chase, to run after. Bĕdul di udag ti lĕuwĕng, the pigs were chased out of the forest. Di udag to kabĕdag , when we ran after him, we could not overtake him.
Udang, a variety of Mangga so called. Udang in Malay is shrimp.
Udar, to throw out loose. To fling to the air. To shake out. To unbind. Bu-uk na di udaran, he shook out his hair (which is generally long). Ngudar lamak, to let a rag, or bit of cloth, flutter in the wind.
Udud, to smoke, to smoke tobacco. To bisa ngudud, I cannot smoke, I don't know how to smoke.
Uduh, soft, not hard. Sakit na ragrag ka nu uduh, it was well he fell where it was soft. Kayu uduh , soft wood.
Ugĕr, to make fast with ropes. To belay. To tie tight and immoveable.
Ugĕt, to shake or move a stake of wood, or any other object set deep in the ground. To move backwards and forwards anything set fast in the ground so as to get it loose an be able to pull it out.
Ujang, name of courtesy given to children of a petty chief, or official, such as of a Chamat.
Ujĕg, name of a small river-fish about 6 or 7 inches long. A pretty round fish with black stripe from gills to tail.
Ujĕg- paus, name of a small river-fish.
Uji , to try the touch , or ascertain the degree of fineness of gold, by means of a touchstone. Batu-uji, a touch-stone, always black, and on it the colour of the gold is clearly seen.
Ujung and Ujungan, a native game for two persons, a kind of short-stick, in which each party is armed with a bit of limber rattan, as thick as the little finger, with which they strike each other. It is allowed to ward off a coming blow with your rattan, but they give each other blows with all their might, and frequently bring out weals on the body. Played at native festivals, as at marriages, etc. when some trifle is given to the victor, or him who can stand it longest.
Ujur, to have a direction. The direction in which anything points. Ujur na ka wétan , it points to the East. Ngujur chai, to lie lengthwise in the river, or stream.
Ukir, to carve, to engrave. Ukir hulu kris, to crave a kris-head. Ukiran na bagus, the carving is pretty.
Ukup, to perfume by smoke. The smoke of incense. Fumigation.
Ulah, do not, don't. A prohibitive expression. Ulah undur , don't go away, don't give way. Ulah kawatir, you need not have any anxiety. Ulah di harĕup, don't expect it, or don't go in front. Ulam, a small worm, a grub.
Ulas, to rub on, as white-wash, paint, etc. To rub any medicament on the body. To smear.
Ulat, the features of the countenance, the physiognomy, air, mien.
Uli, a variety of Kuéh made of kĕtan, but not containing any Java sugar, and thus of a white colour.
Ulin, to play, to make fun. To amuse oneself. Aing ma lain ulin, it is no play with me. Ulin ka imah batur, to amuse oneself by going to a neighbours house.
Ulir, a screw. Anything that works as a screw by turning round and round, either made of metal or wood.
Um. This syllable, inserted in the middle of a word, gives it a plural form, indicates a repetition of the act, or modifies, in some degree, the original meaning of the word. It is very common in Sunda, as Turun-tumurun , going down by degrees; tumbak-tumumbak, resembling spears. This peculiar form is rarely perceived in the Malay, though it is occasionally heard, as Turun-tumurum , Marsden, p. 85, descendants , posterity; consecutively, Chabuk = Chambuk a whip, Gilang-gumilang, effulgent, shining. But as the form otherwise rarely occurs, we are forced to infer that they have borrowed the expressions from the Sunda people, with whom their geographical position may have brought them in contact, and with whom the form is so common. The word Tumbak, a spear, is an example, where it is derived from the Sunda word Tĕuwĕuk, to stab, converting the U into B in the new form. The few following words will give instances where this peculiar duplication into Um commences the words. See other words beginning with Tum. Um is heard in the Malay expression Tali-tumali, a ships cordage or rigging, see Crawfurd's Dictionary, page 181. Vide also Katumbiri.
Uma, C. 81, a name of the goddess Parvati or Durga, the wife of Siva.
Umang, a crab-like animal that lives in the shells cast by other fish. The hermit-crab. Two varieties of the umang are known to the scientific world as Cenobita and Pagurus. Umang is perhaps the word Krang, a shell-fish, a cockle, with the peculiar um inserted in the word Krumang, and the initial Kr elided, from the peculiarity of creeping into every shell he finds empty. A lazy, good-for-nothing fellow, who will do nothing for himself is said to be Chara umang, like the hermit-crab — he sponges on his neighbours, makes himself at home in his neighbour's house.
Umar, Arabic. The second Caliph in Arabia. Same as Omar.
Umat, Arabic, person, chap. Saha umat na, who is the chap? Marsden, page 15, gives Ummat, sect, people of the same religion: ummat Jahudi. the Jews.
Umbara, to remove with family, bag and baggage. To change the place of abode by going to some distant part of the country. Crawfurd , page 4 , gives Ambara, Sanscrit, to hover in the air, to wander. Umbul, a petty native official; a follower of a chief. Rarely heard.
Umbul-umbul, a banner; any signal, as a flag or other object, hoisted so as to be seen at a distance. Banners carried about the person of native chiefs. A small flag attached to a spear. Pronounced with stress on the initial U.
Umbul-umbul, heard mostly as Embul-ĕmbul, without thus any stress upon the initial U. To come in sight, to show up, to make appearance. Compounded of Um and Bul, both of which see.
Umbun-umbunan, the part of the forehead close under the hair. The crown of the head. The fontanel or soft sutures of a child's skull when newly born.
Umĕusi, filling up, said of paddy or fruit which is in the act of filling. Derived from Eusi, contents, and constructive Um prefixed, which gives the sense of filling in a small degree, or successively.
Umpak, a pedestal, a stand. A stone placed under wood-work. Compounded of the peculiar Um, which see, and Pak or Prak, set upon. Umpak tihang imah, the pedestal under the posts of the house. Anything placed under another with the view merely of supporting it. See Tumpak.
Umum, not certain, in doubt, indefinite, ambiguous. Crawfurd gives Umum as Arabic, common, general; uncertain, indefinite. In Sunda Umum implies: an open question how it is to be. Neither positively yes nor no. Umum appears to be a duplication of Um, see above, the particle denoting plural form or repetition, and is itself duplicated, showing great uncertainty. Something is to take place, but decidedly what is not known. Pĕrkara éta umum kénéh, that matter is still in doubt, not decided.
Umur, Arabic, life, life-time, duration of life. Age. Umur na pondok, his life was short. Salamat umur panjang, may you have long life. Umur manusiya sakĕudĕung, the life of man is but a moment. Sa umur hirup, as long as you live. Sabraha umur na, how much is his age? How old is he?
Unang-aning, a lot of things of various kinds. All sorts of things mixed up together. Said especially of various fruits, roots, leaves, and the like found growing wild and used for eating.
Unchal, a deer, Cervus equinus.
Unchang-unchangan, to sit with the legs dangling, without their touching anything to rest upon.
Undag, a piece of level ground on the side of a hill; a sort of landing-place. The space between two such landing-places. Technically a pull. Sa undag dĕui manan datang ka punchĕlak, it is another pull before we can get to the top (of the mountain). Sometimes also called Tundag, which see.
Undang, laws, statutes, made by man, not the Mohammedan law as found in the Koran.
Undar, the upright stand with long arms revolving around it, on which are wound the threads in preparing for weaving.
Undĕm, a cocoa-nut-shell used as a measure for rice. Undĕr-andir, name of the lower part of the Chibérang and confluents before they enter the sea; perhaps so called from its circuitous course, being derived from Undar the revolving spinning-machine.
Unduh, to gather the fruit from a tree by taking all off. Manggah na gĕus di unduh, they have gathered in all the manggoes (from some particular tree).
Undur, to recede, to retire, to with draw; to retreat. To run away. Tilok undur ti kabĕuki, he never runs away from what he relishes. Gĕus undur kabĕh, they have all gone away. Undur ti lumbur éta tĕulĕui manggih hujan, on leaving that village we immediately had rain.
Undurkĕn, to cause to fall back. To make retreat. To drive back.
Undur-undur, the lion-ant, Myrmeleon. This insect burrows in fine, soft sand or dry ashes, making little inverted conical holes into which unwary flies or other insects straying are easily caught by the lion-ant who is concealed at the bottom.
Undut, mud, joggling soft earth, peaty bog. Gunung Undut, alias Gunung Sajira in Bantam, said to be so called from some places with joggling earth, high up its sides, or near the top.
Unĕuk, the sharp hooks or prickles of some large varieties of rattan, used for garnishing the Tumbak bandil. Marsden gives the word Unak as some kind of prickly plant. The thistle is rendered by this word in the Malay translation of the Bible. Marsden, page 25.
Unggah, to get upon, to mount; to come out upon. Unggah ti chai, get up out of the river. Chai na mohal unggah, the water will not flow out upon it (the land to be made into sawahs.)
Unggahan, to get upon. To have illicit communication with a woman. Unggahan éwé batur, to have illicit communication with a neighbour's wife.
Unggut, shakey in its socket. To shake as a post stack loosely in the ground. Hunu na ururunggut kabéh, all his teeth shake in their sockets. Kayu nanchĕb ka jĕro tanĕuh di unggutkĕn, they shook the piece of wood which was stuck in the ground.
Unkrah-ankrih, to knock about. To push about or handle roughly so that it gets spoiled. Paré na ulah di ungkrah-angkrih kitu, murag, don't knock that paddy about so much, because the grains keep dropping off.
Ungkud-ungkud, to shake with a strong effort. To shake with a view to bring it out of its place. Kayu na di ungkud-ungkud wat pagĕuh, when I shook the piece of wood (stuck in the ground) I found it quite firm.
Ung'u, violet colour, purple. Also a reddish brown colour. Kain ung'u, purple cloth.
Unjuk, having a good show, making a show. Being particularly good or fine. Paré batur unjuk, my neighbour's paddy makes a fine show. Jélĕma na unjuk, that man is strong and valliant (or possesses some quality out of common).
Untung, fortune, good luck, also bad luck, chance, lot. Gain, profit, advantage. Untung nakěr, very profitable. Untung na ěun sakitu, his luck was only such, meaning that he was not very successful. Untung chapé, his gain was getting tired, as we should say, he got his trouble for his pains. Kumaha untung na bai, as chance may turn up.
Untung Jawa, name of the promontory made by the embouchures of the Chidani river, and opposite to the island of Onrust. It means the luck, the prosperity of Java.
Unun, to smoke, to kilndry. To put up over a fire-place so as to dry thoroughly and render durable.
Upah, hire, reward, recompense. Payment made in money or goods for any work done. To induce to do anything by a payment. Paid for. Upah nyusuk, to pay for making a canal, or water-course. Upah ngunjalan, to pay for taking away. Upah nyumpah, to pay for getting an oath.
Upahan, to recompense, to reward, to defray. Wages, payment.
Upama, for example, suppose, as if, quasi, like, resembling. Upama, C. 80, derived from Upa, like, Mā, to measure, likeness, resemblance, as a picture, an image, etc. Also a parable, a simile. Upama na kula datang isuk-isuk, měunang tah pulan rada běurang, suppose that I come very early in the morning , shall I be allowed to go away again rather early.
Upas, venom, poison. Any noxious juice either vegetable or animal. Upas orai, the poisonous spittle of a snake. The secretory matter which is contained in its poison-bag. Sirěum nu aya upasan, an ant which emits a virulent saliva. Sirěum upas, a variety of ant of the size of Tataman; it lives on trees, is black , and gives a very painful bite. Urut di gégél orai, upas na matih nakěr, having been bit by a snake, its secretory matter is very virulent.
Upěti, revenue, tribute, contribution.
Upih, the spatha which envelops the spadix of the unexpanded pinang-fruit. This, when carefully cut off and separated from the spadix, forms a broad, thin, leathery wrapper, which is much used for carrying about cooked rice, as when a man goes to a day's work, or on a journey. The green outer pellicle is stripped off, and then it is white on both sides. Běbĕd upih, an upih well filled with provisions for a journey. Buka upih, name of a swamp-bird, which is dark coloured whilst on the ground, but on rising in the air shows white like the upih, under the wings.
Ur, the idiomatic expression for rushing into the presence, of coming in a hurry upon any one, of a flock of birds or a herd of cattle starting off on their course. Ur bai mata-poi bijil, and the sun rushing on came out. Ur bai manuk hiběr sa loba-loba, the birds started on their flight in great numbers.
Urab, to mix eatables, as Bonteng or Iwung, etc. with the pulp of cocoa-nuts. See Orég. Urai, to twist any flaxy matter into rope, said especially as applied to twisting the injuk of the kawung-palm into ropes. To make a rope of flaxy materials.
Urakan, to take to pieces; to break an agreement. Pĕrjanjian éta di urakan dĕui, that agreement has been broken through.
Urat, a vein, a sinew, muscle, fibre. Sagala urat na hĕuras, all his sinews were hard. Urat kaju, the fibre or grain in wood.
Urihi, one of the numerous names for wild pigs.
Urirang, sulphur, same as Walirang.
Urug, tumbled down, fallen by crumbling down. Slipped down, as earth from a hill-side, stones which have been piled up or the like. To fall as water at a cascade. To fill up a hollow by putting earth into it. To lay gravel or materials on a road. Gunung na urug, the mountain has slipped down; a lot of earth has got loose from the mountain and slipped down. A landslip. Paré na di tumpuk urug, the paddy which was piled up, has fallen down. Chai na urug ti luhur, the water falls from above. Churug, a waterfal.
Urui, to water in the mouth, from longing for something nice. Crumbling and falling to pieces. Chadas běunang nyusuk uruian bai, when we cut a canal in the tufaceous strata, it keeps crumbling down.
Ururugan, apparently a plural form of Urug. To go with a number of men to any work. To make war, to attack with an army. To set upon in numbers, as it were to tumble upon in masses.
Urus, in order, properly arranged. Satisfactory. To take trouble to get anything in order, or as it should be. Do you think I have nothing else to do. Nu urus, I hope not, may it not be so, literally that which is in order, — said with some diffidence. To urus, that is not satisfactory, that is not in order. Urus tĕuyn nyatu, it matters not about eating; meaning do you think I have nothing else to do but eat. Urus tĕuyn pĕuting, it matters not that it be night.
Urusan, to look after, to keep in order, to administer. Administration; management of any kind. Urusan tanĕuh, to administer an estate (landed property). Urusan kĕbo, to look after buffaloes. To bisa bogah urusan, he does not know how to keep matters in order.
Urut, mark, trace. A leaving of another person. What another person has done. Urut jéléma ka dinyo , there is a trace of a man having been there. Urat batur, the leavings of a neighbour. Urat saha iyo? whose mark is this? who has been using this? Awéwé urut dĕungan, a woman who has been done with by a person who is no relation of ours — and therefore a widow in consequence of death or divorce.
Urut, to rub and squeeze the muscular parts of the body after fatigue. To shampoo, in order to give relaxation to the body. Urut is a more forcible application than Rĕuntĕut, which see.
Usaha, labour, exertion, endeavour. What is got by labour. Usaha nu lĕutik, the industry of the common people, or what they get by their labour. Such labour itself. Ussaha, C. 83, labour, exertion, diligence.
Usali, Arabic, about to pray. Having the intention to pray. The commencement of a formulary of prayer.
Usap, to rub, to wipe. To polish with the hand. To push the hand along anything as if rubbing. To stroke down.
Usĕp, a fish-hook. To fish with a hook and line.
Usik, to move, to stir. Ulah ngusik, don't move. Teu bisa ngusik, I cannot move.
Usir, to chase away. To put outside. To turn out, to dislodge man or beast from any position. To unceremoniously turn a man or beast from any place, as a house, a village, or out of any employment.
Ustu, obeying, subjected to. Also sometimes heard as Estu.
Usuk, a rafter in the roof of a house, when made of wood and not bambu, which would be called Layĕs.
Usum, season, period of year. Probably a corruption of Musim, which see.
Usung, to carry on the head. To carry anything in a basket or bag placed on the head. Said of the act of an animal which puts its head under anything to toss it up. Anjingna di usung ku kĕbo, the buffaloe tossed the dog in the air. Usung seems to have a common origin with the first part of the Singhalese verb Ussanawa, C. 83, to lift up, to raise, to elevate, or Osawanawa, C. 91, to raise, to lift up, to elevate, from the adjective Us or Usa, C. 83, high, elevated, and which will be the same etymon as Hausser, to elevate, in French.
Usung-asung, a small variety of Ajag, Canis rutilans. They go about in packs, and hunt small animals which they attack and master by their numbers. They are less troublesome than the Ajag, and like it are of a brown colour, and have bushy tails. The word is evidently derived from the Javanese Asu, a dog. Suna, C. 748, a dog,from Su, to hear.
Usur, the one tenth of the property left by a deceased person, which falls to the priest for his trouble and assistance in enforcing the Mahomedan law in its distribution.
Usur, to bribe, to give a douceur. Di usur manan daik jadi, it was necessary to bribe him before it could bo done.
Usuran, a bribe, a douceur.
Usus, the guts, the entrails, the intestines.
Usut, to rub the nose, as a dog upon the grass when tracking game, or a lover against the face of his beloved. To scent out. To get information by prying slyly.
Utah, to vomit, to throw up, whatever is vomited. Utah anjing, a dog's vomit.
Utahkĕn, to vomit, to throw up from the stomach. To disgorge, to give back anything unlawfully obtained. The Malay word is Muntah, which is the Sunda Utah with the prefixed verbal particle ma.
Utama, excellent, in perfection, best, perfect. All done that can be done. Utama hadé, the very best. Dangdanan nana utama, its construction is perfect in all its parts. Utama běunang ngabantuan, all possible help has been afforded. See Nista. Uttama, C. 75, excellent, chief, best, first, principal.
Utara, north, see also Kalér. Any violent gale of wind, a tempest, — probably from the north-west monsoon being the periodical season of wind and rain. Katarajang utara, overtaken by a tempest. Utura, C. 75, the north. Uttara, C. 76, the north.
Utas, to cut down small jungle. To cut a way or path through a tangled forest. To make a trace for a boundary line or sign of demarcation.
Utas, a string of beads, a necklace. A piece of netting generally a couple of fathoms long, and one fathom broad, used when several are joined together, to encircle game in the forest, or fish in water.
Utun, a prince of nobleman of Pajajaran. The term is used in Pantuns referring to the nobles of Pajajaran, where such individuals are generally called Si-utun, and are generally described as adventurers in quest of a wife, or independent petty government.
Utus, as di utus, to send on an embassy. A message sent by a royal personage.
Utusan, an ambassador. A royal messenger. An embassy, a mission.
Uyab, to shake up, to shake out, so as to disentangle part of the contents. Eta jukut kotor ngantěp kudu di uyab, that grass is very dirty, you must shake it up. Di uyaban měngké, we will shake it up (and get out the dirt or objectionable matter).
Uyah, salt. Probably derived from U, which in many languages of the Pacific is a woman's teat, milk, and is heard in the Sunda Susu, which see. It is also apparently the etymon in Buah, fruit, and may thus imply something round, having form, growing spontaneously. Yah is probably originally water. It still occurs as Yéh, water in Bali, Crawfurd, and Bah, an inundation in Malay, as heard in sawah. It may thus imply: the fruit of water. Banyu, Javanese, water, seems an inversion of these derivatives, and may then have originally meant: sea or salt water, which in that sense was dropped for La-ud, laut, salt water. Bah is retained in Sunda in Kumbah, to wash, and in the first parts of Walungan and Waluran, which both mean a ravine, a water-course in the face of a hill.
Uyang, a petty title given apparently mostly out of compliment to an elderly person. But it is also acquired by birth and is below Mas. Derived from Nguyang, to have got by half begging.