A Grammar of the Persian Language/Of the Letters

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A Grammar of the Persian Language/Of the Letters
by William Jones

کتاب

شکر ستان

در تصریف ونحو پارسي


A

Grammar

of the

Persian Language.




Of the Letters.

1. The learner is supposed to be acquainted with the common terms of Grammar, and to know that the Persians write their characters from the right hand to the left.

2. There are thirty-two Persian letters.

V. IV. III. II. I.
exemplifications. finals. initials and medials.
Final Unconnect. Final connect. Med. Init. Connected Unconnected Connected Unconnected Power Name
Oriental. English.
ذا or با بار ابر ا ا ـا ا a الف alif
اب شب صبر بر ـب ب ـبـ بـ b بي or با bā or bē
تاپ چپ سپر پر ـپ پ ـپـ تـ b پي
V. IV. III. II. I.
exemplifications. finals. initials and medials.
Final Unconnect. Final connect. Med. Init. Connected Unconnected Connected Unconnected Power Name
Oriental. English.
جاط or جط بطن طي ـط ط طـ ظ طا

3. The second and fourth columns of these letters, counting from the right hand, are used only when they are connected with a preceding letter ; as, محمّد Muhammad. Every letter may be connected with that which follows it, except these seven; ا alif, د dāl, ذ zāl, ر rē, ز zē, ژ jē, and و wāw, which are never joined to the following letter, as will appear from the words برگ barg, a leaf; داوري dāvarī, a dominion.

Though the true pronunciation of these letters can be learned only from the mouth of a Persian or an Indian, yet it will be proper to add a few observations upon the most remarkable of them.


OF THE CONSONANTS. حُرُوفِ تَهَجِّي

4. The consonants ا,و, and ي, occasionally become quiescent, as will be explained hereafter. ا, when a consonant,