A History of Inland Transport and Communication in England/Index

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[ 522 ]

INDEX


Accidents on railways: 442-3
Acworth, W. M.: 425, 426
Aeroplanes: 504-6
Agricultural Organisation Society: 355
Agriculture: 16, 74, 85, 89, 164, 179, 192, 353, 355, 497, 507
Aikin, Dr.: 49, 91, 142, 169, 185
Ale, Burton: 178
Alldridge, T. J.: 403
Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants: 446, 447, 512
Amber: 6-7, 26
Ambulance corps on railways: 444
Anderson, Dr James: 229
Andred-Weald, The: 4, 8
Aqueducts on Canals: 304
Arkwright, Sir Richard: 187, 188
Armstrong (Newcastle) University: 427
Ashley, W. J.: 18, 19
Askwith, Sir George: 452
Assizes of ale, bread and cloth: 19
Associated Society of Locomotive Engineers and Firemen: 447
Association of Railway Companies' Signal Superintendents: 429
Association of Railway Locomotive Engineers: 429
Australia, Railways in: 402
Automobile Association and Motor Union: 479, 503
Automobilism: See "Motor-vehicles."

Badeslade, Thomas: 119-20
Bagmen: 16
Bailey, John: 207, 208
Baines, Thomas: 136, 138, 141, 157, 165, 178, 180, 184, 236
Balfour of Burleigh, Lord: 338
Barber, H. C.: 505-6
Bartholomew Fair: 27
[ 523 ]Bawtry: Classed as a seaport, 111;
port of consignment for Sheffield goods, 123-4, 148-9
Beal, C. G.: 448
Beasley, A.: 261 n., 290 n.
Bedford, The Duke of: 254
Benevolent contributions, Railway companies': 440-1
Bequests for road repairs: 12
Birkenshaw, John: 206
Birmingham: Coach communication, 54-5;
trade conditions, 90-1;
cost of road transport to London, 160;
Birmingham Canal, 184, 236-7, 298-9, 301, 302, 307, 495;
London and Birmingham Rly., 249-52
Bishopsgate Goods Station: 392-4
Board of Trade and Railways: 259, 268, 269, 271, 275, 277, 279, 282, 338, 353, 356, 440, 443, 446, 448, 450, 492, 509
Boonen, Guylliam: 37
Bourn, Daniel: 45-7, 66
Boyle, Courtenay, Sir: 338
Bradfield, J. E.: 316, 333-4
Brereton, R. M.: 317
Bridge friars: 12, 13
Bridges: 11, 13
Bridgewater, Francis, Duke of: 139, 167-72, 173, 221, 231, 295
Bridgnorth: Transit port on the Severn, 115;
route for pottery goods, 159;
Manchester goods, 161
Brindley, James: 130, 167-8, 171, 173, 174, 295
Bristol: Early prosperity of, 112;
trade done by Bristol merchants, 116;
Lancashire goods exported viâ the Severn and Bristol, 161
[ 524 ]Brome, The Rev. J.: 74-5
Bronze Age, The: 6
Brunlees, J.: 206
Buddle, John: 200-1, 404
Burnett, John: 448
Burton-on-Trent: 122
Bute, The Marquis of: 304
Butterworth, A. Kaye: 343
Buxton, Mr.: 452

Cab, introduction of the: 63;
taxi-cabs, 485-7
Caledonian Railway: 289, 367, 451
Cambridge: Located on river, 111;
importance to of river transport, 119, 120, 125
Canada, Railways in: 254, 402
Canals: Advocated, 162, 164;
a transition from rivers, 165;
the pioneer British canal, 166-7;
opposition, 170-1;
effect of canals on trade and industries, 175-8, 180, 192-4, 295;
engineering difficulties, 171, 174, 179-80;
passenger traffic, 172, 265;
public prejudice, 181-2;
"canal mania," 183, 185;
value of shares, 183, 236-8;
number of canal Acts, 183;
expenditure on canals, 183, 234;
length of canals, 183;
canal companies adopt railways, 212, 220;
excessive charges, 231;
attitude towards traders, 231-3, 243-4, 296;
opposition to independent railways, 234-9, 296;
canal extortions inspire railway restrictions, 258;
Royal Commission on Canals and Waterways, 294, 295, 304;
construction on no general scheme, 295;
reduction of rates, 296;
neglect of improvements, 296-7;
canals acquired by railways, 297-9, 306;
increased powers, 299, 300;
amalgamation of canals, 301;
physical conditions, 301-4;
locks, 302, 303;
railway competition, 304;
aqueducts, 304-5;
tunnels, 305;
colliery operations, 306;
canal and rail transport compared, 307-9;
[ 525 ]canal resuscitation impracticable, 309-11, 495
Aberdare C.: 213
Aire and Calder Nav.: 141, 143, 147, 307
Ashby C.: 219
Barnsley C.: 184, 238
Birmingham C.: 184, 236-7, 298-9, 301, 302, 307
Charnwood Forest C.: 220
Coventry C.: 183, 237, 302
Dudley C.: 301
Ellesmere C.: 184
Erewash C.: 183, 237
Fossdyke: 121, 154
Glamorganshire C.: 184, 214-8, 238-9, 304
Grand Junction C.: 183, 184
Herefordshire and Gloucestershire C.: 193
Huddersfield C.: 180
Kennet and Avon C.: 184
Lancashire C.: 219
Leeds and Liverpool C.: 179-80, 237
Leicester C.: 183, 238
Loughborough C.: 237, 261
Manchester, Bolton and Bury C.: 184
Mersey and Irwell Nav.: 238
Peak Forest C.: 193-4
Rochdale C.: 180, 183, 193, 303
Sankey Brook C.: 165-6
Stratford-on-Avon C.: 298
Swansea C.: 304
Thames and Severn C.: 184
Trent and Mersey (Grand Trunk) C.: 172-5, 210, 237, 238, 261, 307
Trent Nav.: 183
Cardwell's Committee: 285
Carriages, Private: 37-8
Castlereagh, Viscount: 439
Central London Rly.: 492
City and South London Rly.: 492
Chamberlayne, Dr: 38
Chaplin, William: 325
Chaplin, Mr: 459
Chapmen: 17, 21, 24, 91
Charles I.: Proclamation concerning roads, 43
Charles II. and roads: 33-4, 132
Cheap Trains Act, 1883: 263 n.
[ 526 ]Cheese industry: 122, 163, 179
Chester: Roman road to, 8;
fair, 27;
coaches, 40, 51, 54;
decay of port, 137
Church and roads: 11-14;
fairs, 21
Claughton, G. H.: 448
Clifford, Frederick: 128, 170, 223, 272, 273, 277, 295, 303, 324
Cloth-makers and transport: 143-4, 146-7
Coaches and coaching: The "long waggon," 35-6, 38, 53, 325;
stage-coaches, 38-42, 51-3, 325;
"flying" coaches, 53-5, 327;
mail-coaches, 55-7, 325;
Thames watermen and coaches, 58-63;
hackney coaches, 60-3;
the "palmy" days of coaching, 325;
tolls paid by coaches, 316;
coach-owners join railways, 326;
speed accelerated, 327;
effect on horses, 327-8;
cost of coach-horses, 328;
accidents and discomforts, 328;
decline of coaching, 329;
taxation, 329-34
Coal industry: 36, 117, 140, 165, 167, 179, 188, 195-7
Commercial Motor Users' Association: 477, 485
Continental railway rates: 357
Copper industry: 9
Corporations, Rise of Municipal: 19
Cort, Henry: 190
Cotton industry: 138, 187-8
County towns, Influence of transport conditions on: 94-7
Court of Pie Powder: 22-3
Cressett, John: 39-42, 51
Crewe Mechanics' Institution: 417
Cromwell, Oliver: 131, 132
Cumming, T. G.: 213
Cunningham, W.: 23
Curr, John: 204
Cutlery, Sheffield: 124, 142, 148-9, 191
Cycles and Cycling, 472-3, 480

Dalhousie, Lord: 269, 276
Darby, Abraham: 190
Day, Frank B.: 394 n.
Defoe, Daniel: On Sturbridge Fair, 24-6;
[ 527 ]roads at Lewes, 68;
turnpikes, 78, 87-90;
country towns, 95-6, 121, 126;
Bristol traders, 116;
port of Lynn, 119;
trade on the Trent, 122;
River Idle, 123-4;
River Wey, 126;
Devonshire serges, 127;
Yorkshire trade conditions, 144, 145-7;
cheese industry, 163
Dehany, W. K.: 28, 49, 81
Denmark, Prince George of: 67
Denton, The Rev. W.: 5, 14, 58
De Salis, Rodolph: 152
Domesday Survey: 4
Dover, Early communication with: 35 n., 53
Dublin Society, The: 72
Dugdale, Sir William: 51
Duncombe, Sir Sandars: 60

Easingwold Rly.: 290-1
Eastern Counties Rly.: 253
Eaton, J. Shirley: 415, 416
Edgeworth, R. L.: 72, 229
Edinburgh, Coaches to: 36, 37, 51-2, 56;
cost of posting to, 57
Edington, Robert: 197
Education of railwaymen, The: 413-27
Elizabeth, Queen: 37, 57, 196
Enclosure Acts: 192
Engineer and Railway Staff Corps: 401
Evelyn, John: 63

Factory System: 385
Fairs: 20-7, 91, 95
Farrer, Sir Thomas: 276
Fay, Sam: 506 n
Fen-lands: 5
Festivals, Religious: 21
Findlay, Sir George: 345, 376
Finger-posts: 65 n.
Fish industry: 89-90
Flannels, Trade in: 114-5
Fowler, H. H. (Lord Wolverhampton): 323
Fowler, J. Kearsley: 315, 316
France, Roads in: 67, 320
Francis, John: 210, 222, 251, 252, 255, 256, 272
Franks, W. Temple: 339
[ 528 ]Freeman, James E.: 371
Fulton, R.: 181, 211

Galloway, Robert L.: 196, 198
Garcke, Emile: 458
General Railway Workers' Union: 447
Gibb, Sir George: 343
Gladstone, W. E.: 268, 269, 270, 273, 275-6, 278, 279, 282, 322
Glasgow and South-Western Railway: 436
Glynn, G. C.: 264, 279
Goschen, Mr: 323
Gordon, Alexander: 474
Gower, Earl: 173
Graham, Sir James: 265
Granet, Sir Guy: 448
Gray, Robert: 332
Gray, Thomas: 207, 221, 229-230, 328
Great Central Rly.: 289, 367, 423, 451
Great Eastern Rly.: 253, 277, 287, 288, 289, 367, 392-4, 401, 418-20, 437
Great Eastern Rly. Mechanics' Institution: 418-20
Greater London, Beginnings of: 97
Great Northern Rly.: 277, 289, 339, 367, 391-2
Great Northern of Ireland Rly.: 289
Great North Road: 32, 65, 75, 123
Great Southern and Western Rly.: 289
Great Western Rly.: 252, 254, 273-4, 277, 288, 289, 297-8, 326, 366, 421-2, 427-8, 451
Great Western Rly. Literary Society: 427-8
Griffin, H. Hewitt: 486
Guilds, Craft: 19
Guilds, Merchant: 18-19
Gurney, Sir Goldsworthy: 474-5

Hackney carriages: 59-63
Hackworth, J. W.: 227
Hackworth, T.: 227
Hadley, Prof.: 226 n., 347
Hall, Sir John: 282
Hamilton, Lord Claud: 437, 439
[ 529 ]Hardware trades: 191
Harper, C. G.: 56, 57
Harrel, Sir David: 448
Harrison, William: 114
Hawkshaw, Sir John: 396
Henderson, M.P., Arthur: 448
Hereford, Ross and Gloucester Rly.: 131
Herepath, John: 262-3, 275, 278
Hermits and road repairs: 13
Highwaymen: 95
Historical Manuscripts Commission Reports: 12, 13 n.
Holinshed: 31
Homer, Henry: 73
Hops: 25
Horne, Benjamin: 325, 327
Horseback, travelling on: 16, 36
Horses: Number used for long waggons, 35, 37;
restrictions in regard to, 43-5;
horses used for coaches, 325;
mortality on roads, 327-8
Horwich Mechanics' Institute: 420-1
Hours of labour, Railwaymen's: 441-2
Howells, Clarence S.: 306
Hull, Trade of: 122, 123, 147
Humpherus, Henry: 37, 63
Hunter, The Rev. J.: 123, 124, 148, 149
Hutchinson, William: 198, 199
Hutton, William: 54, 90, 176
Hyde, W. H.: 401

Inglis, Sir James C.: 421
Insurance Bill, National: 375
Ireland: Control of roads, 319;
cheap conveyances, 333
Iron industry: 4, 7, 9, 26, 117, 134, 161-2, 178, 188-91

Jacob, Giles: 21-3
James I.: 196
James, William: 234
Jeans, J. S.: 226, 227, 306, 308
Jersey, Lord: 353
Jessop, William: 49, 122, 206
Jusserand, J. J.: 11, 12, 13

Kellawe, Richard de: 11
Kendal as a packhorse station: 36
[ 530 ]Kinderley, Nathaniel: 119, 154
Knoop, Douglas: 427

Lancashire and Yorkshire Rly.: 289, 367, 420-1, 423, 426-7
Land-beacons: 65
Lead industry: 6, 9, 26
Leeds cloth market: 145-7
Lees, Sir Edward: 333
Lefevre, Shaw: 456 n.
Leicester and Swannington Rly.: 242-4
Leigh, Charles: 36
Levy, Lewis: 318
Light railways: 457, 463, 507
Linen industry: 115, 134, 138
Litters, Use of: 16
Liverpool: Early waggons and coaches, 36, 54, 56;
isolation, 135-7;
improvement of Mersey, 137;
river communication with Manchester, 139;
effect on Liverpool trade of navigation facilities on the Weaver and the Douglas, 139-41;
Sankey Brook Canal, 165-6;
Bridgewater Canals, 167-72;
Leeds and Liverpool Canal, 179;
Liverpool and Manchester Rly., 230-41, 494
Loads, Restrictions on: 43-5
Locks on canals: 302-4
London and Birmingham Rly.: 249-52, 254, 256, 326, 417
London and North-Western Rly.: 252, 276, 285, 289, 298-9, 339, 366, 367, 370, 376-84, 391, 417-8, 422-3, 432, 438, 440, 451, 507
London and South-Western Rly.: 254, 256, 289, 326, 353, 367, 440
London, Brighton and South Coast Rly.: 254, 256, 275, 289, 367
London Electric Railway Coy.: 492, 493, 507
London General Omnibus Coy.: 485
London Railways Athletic Association: 431
London School of Economics: 425-6, 506 n
London, Tilbury and Southend Rly.: 496 n.
[ 531 ]London traffic problem: 490-3, 497, 499, 507
London Traffic, Royal Commission on: 462, 493
London United Tramways: 492
Long service on railways: 445
Lord Mayor's coach, The: 58
Lowther, M.P., J. W.: 459 n.
Lynn, Early importance of: 24, 26, 119-20

Macaulay, Lord: 94, 95
Mackay, Dr Charles: 93
Mackworth, Sir Humphry: 202
Macpherson, David: 29, 30, 32, 42, 72
Manby, Charles: 401
Manchester: Coaches, 53-4;
early trading conditions, 91;
goods despatched viâ Bewdley and Bridgnorth, 161, 172;
Mersey and Irwell Navigation, 138-9, 168-9, 171;
Worsley-Manchester Canal, 168, 171;
cost of transport, 169;
privations due to defective transport, 170;
Liverpool and Manchester Railway, 230-40
Manorial courts: 19
Manor, Lord of, and transport: 18
Markets: 20
Marriott, H.: 350, 427
Mathew, Francis: 131-3, 158
McAdam, J. L.: 50, 99, 101-7, 192, 318, 325, 480
McAdam, Sir James: 314, 318
Metcalf, John: 99-100
Midland Rly.: 244, 277, 289, 366, 367, 376, 420, 427, 432, 451
Midland Railway Institute: 420
Monasteries: 11, 12, 14, 15
Montagu of Beaulieu, Lord: 503
Moon, Sir Richard: 339
Morrison, James: 260-1, 265, 271, 509
Moryson, Fynes: 38, 57
Motor-vehicles: Competition of motor-omnibuses with electric tramways, 466-7, 497-8,
with horse-omnibuses, 485-7,
with railways, 496, 498-503;
comparison of motor-omnibus and railless electric traction, 467-8;
[ 532 ]early days of steam-coaches, 473-4;
traction engines, 475;
hostile legislation, 475-6;
the Magna Charta of automobilism, 476;
Motor-Car Act of 1903, 477;
Heavy Motor-Car Order of 1904, 477-8;
pleasure cars in use, 478;
Royal Automobile Club, 478-9;
Automobile Association and Motor Union, 479;
road improvements, 480-2;
commercial motors, 482-5;
motor-cabs, 485-7;
motor industry, 487-90;
imports and exports, 489-90;
motors and railway strikes, 503
Municipal Tramways Association: 469

Nails, Cart-wheel: 44, 49-50
Nash, T.: 114
Newcastle-on-Tyne: Coaches, 53;
salt trade, 140
Nicholson, J. Shield: 2
"Nimrod": 107
North British Rly.: 289, 367
North-Eastern Rly.: 287, 289, 290, 367, 371, 424-5
North Staffordshire Rly.: 210-11, 307
Nottingham, Early importance of: 121, 122, 137

Oakley, Sir Henry: 339, 340, 341
Ogilby, John: 33-4
Omnibuses: Introduction of, 63;
motor-omnibuses: competition with tramways, 466-7, 497-8,
with railways, 496, 499, 501-3;
succeed horse-omnibuses, 485-7
Outram, Benjamin: 204
Overton, George: 225, 240
Owner's risk rates on railways: 351-2
Oxford: Coaches to, 53;
University and river transport, 125

Packhorse, Transport by: 15, 16, 32, 36, 90, 91, 127, 138, 139, 140, 146, 161
Paley, W. P.: 224 n.
Palmer, John: 55
[ 533 ]Parnell, Sir Henry: 326
Passengers: In packhorse panniers, 16;
by long waggon, 38, 42;
stage-coach, 38-42;
canals, 172, 265;
rail, 498-9
Patten, Thomas: 138
Paving, Early Britons and: 6
Pearson, Charles: 5, 8, 108, 111
Pedlars: 17, 21, 93
Peel, Sir Frederick: 353
Peel, Sir Robert: 259, 262, 263, 271, 281
Pension funds, Railway: 438
Permanent Way Institution: 428
Perry, G.: 117
Philippe, William: 13
Phillipps, W. D.: 210-11
Phillips, J.: 183, 184, 193, 214
Pilgrims: 16
Plymley, Joseph: 44, 114, 117, 152, 153, 164, 220, 312
Polyhistor, T. S.: 202
Porter, G. R.: 74, 106, 255-6, 266-7
Porter, Robert P.: 458, 464 n.
Posting: 57
Post Office and Railways: 264-5
Potter, F.: 351-2, 428
Pottery industry: 159-61, 175, 176, 307
Powell, E. T.: 402
Preferential railway rates: 352
Priestley, Joseph: 120
Private Owners of Railway Rolling Stock, Association of: 361 n.
Prussian State Railways: 255, 291, 292, 357, 359, 365
Public Service Commission of New York City: 493

Railless electric traction: 467-70, 507
Railway agreements and amalgamations: 278, 283-91, 433, 508-11
Railway and Canal Commission: 278 n., 355, 508
Railway Benevolent Institution: 439
Railway Classification: 337-40, 345-6
Railway Clearing House: 284, 337, 338, 359
[ 534 ]Railway Club, The: 430
Railway directors, Functions of: 378
Railway electrification: 492, 494-5, 507
Railway Guards' Universal Friendly Society: 438
Railway mania, 1845-6: 271-5
Railway nationalisation: 279-81, 511-2
Railway rates: Early proposals for revision, 260-1, 279-80;
canals and railway rates, 310;
basis on which early rates fixed, 335-7;
early classification, 337-40;
revision of rates by Board of Trade commissioners, 338-40;
Confirmation Acts of 1891-2, 340-1;
Act of 1894, 342;
restrictions on companies, 342-3;
equal mileage rates, 344;
"cost of service," 344-5;
"what the traffic will bear," 345, 347;
present classification, 345-6;
sea competition, 347-8;
"anomalies," 348;
sliding scale principle, 349;
American railway rates, 349-50, 357;
exceptional rates, 350-1;
owner's risk rates, 351-2;
preferential rates, 353-4;
agricultural interests, 353-4, 355;
machinery for dealing with traders' grievances, 355-6;
comparisons with Continental rates, 357-8;
Government promise of legislation in respect to increases, 448, 511;
survival of fittest, 494-5;
competition of omnibuses and electric tramways, 496;
effect on suburban traffic, 496-7;
competition of private motors, 498;
passenger journeys, 498-9;
suburban goods transport, 499-500;
road v. rail, 501-3;
railway system complete, 506;
needs of to-day, 507;
railway agreements, 508-9;
Departmental Committee, 509-10;
railway nationalisation, 511-12
Railway Savings Banks: 432
[ 535 ]Railway shareholders: 263-4, 377
Railway Signalling, Schools of: 421-3
Railway strikes: 447, 450, 503, 512
Railway system: Length of line, 359;
single track, 359;
length of track, 360;
rolling stock, 360;
traffic statistics, 361;
railway capital, 361;
gross receipts and expenditure, 361;
dividends, 362-3;
share-holders and their holdings, 363-4;
taxation, 364-75
Railway Temperance Unions: 432
Railway warehouses: 390-4
Railways: Rise of the coal trade, 195-7;
wooden rails adopted at collieries, 198-200;
introduction of cast-iron wheels, 201;
double rails, 203;
iron "plates," 203;
cast-iron rails, 203;
flanged rails, 205;
edge rails, 206;
wrought-iron rails, 206;
significance of expression "iron" railway, 207;
inclined planes and gravity, 208;
stationary engines, 208;
length and character of colliery lines, 209;
railways adopted by canal companies, 210-13;
position in South Wales, 213-4;
canal interests overcome the first proposed competing railway, 214-9;
railways supplement canals, 219-21;
their superiority recognised, 220-1;
railways before 1825, 222;
Surrey Iron Rail-way, 223-5;
Stockton and Darlington, 225-8;
advocates of general railways, 229-30;
Liverpool and Manchester Railway, 230-40;
opposition of canal companies, 234-8;
Leicester and Swannington Railway, 242-4;
hostility to railways, 245-9;
London and Birmingham Railway, 249-52;
landowners and railways, 250-1, 252-5;
cost of Parliamentary proceedings, 255-7;
canal precedents inspire State policy, 258;
competition between carriers, 359-60;
[ 536 ]Morrison's proposal, 260-1;
Duke of Wellington's motion, 262-3;
early taxation, 263-4;
attitude of Post Office, 264-5;
competition between companies, 265;
lack of national policy, 266-8;
proposals by Mr Gladstone's Committee, 269;
special department of Board of Trade created, 269;
set aside, 270;
"railway mania" of 1845-6, 271-5;
Private Bill Committees and the special department, 276;
Board of Railway Commissioners, 277;
Committee of 1844, 279-81;
State purchase, 280;
competing lines, 281-3;
railway amalgamations, 283-91;
Railway Clearing House established, 284;
Mr Cardwell's Committee, 285;
cost of construction, 291-3;
railway companies and canals, 297-9, 306-7;
rail and canal transport compared, 307, 309;
railways and coaches, 326, 329, 332;
results of railway operation on industries, 386,
on towns, 387,
on general trade, 387-96,
on political and social conditions, 397,
on national life, 398-402,
on colonial expansion, 402-4
Railways a National Industry: Number of railway servants, 405-6;
employees in locomotive works, etc., 407-10;
independent concerns, 411;
characteristics of the railway service, 412-3;
training, 413-4;
education for efficiency in U.S.A., 415-6;
railwaymen's education movement: mechanics' institutes, 416-21,
railway companies' classes, 421-5,
London School of Economics, 425-6,
arrangements with Universities, 426-7,
literary societies, 427-8;
railway organisations, 428-9;
Railway Club, 430;
[ 537 ]recreation and physical culture, 431;
railwaymen's societies, 431-2;
Temperance Unions, 432;
regularity of employment, 433;
wages, 434-5;
subsidiary advantages, 435-7;
superannuation and pension funds, 438;
railway charities, 439-41;
hours of labour, 441-2;
accidents, 442-3;
ambulance, 444;
railway work a "service," 444;
family records, 445;
the agitation in 1907, 446;
strike in 1911, 447;
Royal Commission of Inquiry, 448-51;
increases in wages, 451;
railway unions to ballot on question of general strike, 452
"Rebecca" riots in Wales: 320-1
"Recognition," Question of, on railways: 446-52, 512
"Red Flag Act": 475
Rendell, T. H.: 298, 422
Renner, P. A.: 404
Retired Railway Officers' Society: 431
Rivers, Location of towns, etc., on: 15, 108-9, 110;
influence of, on social and economic conditions, 108-10;
ports on rivers, 110-11;
causes of decline of rivers, 111, 150-8;
river improvements, 111-2, 128-41;
navigable rivers as public highways, 112-4;
toll collection on rivers, 128;
influence on trade and industries, 114-27, 129, 132, 153, 154, 159-64;
floods, 150-1, 161;
high tides, 151-2;
water shortage, 152-3;
silting-up, 154;
present condition, 155-6;
pilfering on, 162-3;
side-cuts precede canals, 165
Aire: 121, 123, 141, 143, 147, 179, 303, 307
Avon (Bristol): 131
Avon (Warwickshire): 112, 115-6, 155
Avon (Wiltshire): 110, 131
Brandon: 120
Calder: 141, 143, 147, 303, 307
[ 538 ]Cam: 15, 24
Croal: 184
Cuckmere: 111
Dee: 135, 137
Derwent: 121, 122
Don: 121, 123, 143, 147-9
Douglas: 140-1, 166
Exe: 127
Humber: 24, 121, 141, 147, 151
Idle: 111, 123
Irwell: 138, 168, 184
Lea: 125-6, 128-9
Lug: 116, 130, 131, 165
Medway: 126, 130
Mersey: 5, 135-9, 151, 165, 168
Mildenhall: 120
Nen: 151, 154, 156
Ouse (Norfolk): 5, 24, 111, 118-20, 151, 156
Ouse (Sussex): 111
Ouse (York): 121, 122, 141, 147, 151, 153, 156
Parrett: 127
Ribble: 5, 15, 140, 166
Severn: 112-8, 135, 151, 153-4, 155, 159-62, 298
Sheaf: 143
Stour (Worcestershire): 135
Teme: 130
Thames: 4, 7, 15, 58-61, 122, 125, 130, 151, 155
Trent: 111, 121-2, 124, 147, 148, 151, 152, 154, 155-6, 159
Tyne: 24, 151, 166
Weaver: 139-40, 159, 166
Welland: 111
Wey: 126
Wharfe: 121
Witham: 111, 120-1, 151
Wye: 112, 116, 117, 130-1, 151, 165
Road Boards in Scotland: 319
Road Board, The: 481-2
Roads: British, 4-8;
Roman, 8-10, 11, 28;
action of Church, 11-14, 28;
road conditions, 14, 28-30, 31, 32-3, 49, 54, 64-73, 75, 87, 98-99;
legislation, 28-33, 43-5;
Statute labour, 30-1, 312-3;
road-making and repairing, 98-107, 314;
parish roads, 77;
highway rates and road repairs, 319;
[ 539 ]county councils and roads, 323, 480;
Road Board and Road Improvement Grant, 481-2.
See, also, "Turnpikes"
Robinson, Sir Clifton: 454, 459-61
Roebuck, Dr: 190
Romans: 6-10, 28, 111
Royal Automobile Club: 477, 478-9, 482, 503
Royal Commission on Canals and Waterways: 294, 295, 301, 304, 310
Royal Commission on Local Taxation: 373
Royal Commission of Inquiry (Conciliation Scheme of 1907): 448-51
Royal Commission on London Traffic: 465, 492-3
Russell, M.P., C.: 273

Salt industry: 26, 139-40, 161, 166, 178
Samuel, Sir Samuel: 489
Sandars, Joseph: 231, 233
Sandon, Lord: 265
Sandys, Sir William: 130-1, 158, 165
Sclater-Booth, G. (Lord Basing): 321, 322
Scotland, Roads in: 75, 104-5, 319, 333
Scott, William: 199-200
Sea-ports, Thirteenth century: 157-8
Sedan chair, The: 60-1
Sheffield: Coaches, 55;
route for despatch of goods, 123-4, 148-9;
reason for settlement of cutlery industry on the Sheaf, 142-3
Shelford, Frederick: 403
Sherman, E.: 326, 329
Sherwood Forest: 121
Shillibeer, Mr: 63, 330, 491
Shirley, Sir Richard: 68
Shrewsbury: Important centre for Severn trade, 114;
social life, 115;
a metropolis for North Wales, 115;
river traffic, 118
Smeaton, John: 152
Smiles, Samuel: 93, 170, 175
Smith, Adam: 36, 90, 109, 187
[ 540 ]Smith, Sydney: 67
Social conditions: See under "Transport, Influence of"
Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders: 477
Soil, Nature of, in England: 5
South Africa, Railways in: 402
"Southampton case," The: 353
South-Eastern and Chatham Rly.: 289, 367
Spencer, C. J.: 469
Stamford, The Earl of: 173
Staple: 29
Starley, J. K.: 472
State policy: Roads, 9-10, 11, 33-4, 43-50, 481-2;
railways, 258-93, 336-43, 364-75, 509-11;
canals, 295-6, 299-300, 303, 311;
coaches, 329-34;
tramways, 454-6, 459, 461-2;
self-propelled road vehicles, 475-7
State purchase of railways, Enactments respecting: 280-1
Statute labour on roads: 30-1, 312-3
Steam-coaches: Introduction of, 473;
anticipations in regard to, 474;
opposition to, 474;
withdrawal from roads, 475
Stephenson, George: 225, 226 n
Stephenson, Robert: 251
Stockton and Darlington Rly.: 225-8, 290
Stow, John: 38
Stratford-on-Avon: Repair of bridge, 13 n.;
river transport, 115
Stukeley, Dr William: 143 n., 209
Sturbridge Fair: 23-6
Suburban passenger traffic: 496-7, 502, 507
Superannuation funds, Railway: 438
Surrey Iron Rail-way: 223-5
Surveyors, Road: 30, 31, 83-4, 105
Sutherland, The Duke of: 173

Taff Vale Rly.: 261
Taunton, Lord: 254
Taxation, Railway, 263-4, 311, 364-75, 508
[ 541 ]Taylor, John ("The Water Poet"): 58-61
Telford, Thomas: 50, 99, 100-1, 106, 174 n., 192, 220, 318, 325
Terminal charges on railways: 336, 340, 349-50
Textile industries: Reasons for location of in the north, 141-2;
influence of canals on their development, 180
Thames watermen: 57-63
Thoresby, Ralph: 145
Thorne, W. B.: 332
Tin industry: 6, 7, 9, 26
Traction engines: 475, 480
Train, George Francis: 453
"Tram," Derivation of word: 204
Tramways, Street: Introduction of, 453;
early lines, 454;
State policy, 454;
Tramways Act, 1870, 454-5;
local authorities' veto, 455;
electric traction, 455-6;
Light Railways Act, 1896, 457;
"price of assents," 457, 459-61;
municipal tramways, 461-5;
competition of motor-omnibuses, 466-7;
railless electric traction, 467-70;
tramway competition with railways, 496, 497-8, 502
Transport, Influence of on social conditions: Isolation of communities, 16-18, 92-4, 108, 170, 175;
effect of coaching facilities, 41;
country gentry, 94;
county towns, 95-6;
coaches and "country manners," 96-7;
beginnings of "Greater London," 97;
civilising effects of improved communication, 175-7;
political results of rail communication, 397;
social results, 397-8;
a factor in national life, 398-400;
country homes for town workers, 496-8
Transport, Influence of on trade and industries: general, 1-3, 16-19, 27, 31, 73, 102 n., 109, 192;
roads, 4, 6-9, 85-7, 88-92, 104, 129-30, 139, 160, 162, 169, 249-50;
rivers, 108, 109-10, 112, 114-6, 119-27, 129, 137-49, 153-4, 159-64, 169;
[ 542 ]canals, 166, 174-80, 193-4, 230-4, 249-50, 294, 301, 307-9;
turnpikes, 316, 320;
railways, 198, 217, 225, 245, 308-10, 349, 350, 354, 385-96;
motor-vehicles, 482-4
Tube railways: 490, 492-3, 496, 507
Turnpikes: Principle of tolls, 13, 29;
turnpikes introduced, 32-3;
turnpike Acts, 75-6, 104;
turnpike system, 77;
opposition to toll-bars, 78-80, 320-1;
defects of system, 80-4;
stimulus to trade, 85-90;
turnpike roads, 98-9, 104-5;
number of turnpike Acts and trusts, 312;
statute labour, 312-3;
cost of road repairs, 314;
turnpike debt, 314, 323-4;
tolls, 314-6, 318, 320, 331;
cost of management, 317, 320;
consolidation of trusts, 319;
highway rates and road repairs, 319;
"Rebecca riots" in Wales, 320-1;
House of Commons Turnpike Committee, 321;
reduction in number of trusts, 321-4;
burden on ratepayers, 321-2;
Government grants, 323;
rapid decline of trusts, 324;
attitude of trustees to steam coaches, 474-5
Tylor, Alfred: 6-7

Underground railways: 491-2
United Kingdom Railway Officers and Servants' Association: 439
United Pointsmen and Signalmen's Society: 447
United States: Land grants to railways, 254;
railway rates, 349-50, 357, 377;
education for railway efficiency, 415-6
University of Leeds: 427
University of London: 425
University of Manchester: 426, 427

[ 543 ]Vernon-Harcourt, L. V.: 156-7, 158

Wade, General: 75
Wages, Railwaymen's: 433-5, 451, 511, 512
Waggons: 15, 31, 32, 35-7, 38, 43-8, 91
War Office and motor-lorries: 504
Warrington: Position in Coaching Age, 36, 54;
Mersey navigation, 137, 138
Watermen, Thames: 57-63
Water power and industries: 141-2, 143
Watt, James: 142, 187, 188, 190
Webb, F. W.: 440
Wedgwood, Josiah: 159, 160, 161, 173, 176
Weight of loads: 44-5
Wellington, The Duke of: 262, 265
Welshpool: Severn navigable to, 112;
market for Welsh flannels, 114
Wesley, John: 177
West Coast of Africa, Railways on: 402-4
Wheels, Broad: 35, 45-9, 102, 103
Whitaker, T. D.: 73, 78
Whitworth, Richard: 160, 161, 164, 177, 182
Williams, E. L.: 151
Williams, F. S.: 274, 275
Wimberley, W. C.: 331
Wine trade: 92
Wood, Nicholas: 197, 198, 201, 203, 296, 395
Woods and Forests: 4-5, 8
Woollen industry: 15, 16, 23, 24, 25, 26, 115, 118, 138, 141-3, 145-7, 179, 186

Yarranton, Andrew: 133-5, 158
York: Roman military post, 8;
coaches, 40, 51, 52;
road conditions, 64;
river control, 121;
trading position, 121
Young, Arthur: 68-71, 85, 168, 209