A Grammar of the Persian Language/Of the Nouns

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and First of Genders, جِنْس.

55. The reader will soon perceive with pleasure a great resemblance between the Persian and English languages, in the facility and simplicity of their form and construction; both have no difference of termination to mark the gender, either in substantives or adjectives: all inanimate things are neuter; and animals of different sexes, either have different names, as پِسر pis̤ar, a son, a boy, کنِیز k̤aniz̈, a girl, اسْپ asp, a horse; مادِیان mādiyān, a mare; or are distinguished by the words نر nar, male, and ماده mādah, female, as شیرِ نر shēray nar, a lion; شیرِ ماده shēray mādah, a lioness; these particles, however, are usually applied to irrational beings.

56. Arabick words indeed are often made feminine by receiving a silent (خفی Art. 29) final ه, added to it, as معْشُوق maعshūḳ, a friend; amicus, معْشُوقه maعshūḳah, a mistress; amica, as in this verse:

گُل در برَ ومَيْ بر کّفُ و معْشُوقه بکامسْت

The rose in my bosom, the wine on my palm, and the beloved is to my desire.

57. But, if such noun do not signify a rational being, they consider it