A Latin Dictionary

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A Latin Dictionary (1879)
by Charlton T. Lewis
38136A Latin Dictionary1879Charlton T. Lewis














THE translation of Dr. Freund's great Latin-German Dictionary, edited by the late E. A. Andrews, LL.D., and published in 1850, has been from that time in extensive use throughout England and America. It has had for competitors, indeed, in the schools and colleges of both countries, only works which are substantially reprints or abridgments of itself. As it has thus been the standard book of reference of its kind for a generation of scholars, its merits need no description here.

Meanwhile, great advances have been made in the sciences on which lexicography depends. Minute research in manuscript authorities has largely restored the texts of the classical writers, and even their orthography. Philology has traced the growth and history of thousands of words, and revealed meanings and shades of meaning which were long unknown. Syntax has been subjected to a profounder analysis. The history of ancient nations, the private life of their citizens, the thoughts and beliefs of their writers have been closely scrutinized in the light of accumulating information. Thus the student of to-day may justly demand of his Dictionary far more than the scholarship of thirty years ago could furnish. The present work is the result of a series of earnest efforts by the Publishers to meet this demand.

It was seen fifteen years ago that at least a very thorough revision of the Dictionary was needed. It was therefore submitted to the author of the original work, Dr. WILLIAM FREUND, who carefully revised it, rewrote a few of the less satisfactory articles, corrected errors, and supplied about two thousand additions, mainly in the early pages. The sheets were then placed in the hands of Professor HENRY DRISLER, LL.D., to be edited; but that eminent scholar soon advised us that a reconstruction of the work was desirable, such as he could not command leisure to make. They were afterwards delivered to the present editors to be used freely, and in combination with all other appropriate sources, in compiling a Latin Dictionary which should meet the advanced requirements of the times. The results of their unremitting labours for several years are now given to the public.

The first 216 pages (words beginning with A) are the work of Professor CHARLES SHORT, LL.D., of Columbia College. The remainder of the book, from page 217 to page 2019 inclusive, is the work of Mr. CHARLTON T. LEWIS. While each editor is alone and wholly responsible for the pages which he has prepared, Mr. LEWIS requests us to acknowledge the indebtedness of the book to contributions from other scholars, incorporated by him with his own collections. It is proper to refer, in particular, to the valuable services of GUSTAVUS FISCHER, LL.D., of New Brunswick whose learning and research have given to many articles a fulness and thoroughness hardly attempted before in a Latin Dictionary (see, for example, the words contra, 2. cum, sic, sisto, solvo, suus, tum, tunc, volo, and others); and of Professor GEORGE M. LANE, LL.D., of Harvard College, who has kindly examined a large part of the book in proof, and has freely communicated, in his suggestions and corrections, the ripe fruits of his scholarship.

NEW YORK, March 1, 1879.



A list of the principal words which are variously spelled in MSS. and editions. From Brambach's "Aids to Latin Orthography." (In most cases the form approved by Brambach is that preferred by recent editors; but there are still several words on which high authorities differ from him or from one another. For particulars, see the Lexicon.)

  • ab in compounds before i (for j), h, b, d, l, n, r, s; abs before c, q, t; as before p (asporto); a before m and v; au before f (aufero, aufugio; but afui, see absum).
  • abicio, better than abjicio.
  • abscisio, better than abcisio
  • absum, afui, afore, etc. (not abfui).
  • ad in compounds before i (for j), h, b, d, f, m, n, q. v; ac before c, sometimes q (better adquiro, etc.); ag or ad before g, but a or ad before gn, sp, sc, st; ad or al before l; ad (less properly an) before n; ap (less frequently ad) before p; ad or ar before r; ad or as before s; at before t (rarely ad).
  • adicio, better than adjicio.
  • adsimulo, better than adsimilo.
  • adulescens (substantive), better than adolescens; so adulescentia, etc.
  • aeneus, aenus, better than ahe-.
  • aequipero, not aequiparo.
  • alioqui, better than alioquin.
  • aliunde or alicunde.
  • allucinor or hallu-; old form halucinor.
  • ancora, not anchora.
  • antemna or antenna.
  • antiquus, old; anticus, that is in front.
  • anulus, anellus, not ann-.
  • apud; also (less frequently) aput.
  • arcesso or accerso.
  • atqui, better than atquin.
  • auctor, auctoritas, not aut-.
  • audacter, not audaciter.
  • autumnus, not auctumnus.
  • baca, better than bacca.
  • baccar, better than bacchar.
  • ballista, better than balista.
  • balneum or balineum.
  • barritus, not baritus, barditus.
  • belua, not bellua.
  • benedico, benefacio, or separately, bene dico, bene facio.
  • benevolus, beneficus, etc., better than benivolus, benificus.
  • bipartitus and bipertitus.
  • braca, not bracca.
  • bracchium, not brachium.
  • bucina, not buccina; so bucinator.
  • caecus, not coecus.
  • caelebs, not coelebs.
  • caelum, caelestis, etc., not coel-.
  • caementum, not cementum.
  • caenum, not coenum.
  • caerimonia or caeremonia, not cer-.
  • caespes, not cespes.
  • caestus, not cestus.
  • candela, not candella.
  • cauda, vulgar form coda.
  • causa, better than caussa.
  • cena, not coena.
  • ceteri, not caeteri.
  • cheragra or chiragra.
  • circumeo or circueo, circumitus or circuitus.
  • coclea, better than cochlea.
  • coicio, better than conicio, coiicio.
  • comissor or comisor.
  • comminus, not cominus.
  • comprehendo, better than comprendo.
  • condicio, not conditio.
  • conecto, not connecto; so conexio, conexus.
  • conitor, not connitor.
  • coniveo, not conniveo.
  • conjunx, better than conjux.
  • contio, not concio.
  • conubium, not connubium.
  • convicium, not convitium.
  • cottidie or cotidie, not quotidie.
  • culleus, culleum, not culeus, culeum.
  • cum, or archaic quom, not quum.
  • cum in composition: com before b, m, p; con before c, d, f, g, i (for j), n, q, s, t, v,; but co before gn, before n in conecto, coniveo, etc., and before vowels and h (except comedo, comes, comitor, comitium, and their derivatives); hence cogo for coago; cor before r; con or col before l.
  • cumba, better than cymba.
  • cumque, not cunque.
  • cuppes, better than cupes; so cuppedo, cuppediae.
  • cupressus, not cypressus.
  • Cybebe or Cybele.
  • damma not dama.
  • Dareus, better than Darius
  • deicio, better than dejicio.
  • denuntio, not denuncio.
  • deprehendo or deprendo.
  • derigo and dirigo are to be distinguished; see these words.
  • describo and discribo are to be distinguished; see these words.
  • designo and dissigno are to be distinguished; see designo.
  • deversorium, better than devorsorium, not diversorium.
  • dicio, not ditio.
  • dilectus (a military levy), not delectus.
  • discidium, not dissidium.
  • discribo, discriptio, see describo.
  • disicio (dissicio), better than disjicio.
  • dissignator (an undertaker, etc.), not designator.
  • dumetum or dummetum, dumosus or dummosus.
  • dumtaxat, not duntaxat.
  • dupondius, later form dipondius.
  • eculeus, better than equuleus.
  • edo, esum, better than essum.
  • edyllium or idyllium.
  • ei (interjection), not hei.
  • eicio, better than ejicio.
  • elleborus, better than helleborus.
  • emo, emptum, not emtum; so emptio, emptor, etc.
  • epistula, not epistola; but epistolicus (=ἐπιστολικός).
  • Erinys, not Erinnys.
  • erus, era, erilis, not herus, etc.
  • Euander, Euandrus, not Evander.
  • euhoe(=εὐοί), not evoe.
  • ex before vowels and h; e or ex before consonants.
  • ex in composition, before vowels, and h, c, p (except epotus, epoto), q, t, and s; the s is better retained, e. g. exsanguis, better than exanguis, etc.; e before b, d, g, i (for j), l, m, n, r, v; ef before f.
  • exim or exin.
  • eximo, exemptum, not exemtum.
  • faenum (vulgar form fenum), not foenum.
  • faenus, better than fenus, not foenus; so faenero, faenerator, etc.
  • fecunditas, fecundo, fecundus, not foecunditas, etc.
  • fetidus, feteo, fetor, better than foetidus, etc.
  • fetus (substantive and participle), not foetus.
  • futtilis, better than futilis.
  • gaesum, not gesum.
  • Gaetuli and Getuli.
  • Genava, not Geneva.
  • genetivus, genetrix, not genitivus, genitrix.
  • glaeba, better than gleba.
  • gratiis and gratis.
  • Hadria, Hadriaticus, Hadrianus, not Adria, etc.
  • Hadrumetum, Hadrumetinus, not Adrumetum, etc.
  • haedus, not hoedus, aedus. Rustic form edu.
  • Halaesa, Halaesus, not Halesa, etc.
  • Halicarnasus and Alicarnasus.
  • Hamilcar, not Amilcar.
  • Hannibal, not Annibal.
  • harena, harenosus, better than arena, etc.
  • hariola, hariolatio, hariolor, hariolus, and ariola, ariolatio, ariolus.
  • harundo, better than arundo.
  • haruspex, better than aruspex.
  • haud and haut; also, before consonants, hau.
  • haveo and aveo.
  • hebenus, better than ebenus.
  • hedera, better than edera.
  • helluo, helluatio, helluor, better than heluo, etc.
  • hercisco and ercisco.
  • heri and (in Quintilian's time) here.
  • Hiberes, Hiberia, Hiberus, not Iberes, etc.
  • holus, better than olus; archaic helus.
  • humo, humus, not umo, umus.
  • idcirco and iccirco.
  • ilico, not illico.
  • immo, not imo.
  • in primis, inprimis, and imprimis.
  • inclitus and inclutus, not inclytus.
  • incoho, better than inchoo; not incoo.
  • indutiae, not induciae.
  • inicio, better than injicio.
  • intellego, intellegentia, not intelligo, etc.
  • internecio, better than internicio.
  • inunguo, not inungo.
  • Kalendae, better than Calendae.
  • Karthago and Carthago.
  • lacrima, not lacruma, lachrima, or lachryma.
  • lamina, lamna, and lammina.
  • lanterna, better than laterna.
  • lepor and lepos.
  • levis, not laevis.
  • libet, libens; archaic lubet, lubens; so libido.
  • littera, better than litera; so litterula.
  • litus, not littus.
  • maereo, maeror, maestus, maestitia, not moereo, etc.
  • maledicus, maleficus, malevolus, better than malivolus, etc.
  • mille, plural milia, better than millia.
  • millies and milies, better than milliens, etc.
  • multa, not mulcta; so multo.
  • murra, not myrrha.
  • myrtum, myrtus, not murtum, etc.
  • navus, better than gnavus.
  • ne (particle of affirmation), not nae.
  • neglego, neglegentia, not negligo, etc.
  • nenia, not naenia.
  • nequiquam, better than nequicquam.
  • nummus, not numus.
  • numquam and nunquam.
  • nuntio, nuntius, not nuncio, etc.
  • ob in composition, before i (for j), h, b, d, l, n, r, s, t, v (but before s and t frequently written op); also before vowels, except in obsolesco; ob, sometimes om, before m; oc before c; of before f; og before g; op before p; but b is dropped in omitto, operio, ostendo (for obstendo).
  • obicio, better than objicio.
  • oboedio, not obedio.
  • obscenus, better than obscaenus; not ob scoenus.
  • obstipesco, better than obstupesco.
  • opilio, better than upilio.
  • otium, otiosus, not ocium, etc.
  • paelex, better than pelex; not pellex.
  • paene, not pene nor poene.
  • paenitet, not poenitet.
  • paenula, not penula.
  • Parnasus, Parnasius, not Parnassus, etc.
  • paulus, better than paullus.
  • pejero, better than pejuro; not perjuro.
  • penna and pinna (for the distinction, see the Lexicon, sub voce penna).
  • per in composition is unchanged, but r may become l before l (pellicio, compare pellego), or may fall out in compounds of jus and juro, see pejero.
  • percontor, better than percunctor; so percontatio.
  • perlego, not pellego nor pelligo.
  • plebs and plebes, not plebis (nominative singular).
  • pretium, not precium.
  • proelium, not praelium.
  • proicio, better than projicio.
  • promunturium, not promontorium.
  • protinus, better than protenus.
  • pulcher, not pulcer.
  • quamquam and quanquam.
  • quattuor, better than quatuor.
  • querela, better than querella.
  • quicquam, better than quidquam.
  • quidquid and quicquid.
  • quotiens, better than quoties.
  • raeda, better than reda; not rheda.
  • recipero, better than recupero.
  • reicio, better than rejicio.
  • religio, religiosus, not relligio.
  • robigo, not rubigo.
  • saeculum, not seculum.
  • saepes, saepio, not sepes, etc.
  • saeta, not seta.
  • sarisa, better than sarissa.
  • satura, later form satira; not satyra.
  • scaena, not scena; so scaenicus, etc.
  • sepulcrum, better than sepulchrum.
  • sescenti: not sexcenti.
  • setius, not secius (see secus).
  • singillatim, not singulatim.
  • sollemnis, not sollennis, sollempnis.
  • somnulentus, better than somnolentus.
  • stuppa, not stupa, stippa; so stuppeus.
  • suadela, not suadella.
  • sub in composition, before vowels and h, i (for j), b, d, l, n, s, t, v; suc before c; suf before f; sug before g; sum or sub before m; sup before p (rarely sub); sur or sub before r; sus (for subs) in suscipio, suscito, suspendo, sustineo, sustento, sustuli; su in suspicio, suspiro.
  • subicio, better than subjicio.
  • suboles, not subolis, soboles.
  • subsicivus, not subsecivus.
  • sucus, not succus.
  • suspicio, better than suspitio.
  • taeter, not teter.
  • tamquam not tanquam.
  • tingo, not tinguo.
  • totiens, better than toties.
  • traicio and transicio, better than trajicio.
  • trans in composition before vowels and b, c, f, g, p, r, t, v; tran usually before s, always before sc; trans or tra before i (for i or j), d, l, m, n.
  • tropaeum, and trophaeum.
  • tus, not thus.
  • ubicumque, better than ubicunque.
  • Ulixes, not Ulysses.
  • umerus, not humerus.
  • umesco, umor, umidus, etc., not humesco, etc.
  • unguo and ungo.
  • urgeo, not urgueo.
  • utcumque, better than utcunque.
  • utrimque, not utrinque.
  • venum do and venundo.
  • Vergilius, not Virgilius.
  • Verginius, not Virginius.
  • vertex, not vortex.
  • vicesimus, more usual than vigesimus; not vicensimus.
  • vilicus, vilico, vilicatus, not villicus, etc.
  • virectum, not viretum.
  • Volcanus, not Vulcanus.
  • vulgus, not volgus.
  • vulnus, not volnus.
  • vultus, not veltus.





The dates are given on the authority of Teuffel, in his History of Roman Literature; but those marked (?) are doubtful or conjectural.

  • Aem. Mac. Aemilius Macer, poet, obiit, B.C. 14
  • Afran. Lucius Afranius, writer of comedy, flor. B.C. 110
  • Aggen. Aggenus Urbicus, writer on husbandry, flor. (?) A.D. 400
  • Agrim. or Agrimens. The ancient writers on surveying; especially Frontinus, Balbus, Hyginus, Siculus Flaccus, and Aggenus Urbicus.
  • Albin. C. Pedo Albinovanus, poet, flor A.D. 28
  • Alcim. Alcimus Avitus, Christian writer, ob. A.D. 523
  • Aldh. Aldhelmus, Bishop of Salisbury, England, ob. A.D. 709
    • Ep., Epistula ad Acircium, de metris, etc.
    • Laud. Virg., De Laudibus Virginitatis.
  • Alfen. P. Alfenus Varus, JCtus, fl. (?) B.C. 38
  • Ambros. Ambrosius, Christian writer, ob. A.D. 397
    • De Caïn et Abel.
    • De Fide, De Fide Libri V ad Gratianum Augustum.
    • De Isaac et Animâ.
    • De Noë et Arcâ.
    • Ep., Epistulae.
    • Hexaëm., Hexaëmeron.
    • in Luc., Expositio Evangelii secundum Lucam, Libri X.
    • in Psa., Enarrationes in XII Psalmos.
    • Off., De Officiis.
  • Amm. Ammianus Marcellinus, hist., ob. A.D. 400
  • Ampel. L. Ampelius, historian, fl. (?) 200
  • Antho. Lat. Anthologia Latina, a collection of Epigrams, Inscriptions, and Fragments in verse by P. Burmann; edited also by Meyer and by Riese.
  • Apic. Apicius Caelius, writer on cookery, But the work De Re Coquinariâ, ascribed to Apicius, is a compilation of a later age. fl A.D. 25
  • App. Lucius Appuleius (Apu.), philos., fl A.D. 160
    • Apol., Apologia, or De Magiâ.
    • Asclep., Asclepius, or Trismegistus.
    • Dogm. Plat., De Dogmate Platonis.
    • Flor., Florida.
    • Herb., Herbarium, a work of the fourth century A.D., falsely ascribed to Appuleius.
    • Mag., De Magiâ, or Apologia.
    • Met. or M., Metamorphoses.
    • Mund., De Mundo.
    • Trism., Trismegistus.
  • Arn. Arnobius Afer, Christian writer, fl. A.D. 295
  • Ascon. Q. Asconius Pedianus, gramm., ob. A.D. 88
  • Asin. C. Asinius Pollio, orator and hist., ob. A.D. 5
  • At. Cap. Ateius Capito, grammarian, fl. A.D. 14
  • Att. or Acc. L. Attius or Accius, writer of tragedy. fl. B.C. 135
  • Atta, T. Quinctius Atta, writer of comedy, fl. B.C. 80
  • Auct. Aetn. Auctor Aetnae (perhaps Lucilius Junior), fl (?) A.D. 60
  • Auct. B. Afr. Auctor Belli Africani, fl B.C. 50
  • Auct. B. Alex. Auctor Belli Alexandrini (probably Aulus Hirtius), fl B.C. 50
  • Auct. B. G. 8. Auctor de Bello Gallico libri viii, in continuation of Cæsar's commentarii (probably Aulus Hirtius), fl B.C. 50
  • Auct. B. Hisp. Auctor Belli Hispaniensis, fl. B.C. 50
  • Auct. Her. or Auct. ad Her. Auctor ad Herennium, see Cornificius.
  • Auct. Pervig. Ven. Auctor Pervigilii Veneris, for. (?) A.D. 150
  • Auct. Priap. Auctor Priapeorum, see Priap.
  • Aug. Aurelius Augustinus, Christian writer, obiit, A.D. 430
    • Acad., Contra Academicos.
    • Civ. Dei or C. D., De Civitate Dei.
    • De Doctr. Christ., De Doctrinâ Christianâ.
    • Ep., Epistulae.
    • Mor. Manich., De Moribus Manichaeorum.
    • Music., De Musicâ.
    • Retract., Retractationes.
    • Serm., Sermones.
    • Trin., De Trinitate.
  • August. Caesar Octavianus Augustus, obiit A.D. 13
  • Aur. Vict. Sextus Aurelius Victor, hist., fl. A.D. 360
    • Caes., De Caesaribus.
    • Epit., Epitome de Caesaribus.
    • Orig., Origo Gentis Romanae.
    • Vir. Ill., De Viris Illustribus.
  • Aus. D. Magnus Ausonius, poet, ob. A.D. 390
    • Caes., De XII Caesaribus.
    • Ecl., Eclogarium.
    • Edyl., Edyllia, or Idyllia.
    • Ep., Epistulae.
    • Ephem., Ephemeris.
    • Epigr., Epigrammata.
    • Epit., Epitaphia.
    • Grat. Act., Gratiarum Actio.
    • Idyll., Idyllia, or Edyllia.
    • Parent., Parentalia.
    • Per., Periochae.
    • Prof., Professores.
    • Sap., Sapientes.
    • Urb., Ordo Nobilium Urbium.
  • Avien. R. Festus Avienus, poet, ob. A.D. 370
    • Descr. Orb., Descriptio Orbis Terrae, or Περιήγησις.
    • Or. Mar., Ora maritima.
    • Perieg., Descriptio Orbis Terrae, or Περιήγησις.
  • Boëth. Anicius Manl. Torq. Severinus Boëtius or Boëthius, philos., flor. A.D. 525
    • Anal., Analytica.
    • Consol., De Consolatione.
    • Mus., De Musicâ.
    • Porphyr., Dialogi in Porphyrium.
    • Top., De Differentiis Topicis.
  • Brut. M. Junius Brutus, correspondent of Cicero, flor. B.C. 42
  • Caecil. Statius Caecilius, writer of comedy, fl. B.C. 180
  • Cael. Aur. Caelius Aurelianus, physician, fl. (?) A.D. 420
    • Acut., Acutae Passiones.
    • Tard., Tardae passiones.
  • Caes. Caius Julius Caesar, historian, ob. B.C. 44
    • B. C., Bellum Civile.
    • B. G., Bellum Gallicum.
  • Callistr. Callistratus, JClus, fl. A. D. 200
  • Calp. Calpurnius Siculus, poet, fl (?) A.D. 55
    • Ecl., Eclogae.
  • Capitol. Julius Capitolinus, biographer, fl. (?) A.D. 320
    • Balb., Vita Balbini.
    • Gord., Vita Gordiani.
    • Max., Vita Maximi.
    • Maxim., Vita Maximini.
  • Cass. Hem. L. Cassius Hemina, historian, fl. B.C. 140
  • Cassiod. Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus, historian, obiit A.D. 575
    • Chron., Chronicon.
    • Complex., Complexiones in Epistulas Apostolicas.
    • De Anim., De Animâ.
    • Hist., Gothorum Historia.
    • Hist. Eccl., Historia Ecclesiastica.
    • Inst. Div. Litt., Institutio Divinarum Litterarum.
    • Var., Variarum Libri XII.
  • Cato, M. Porcius Cato, orator and hist., obiit B.C. 149
    • R. R., De Re Rusticâ.
  • Cat. or Catull. C. Valerius Catullus, poet. obiit B.C. 54
  • Cels. Aurel. Cornelius Celsus, physic., flor. A.D. 50
  • Censor. Censorinus, grammarian, flor. A.D. 238
  • Charis. Flav. Sosipater Charisius, grammarian. flor. A.D. 375
  • Cic. or C. M. Tullius Cicero, orator and philosopher, obiit B.C. 43
    • Acad. or Ac., Academicae Quaestiones.
    • ad Brut., ad Brutum Epistulae.
    • Aem. Scaur., Oratio pro Aemilio Scauro.
    • Agr., Orationes de Lege Agrariâ.
    • Am., De Amicitiâ, or Laelius.
    • Arat., Aratus.
    • Arch., Oratio pro A. Licinio Archiâ.
    • Att., Epistulae ad Atticum.
    • Balb., Oratio pro L. Corn. Balbo.
    • Brut., Brutus sive de Claris Oratoribus.
    • Caecin., Oratio pro Caecinâ.
    • Cael., Oratio pro M. Caelio.
    • Cat., Orationes in Catilinam.
    • Cat. M., Cato Major, or De Senectute.
    • Clu., Oratio pro Cluentio.
    • Deiot., Oratio pro Rege Deiotaro.
    • De Or., De Oratore.
    • Div., De Divinatione ad M. Brutum.
    • Div. in Caecil., Divinatio in Caecilium.
    • Dom., Oratio de Domo suâ.
    • Fam., Epistulae ad Familiares.
    • Fat., De Fato.
    • Fin., De Finibus.
    • Flac. or Fl., Oratio pro L. Flacco.
    • Font. or Fontei., Oratio pro M. Fonteio.
    • Fragm., Fragmenta.
    • Har. Resp., Oratio de Haruspicum Responsis.
    • Her., Auctor ad Herennium.
    • Imp. Pomp., Oratio de Imperio Cn. Pompei, or Pro Lege Maniliâ.
    • Inv., De Inventione Rhetoricâ.
    • Lael., Laelius, or De Amicitiâ.
    • Leg., De Legibus.
    • Lig., Oratio pro Ligario.
    • Manil., Oratio pro Lege Maniliâ, or De Imperio Cn. Pompei.
    • Marcell., Oratio pro Marcello.
    • Mil., Oratio pro Milone.
    • Mur., Oratio pro L. Murenâ.
    • N. D., De Deorum Naturâ.
    • Off., De Officiis.
    • Opt. Gen., De Optimo Genere Oratorum.
    • Or., Orator ad M. Brutum.
    • Par. or Parad., Paradoxa Stoicorum.
    • Part. Or., De Partitione Oratoriâ.
    • Phil., Orationes Philippicae in M. Antonium.
    • Pis., Oratio in Pisonem.
    • Planc., Oratio pro Plancio.
    • Prov. Cons., De Provinciis Consularibus.
    • Quinct. or Quint., Oratio pro P. Quinctio, or Quinto.
    • Q. Fr. or Q. Fr., Epistulae ad Q. Fratrem.
    • Rab. Perd., Oratio pro Rabirio Perduellonis Reo.
    • Rab. Post., Oratio pro Rabirio Posthumo.
    • Red. Quir., Oratio post Reditum ad Quirites.
    • Red. in Sen., Oratio post Reditum in Senatu.
    • Rep., De Re Publicâ.
    • Rosc. Am., Oratio pro Quinto Roscio Amerino.
    • Rosc. Com., Oratio pro Sexto Roscio Comoedo.
    • Scaur., Oratio pro M. Aemilio Scauro.
    • Sen., De Senectute, or Cato Major.
    • Sest. or Sext., Oratio pro Sestio.
    • Sull., Oratio pro Sullâ.
    • Tim., Timaeus, or de Universo.
    • Tog. Cand., Oratio in Senatu in Togâ Candidâ
    • Top., Topica.
    • Tull., Oratio pro M. Tullio.
    • Tusc., Tusculanae Disputationes.
    • Univ., De Universo, or Timaeus.
    • Vatin., Oratio in Vatinium.
    • Verr., Actio in Verrem.
  • Cinc. L. Cincius Alimentus, annalist, etc. flor. B.C. 210
  • Cinn. C. Helvius Cinna, Epic. poet. flor. B.C. 40
  • Claud. Claudius Claudianus, poet, flor. A.D. 400
    • B. Get. or Bell. Get., De Bello Getico.
    • B. Gild. or Bell. Gild., De Bello Gildonico.
    • Cons. Mall. Theod., De Consulatu Fl. Mallii Theodori.
    • Cons. Olyb. et Prob., In Consulatum Olybrii et Probini.
    • Cons. Stil., De Consulatu Stilichonis.
    • IV. Cons. Hon., De Quarto Consulatu Honorii.
    • VI. Cons. Hon., De Sexto Consulatu Honorii.
    • Epith., Epithalamium.
    • in Eutr., in Eutropium Libri II.
    • in Rufin., in Rufinium Libri II.
    • Laud. Ser., De Laudibus Serenae Reginae.
    • Laud. Stil., De Daudibus Stilichonis.
    • Nupt. Hon. et Mar., De Nuptiis Honorii et Mariae.
    • Rapt. Pros., De Raptu Proserpinae.
  • Claud. Mam. Claudianus Ecdicius Mamertus, Chr. writer, flor. A.D. 476
    • Stat. An., De Statu Animae.
  • Cloat. Cloatius Verus, grammarian, flor. (?) A.D. 100
  • Cod. Codex,
    • Greg., Gregorianus. compiled (?) A.D. 295
    • Hermog., Hermogenianus. compiled (?) A.D. 330
    • Just. or Cod., Justinianeus. compiled A.D. 530
    • Theod., Theodosianus. compiled A.D. 438
  • Col. L. Junius Moderatus Columella, writer on husbandry, fl. A.D. 50
  • Commod. Commodianus, Chr. poet, fl. A.D. 245
    • Apol., Carmen Apologeticum.
    • Instr., Instructiones.
  • Consent. P. Consentius, grammarian, fl. A.D. 475
  • Coripp. Fl. Cresconius Corippus, poet and grammarian, fl. A.D. 565
    • Johan., Johannis, sive de Bellis Libycis.
    • Laud. Just., De Laudibus Justini Augusti.
  • Corn. Gall. Cn. Cornelius Gallus, poet, ob. B.C. 25
  • Corn. Sev. Cornelius Severus, poet, ob. B.C. 28
  • Cornif. Cornificus, rhetorician (acc to Quintilian, the name of the writer of the four books of Rhetorica ad C. Herennium; usu. cited as Auct. Her.) fl. (?) B.C. 80
  • Curt. Q. Curtius Rufus, historian. fl A.D. 50
  • Cypr. Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus, Chr. writer, ob. A.D. 257
  • Dict. Cret. Interpres Dictyos Cretensis, about A.D. 380
  • Dig. Digest, i. e. Libri Pandectarum.
  • Diom. Diomedes, grammarian, fl. (?) A.D. 375
  • Dion. Cato, The name inscribed on a collection of distichs de moribus, etc., probably of the third or fourth century.
  • Donat. or Don. Aelius Donatus, commentator, fl. A.D. 350
  • Dracont. Dracontius, poet, fl. A.D. 490
    • Hexaëm., Hexaëmeron Creationis Mundi.
  • Eccl. Scriptores Ecclesiastici.
  • Enn. Q. Ennius, poet, ob. B.C. 169
    • Ann., Annales.
    • Trag., Tragoediae.
  • Ennod. Ennodius, Chr. poet and biographer, ob. A.D. 521
    • Ep., Epistulae.
    • Epithal., Epithalamium.
    • Pan., Panegyricus.
    • Vit. Epiph., Vita Epiphanii.
  • Eum. Eumenius, orator and panegyrist, fl. A.D. 300
    • Grat. Act., Gratiarum Actio Constantino.
    • Pan. Const. Panegyricus Constantino Augusto dictus.
  • Eutr. Flavius Eutropius, historian, fl. A.D. 375
  • Fab. Pict. Fabius Pictor, historian, fl. B.C. 214
  • Falisc. See Gratius Faliscus.
  • Favorin. Favorinus, philosopher, fl. A.D. 130
  • Fenest. L. Fenestella, historian, fl A.D. 36
  • Fest. Sext. Pompeius Festus, grammarian, about (?) A.D. 150
  • Firm. Mat. or Firm. Julius Firmicus Maternus, mathematician, fl. A.D. 340
  • Flor. L. Annaeus Florus, historian, fl. A.D. 140
  • Fortun. or Ven. Fort. Venantius Fortunatus, Christian poet, fl A.D. 600
  • Front. or Frontin. S. Julius Frontinus, engineer, etc. obiit, A.D. 103
    • Aquaed., De Aquaeductibus Urbis Romae.
    • Strat., Strategematica.
  • Fronto or Front. M. Cornelius Fronto, orator, obiit A.D. 168
    • ad Marc., Epistulae ad M. Aurelium.
    • ad Ver., Epistulae ad Verum Imperatorem.
    • De Diff., De Differentiis.
    • De Eloq., De Eloquentiâ.
  • Fulg., Fabius Planciades Fulgentius, grammarian, etc., obiit A.D. 550
    • De Aetat., De Aetatibus Mundi.
    • Expos., Expositio Sermonum Antiquorum.
    • Myth., Mythologiae.
    • Verg. Cont., Vergiliana Continentia.
  • Gai. Gaius, JCtus, obiit A.D. 180
    • Inst., Institutiones, Juris Civilis.
  • Gell. Aulus Gellius, gramm., etc., obiit A.D. 175
  • German. Caesar Germanicus, poet, obiit A.D. 18
  • Gloss. Glossarium.
    • Cyril., Cyrilli.
    • Isid., Isidori.
    • Philox., Philoxeni.
  • Grat., Gratius Faliscus, poet, flor. A.D. 10
    • Cyn. or Cyneg., Cynegetica.
  • Her. See Auctor ad Herennium.
  • Hier. Hieronymus, Chr. writer, ob. A.D. 420
    • Cant. Cantic., Homiliae in Cantica Canticorum.
    • Cont. Pelag., Dialogi Contra Pelagianos.
    • Ep., Epistulae.
    • in Isa., in Iesaiam Commentarii.
    • in Psa., in Psalmos Tractatus.
  • Hirt., Aulus Hirtius, historian (=Auct. B. G. 8, in continuation of Cæsar's commentaries; and Auct. B. Alex.) obiit B.C. 44
  • Hor. Q. Horatius Flaccus, poet, obiit B.C. 8
    • A. P., Ars Poetica.
    • C., Carmina, or Odae.
    • C. S., Carmen Seculare.
    • Ep., Epistulae.
    • Epod., Epodi.
    • Od., Odae, or Carmina.
    • S. or Sat., Satirae.
  • Hyg. C. Julius Hyginus, poet and fabulist, fl. B.C. 10
    • Astr., Astronomia.
    • F., Fabellae.
  • Hyg. (Gromat.), Hyginus, writer on surveying fl. A.D. 100
    • Lim. or De Lim., De Limitibus Constituendis.
  • Inscr. Inscriptiones.
    • Don., Donii.
    • Fabr., Fabretti.
    • Graev., Graevii.
    • Grut., Gruteri.
    • Gud., Gudii.
    • Maff., Maffeii.
    • Momms., Mommsenii.
    • Murat., Muratorii.
    • Neap., Regni Neapolitani (ed. by Mommsen).
    • Orell., Orelli.
    • Rein., Reinesii.
  • Inst. Institutiones.
  • Isid. Isidorus Hispalensis, gramm., ob. A.D. 640
    • Orig., Origenes
  • Javol. Javolenus Priscus, JCtus, fl. A.D. 100
  • Jornand. Jornandes or Jordanis, historian, fl. A.D. 552
  • Jul. Val. Julius Valerius, historian, fl. A.D. 290
    • Res. Gest. Alex., Res Gestae Alexandri Macedonis.
  • Julian. Salvius Julianus, JCtus, fl. A.D. 130
  • Just. Justinus, historian, about fl.(?) A.D. 150
  • Just. Justinianus, emperor, ob. A.D. 565
    • Inst., Institutiones.
  • Juv. D. Junius Juvenalis, poet, ob. A.D. 130
  • Juvenc. C. Vettius Aquilinus Juvencus, Chr. poet, fl. A.D. 325
  • Laber. C. Decius Laberius, mimographer, fl. B.C. 50
  • Lact. L. Caelius Lactantius Firmianus, Chr. writer, ob. A.D. 325
    • De Irâ D., De Irâ Dei.
    • Epit., Epitome Divinarum Institutionum.
    • Inst. (or Lact. alone), Institutiones Divinae.
    • Mort. Pers., De Mortibus Persecutorum.
  • Laev. Laevius, lyric poet, fl.(?) B.C. 100
  • Lampr. Aelius Lampridius, historian, ob. B.C. 300
    • Alex. Sev., Alexandri Severi Vita.
    • Com., Commodi Vita.
    • Elag., Elagabali Vita.
  • Leg. XII. Tab. Leges duodecim Tabularum, compiled B.C. 450
  • Liv. Titus Livius, historian, obiit A.D. 17
  • Liv. Andron. Livius Andronicus, writer of tragedy, obiit B.C. 204
  • Luc. M. Annaeus Lucanus, poet, obiit A.D. 65
  • Lucil. C. Ennius Lucilius, satirist, obiit B.C. 103
    • Aetn., Aetna, vide Auctor Aetnae.
  • Lucr. T. Lucretius Carus, poet and philosopher, obiit B.C. 55
  • Macr. Aurelius Theodosius Macrobius, critic, flor. A.D. 400
    • S. or Sat., Saturnalia.
    • Somn. Scip., Somnium Scipionis.
  • Mamert. Claud. Mamertinus, panegyrist, flor. A.D. 362
  • Manil. M. Manilius, poet, flor. A.D. 12
    • Astron., Astronomica.
  • Marc. Emp. Marcellus Empiricus, physician, flor. A.D. 400
  • Mart. M. Valerius Martialis, poet, ob. A.D. 102
  • Mart. Cap. Martianus Minneus Felix Capella, satirist, fl.(?) A.D. 425
  • Maxim. Maximianus, poet, fl. A.D. 520
  • Mel. or Mela, Pomponius Mela, geographer, fl. A.D. 45
  • Min. Fel. Minucius Felix, Chr. writer, fl. A.D. 200
    • Oct., Octavius.
  • Modest., Herennius Modestinus, JCtus., fl. A.D. 240
  • Monum. Ancyr. Monumentum Ancyranum, an inscription placed on the wall of the pronaos at Ancyra, by Augustus Cæsar, fl. A.D. 14
  • Naev. C. Naevius, poet, ob. B.C. 198
  • Nazar. Nazarius, panegyrist, fl. A.D. 320
    • Pan. Const., Panegyricus Constantini.
  • Nemes. M. Aur. Olympius Nemesianus, poet, fl. A.D. 260
    • Cyn., Cynegetica.
    • Ecl., Eclogae.
  • Nep. Cornelius Nepos, biographer, fl. B.C. 44
    • Ages., Agesilaus.
    • Alcib., Alcibiades.
    • Arist., Aristides.
    • Att., Atticus.
    • Cat., M. Porcius Cato.
    • Chabr., Chabrias.
    • Cim., Cimon.
    • Con., Conon.
    • Dat., Datames.
    • Dion, Dion.
    • Epam., Epaminondas.
    • Eum., Eumenes.
    • Ham., Hamilcar.
    • Hann., Hannibal.
    • Iph., Iphicrates.
    • Lys., Lysander.
    • Milt., Miltiades.
    • Paus., Pausanias.
    • Pelop., Pelopidas.
    • Phoc., Phocion.
    • Reg., De Regibus.
    • Them., Themistocles.
    • Thras., Thrasybulus.
    • Tim. or Timol., Timoleon.
    • Timoth., Timotheus.
  • Nigid. P. Nigidius Figulus, gramm., fl. B.C. 60
  • Non. Nonius Marcellus, gramm., fl.(?) A.D. 280
  • Not. Tir. Notae Tironianae, a late collection of abbreviations ascribed to Cicero's freedman Tiro.
  • Nov. Novius, writer of comedy, fl. B.C. 90
  • Novat. or Nov. Novatianus, Chr. writer, fl. A.D. 250
  • Obseq. Julius Obsequens, writer De Prodigiis, fl.(?) A.D. 375
  • Optat. Publilius Optatianus Porphyrius, panegyrist, fl. A.D. 330
  • Orell. See Inscriptiones.
  • Oros. Paulus Orosius, historian, fl. A.D. 410
  • Ov. P. Ovidius Naso, poet, ob. A.D. 17
    • A. A. Ars Amatoria.
    • Am., Amores.
    • Cons., Consolatio.
    • F. or Fast., Fasti.
    • H. or Her., Heroides.
    • Hal., Halieuticon.
    • Ib., Ibis.
    • M. or Met., Metamorphoses.
    • Med. Fac., Medicamina Faciei.
    • Nux, Nux Elegia.
    • P. or Pont., Epistulae ex Ponto.
    • R. Am. or Rem. Am., Remedia Amoris.
    • Tr. or Trist., Tristia.
  • Pac. or Pacuv. M. Pacuvius, writer of tragedy, ob. B.C. 132
  • Pacat. Latinus Pacatus Drepanius, panegyrist, flor. A.D. 389
    • Pan., Panegyricus.
  • Pall. Palladius Rutilius Taurus, writer on husbandry, flor.(?) A.D. 350
    • Apr., Aprilis Mensis, or Liber V.
    • Aug., Augustus Mensis, or Liber IX.
    • Dec., December Mensis, or Liber XIII.
    • Febr., Februarius Mensis, or Liber III.
    • Jan., Januarius Mensis, or Liber II.
    • Jul., Julius Mensis, or Liber VIII.
    • Jun., Junius Mensis, or Liber VII.
    • Mai., Maius Mensis, or Liber VI.
    • Mart., Martius Mensis, or Liber IV.
    • Nov., November Mensis, or Liber XII.
    • Oct., October Mensis, or Liber XI.
    • Sept., September Mensis, or Liber X.
  • Papin. Aemilius Papinius, JCtus, flor. A.D. 200
  • Paul. Julius Paulus, JCtus, flor. A.D. 200
  • Paul. Nol. Pontius Paulinus Nolanus, Chr. writer, obiit, A.D. 431
    • Carm., Carmina.
    • Ep., Epistulae.
  • Paul. Petr. Paulinus Petricordiensis, poet, fl. A.D. 470
  • Pers. A. Persius Flaccus, satirist, ob. A.D. 62
  • Petr. Petronius Arbiter, satirist, fl.(?) A.D. 60
    • S. or Sat., Satirae.
  • Phaedr. T. Phaedrus, fabulist, fl. A.D. 40
  • Pict. See Fab. Pict.
  • Placid. Luctatius (or Lactantius) Placidus, scholiast, fl.(?) A.D. 450
  • Plaut. T. Maccius Plautus, writer of comedy. ob. B.C. 184
    • Am. or Amph., Amphitruo.
    • As. or Asin., Asinaria.
    • Aul., Aulularia.
    • Bacch., Bacchides.
    • Capt., Captivi.
    • Cas., Casina.
    • Cist., Cistellaria.
    • Curc., Curculio.
    • Ep. or Epid., Epidicus.
    • Men., Menaechmi.
    • Merc., Mercator.
    • Mil., Miles Gloriosus.
    • Most., Mostellaria.
    • Pers., Persa.
    • Poen., Poenulus.
    • Ps., Pseudolus.
    • Rud., Rudens.
    • Stich., Stichus.
    • Trin., Trinummus.
    • Truc., Truculentus.
  • Plin. C. Plinius Secundus (major) ob. A.D. 79
    • H. N., Historia Naturalis (usu. undesignated).
  • Plin. C. Plinius Caecilius Secundus (minor), ob. A.D. 113
    • Ep., Epistulae.
    • Pan., Panegyricus.
  • Plin. Val. C. Plinius Valerianus, physic. (the last book is a later addition), ob.(?) A.D. 400
  • Pomp. L. Pomponius, writer of comedy, fl. B.C. 90
  • Pompon. Sextus Pomponius, JCtus, ob. A.D. 138
  • Porc. Latro, M. Porcius Latro, rhetorician, ob. B.C. 3
  • Priap. Priapea, a collection of satiric and erotic poems and fragments appended to L. Müller's Catullus.
  • Prisc. Priscianus, grammarian, fl. B.C. 500
  • Prop. Sex. Aurelius Propertius, poet, ob. B.C. 16
  • Prud. Aurel. Prudentius Clemens, Chr. poet, fl. A.D. 400
    • Cath., Cathemerina.
    • c. Symm., contra Symmachum.
    • Psych., Psychomachia.
    • στεφ., περὶ Στεφάνων.
  • Pub. Syr. Publilius Syrus, mimographer, fl. B.C. 44
  • Q. Cic. Quintus Tullius Cicero, ob. B.C. 43
    • Pet. Cons., De Petitione Consulatus.
  • Quint. M. T. Quintilianus, rhetorician, ob. A.D. 95
    • Decl., Declamationes.
    • Inst., (or Quint. alone), Institutiones Oratoriae.
  • Rhem. Fan. Rhemmius Fanninus or Remius Favinus, poet, fl(?) A.D. 400
    • Fond., De Ponderibus et Mensuris.
  • Ruf. Sextus Rufus, historian, fl A.D. 350
  • Rufin. Tyrannius Rufinus, Chr. writer, ob. A.D. 410
  • Rutil. Lup. P. Rutilius Lupus, grammarian, fl.(?) A.D. 50
  • Rutil. or Rutil. Nam. Claudius Rutilius Namatianus, poet, fl. A.D. 416
  • Sall. C. Sallustius Crispus, historian, obiit, B.C. 35
    • C. or Cat., Catilina.
    • Fragm., Fragmenta.
    • H. or Hist., Historia.
    • J. or Jug., Jugurtha.
  • Salv. Salvianus, Chr. writer, flor. A.D. 440
    • Avar., Adversum Avaritiam.
    • Ep., Epistulae.
    • Gub. Dei, De Gubernatione Dei.
  • Scaev. Q. Mutius Scaevola, JCtus. flor. B.C. 95
  • Scrib. Scribonius Largus, physician, flor. A.D. 50
    • Comp., Compositiones Medicamentorum.
  • Sedul. Caelius Sedulius, Chr. poet, flor. A.D. 470
  • Sen. M. Annaeus Seneca, rhetorician, flor. A.D. 15
    • Contr., Controversiae.
    • Suas., Suasoriae.
  • Sen. L. Annaeus, Seneca, philosopher and tragedian, ob. A.D. 65
    • 1. Prose writings.
    • Apocol., Apocolocyntosis.
    • Ben., De Beneficiis.
    • Brev. Vit., De Brevitate Vitae.
    • Clem., De Clementiâ.
    • Cons. Helv., ad Helviam Matrem De Consolatione.
    • Cons. Marc., ad Marciam De Consolatione.
    • Cons. Polyb., ad Polybium De Consolatione.
    • Const. or Const. Sap., De Constantiâ Sapientis.
    • Ep., Epistulae.
    • Mort. Claud. or Lud. Mort., De Morte Claudii Caesaris.
    • Ot. Sap., De Otio Sapientis.
    • Prov., De Providentiâ
    • Q. N., Quaestiones Naturales.
    • Tranq., De Tranquillitate Animi.
    • Vit. Beat., De Vitâ Beatâ.
    • 2. Tragedies.
    • Agam., Agamemnon.
    • Herc. Fur., Hercules Furens.
    • Herc. Oet., Hercules Oetaeus.
    • Hippol., Hippolytus, or Phaedra.
    • Med., Medea.
    • Octav., Octavia.
    • Oedip., Oedipus.
    • Phaedr., vide Hippol.
    • Phoen., Phoenissae.
    • Thyest., Thyestes.
    • Troad., Troades.
  • Ser. Samm. Q. Serenus Sammonicus, physic., ob.(?) A.D. 230
  • Serv. Servius Honoratus, gramm., fl. A.D. 390
  • Sev. See Corn. Sev.
  • Sid. Apollinaris Sidonius, Christian writer, ob. A.D. 488
    • Carm., Carmina.
    • Ep., Epistulae.
  • Sil. C. Silius Italicus, poet, ob. A.D. 101
  • Sisenn. L. Cornelius Sisenna, historian and orator, ob. B.C. 57
  • Sol. or Solin. C. Julius Solinus, grammarian, fl. A.D. 260
  • Spart. Aelius Spartianus, biographer, fl. A.D. 385
  • Stat. P. Papinius Statius, poet, ob. A.D. 96
    • Ach. or Achil., Achilleis.
    • S. or Silv., Silvae.
    • Th. or Theb., Thebais.
  • Suet. C. Suetonius Tranquillus, biographer, ob. A.D. 160
    • Aug., Octavius Augustus Caesar.
    • Caes., Julius Caesar.
    • Calig., Caius Caligula.
    • Dom., Domitianus.
    • Galb., Galba.
    • Gram., De Grammaticis.
    • Ner., Nero.
    • Oth., Otho.
    • Rhet., Rhetoricis.
    • Tib., Tiberius.
    • Tit., Titus.
    • Vesp., Vespasianus.
    • Vit., Vitellius.
  • Sulp. Sulpicius Severus, Chr. writer, ob. A.D. 425
  • Symm. Q. Aurelius Symmachus, orator, ob. A.D. 420
  • Tac. C. Cornelius Tacitus, historian, ob. A.D. 119
    • Agr., Agricola.
    • A. or Ann., Annales.
    • Dial., Dialogus de Oratoribus.
    • G. or Germ., Germania.
    • H. or Hist., Historia.
    • Or., Dialogus de Oratoribus.
  • Ter. or T. P. Terentius Afer, writer of comedy, ob. B.C. 159
    • Ad., Adelphi.
    • And., Andria.
    • Eun., Eunuchus.
    • Heaut., Heautontimorumenos.
    • Hec., Hecyra.
    • Phorm., Phormio.
  • Ter. Maur. Terentianus Maurus, gramm. flor. (?) A.D. 290
  • Tert. Q. Septimius Florens Tertullianus, Chr. writer, ob. A.D. 220
    • ad Uxor., ad Uxorem.
    • Apol., Apologeticum.
    • Carn. Christ., De Carne Christi.
    • Cor. Mil., De Coronâ Militis.
    • Cult. Fem., De Cultu Feminarum.
    • Fug. in Pers., De Fugâ in Persecutione.
    • Idol., Idolotria.
    • Jejun., De Jejuniis.
    • Monog., Monogamia.
    • Paen., De Paenitentiâ.
    • Praes. Her., De Praescriptionibus Hereticorum.
    • Pudic., De Pudicitiâ.
    • Spect., De Spectaculis.
    • Virg. Vel., De Virginibus Velandis.
  • Theod. Prisc. Theodorus Priscianus, physician, fl.(?) A.D. 400
  • Tib. Albius Tibullus, poet, ob. B.C. 18
  • Tiro, Tiro, freedman of Cicero, fl. B.C. 40
  • Titin. or Titinn. Titinnius, wirter of comedy, fl. B.C. 160
  • Treb. Pol. Trebellius Pollio, historian, fl. A.D. 306
  • Turp. Sex. Turpilius, writer of comedy, fl. B.C. 130
  • Ulp. Domitius Ulpianus, JCtus, ob. A.D. 228
  • Val. Cato. Valerius Cato, poet, about B.C. 80
    • Dir., Dirae (by an unknown author; ascribed by some to Valerius Cato, and by others to Vergil).
  • Val. Fl. C. Valerius Flaccus, poet, fl. A.D. 70
  • Val. Max. Valerius Maximus, historian, fl A.D. 26
  • Val. Prob. M. Valerius Probus, gramm., fl.(?) A.D. 60
  • Varr. M. Terentius Varro, writer on husbandry, etc., ob. B.C. 27
    • L. L., De Linguâ Latinâ.
    • R. R., De Re Rusticâ.
  • Veg. F. Vegetius Renatus, writer on the art of war, fl. A.D. 386
    • Mil., De Re Militari.
  • Veg. P. Vegetius. fl.(?) A.D. 420
    • Vet. or Art. Vet., De Arte Veterinariâ sive De Mulomedicinâ.
  • Vell. P. Velleius Paterculus, historian, fl. A.D. 30
  • Ven. Fort. Venantius Fortunatus, Chr. poet, ob. A.D. 600
  • Ver. Flac. Verrius Flaccus, grammarian, ob.(?) B.C. 4
  • Verg. P. Vergilius Maro, poet, ob. B.C. 19
    • A. or Aen., Aeneis.
    • Cat., Catalecta.
    • Cir., Ciris.
    • Cop., Copa.
    • Cul., Culex.
    • E. or Ecl., Eclogae.
    • G. or Georg., Georgica.
    • M. or Mor., Moretum.
  • Vib. Seq. Vibius Sequester, geographer, fl.(?) A.D. 500
  • Vitr. Vitruvius Pollio, writer on architecture, flor. B.C. 10
  • Vop. Flavius Vopiscus, historian, flor. A.D. 305
  • Vulc. Gall. Vulcatius Gallicanus, historian, about A.D. 295
  • Vulg. Biblia Vulgatae Editionis (a Latin version of the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures, first made toward the end of the second century, and revised by St. Jerome,—Hieronymus, A.D. 383-392.
    • Abd., Abdias.
    • Act., Actus Apostolorum.
    • Agg., Aggaeus.
    • Am. or Amos, Amos.
    • Apoc., Apocalypsis.
    • Bar., Baruch.
    • Cant., Canticum Canticorum.
    • Coloss., Epistula ad Colossenses.
    • Cor., Epistula ad Corinthios.
    • Dan., Daniel.
    • Deut., Deutoronomium.
    • Eccl., Ecclesiastes.
    • Eccli., Ecclesiasticus, or Filius Sirach.
    • Eph., Epistula ad Ephesios.
    • Esdr., Esdras.
    • Esth., Esther.
    • Exod., Exodus.
    • Ezech., Ezechiel.
    • Gal., Epistula ad Galatas.
    • Gen., Genesis.
    • Hab., Habacuc.
    • Heb., Epistula ad Hebraeos.
    • Isa., Isaias.
    • Jac., Epistula Jacobi.
    • Jer., Jeremias.
    • Joan., Evangelium Joannis; but 1, 2, 3 Joan. Epistula Joannis prima, etc.
    • Jon., Jonas.
    • Jos., Josue.
    • Jud., Epistula Judae.
    • Jud. or Judic., Judices.
    • Lev., Leviticus.
    • Luc., Evangelium Lucae.
    • Macc. or Mach., Machabaei.
    • Mal., Malachias.
    • Marc., Evangelium Marci.
    • Matt., Evangelium Matthaei.
    • Mich., Michaeas.
    • Nah., Nahum.
    • Neb., Nehemias, or II. Esdras.
    • Num., Mumeri.
    • Os., Osee.
    • Par. or Paral., Paralipomena.
    • Petr., Epistula Petri.
    • Phil., Epistula ad Philippenses.
    • Philem., Epistula ad Philemonem.
    • Prov., Proverbia Salomonis.
    • Psa., Psalmi.
    • Reg., Reges.
    • Rom., Epistula ad Romanos.
    • Sap., Sapientia.
    • Soph., Sophonias.
    • Thess., Epistula ad Thessalonicenses.
    • Tim., Epistula ad Timotheum.
    • Tit., Epistula ad Titum.
    • Tob., Tobias.
    • Zach., Zacharias.


a. or act., active, -ly. fin. or ad fin., at the end. opp., opposed to, opposite, -tion.
abbrev., abbreviated, -tion. finit., finite (opp. to infinitive). orig., originally.
abl., ablative. foll., following. p., page.
absol. or abs., absolute, -ly, i. e. without case or adjunct. fr., from. P. a., participal adjective.
abstr., abstract. Fr., French. part., participle.
acc., accusative or according. fragm., frgm., or fr., fragmenta. partit., partitive.
access., accessory. freq. or fr., frequentative or frequent, -ly. pass., passive, -ly, or passage.
ad loc. or ad h. l., ad locum or ad hunc locum. fut., future. patr., patronymic.
adj., adjective, -ly. gen., genitive or general. per., period.
adv., adverb, -ial, -ially; or adversus. geog., geography, -ical. perf., perfect.
agric. or agricult., agricultural. Germ., German. perh., perhaps.
a. h. v., ad hanc vocem. Goth., Gothic. pers., personal, -ly.
al., alii or alia, others or other. gr. or gram., grammar, -ian, -atical, grammatici. philos., philosophy, -ical, -ically, -opher.
amplif., amplificative. Gr. Greek. pl. or plur., plural.
analog., analogous, -ly. h., hence. pleon., pleonastically.
antiq., antiquities. h. l., hic locus (this passage). plqpf., plusquamperfectum.
ap., apud (in). h.v., h. vv., this word, these words. plur. tant., used only in the plural.
appel., appellative. Heb., Hebrew. poet., poetical, -ly.
append. or app., appendix. hibr., hybrid. polit., political, -ly.
Arab., Arabic. hist., history, -ian. posit. or pos., positive.
archit., architecture, -tural. ib., ibidem. poss., possessive.
art., article. id., idem. praef., praefatio.
aug., augmentative. i. e., id est. praep., preposition.
Aug., Augustan. i. q., idem quod. preced., preceding.
c., cum (with). imper., imperative. pregn., pregnant, -ly.
c. c., coupled with. imperf., imperfect. prep., preposition.
cf., confer (compare). impers., impersonal, -ly. pres., present.
chh., church. inanim., inanimate. prob., probably.
class., classic, -al. in bon. part., in bonam partem. prol., prologus.
Cod., Codex (MS). in mal. part., in malam partem. pron., pronoun.
collat., collateral. inch., inchoative, inceptive. prooem., prooemium.
collect., collective, -ly. indecl., indeclinable. prop., proper, -ly, in a proper sense.
com., commonly, comicus, comic, or in comedy. indef., indefinite. prov. or proverb., proverbial, -ly.
comm. or c., common gender. indic., indicative. qs., quasi.
commentt., commentators. inf., infinitive. q. v., quod videas.
comp., compare or comparative. init., in., or ad init., at the beginning. rad., radical or root.
compd., compound. inscrr., inscriptions. rar., rare, -ly.
concr., concrete. intens., intensive. ref., refer, -ence.
conj., conjunction, conjunctive, or conjugation. interrog., interrogative, -tion. rel., relative or reliquiae.
constr., construed, -ction. intr., intransitive. respect., respectûs.
contr., contracted, contraction, or contrary. Ital., Italian. rhet., rhetoric, -al; in rhetoric.
corresp., corresponding. JCtus., juris consultus. Rom., Roman.
dat., dative. jurid., juridical. saep., saepe.
decl., declension. kindr., kindred. saepis., saepissime.
demonstr. or dem., demonstrative. l., lege or lectio. sc., scilicet.
dep., deponent. l. c. or l. l., loco citato or laudato, in the place already cited. s. h. v., sub hac voce.
deriv., derived, -ative, -ation. lang., language. signif., signifies, -cation.
diff., differs or different. Lat., Latin. simp., simple.
dim., diminutive. leg., legit, legunt. Span., Spanish.
dissyl., dissyllable, -abic. lex., lexicon. specif., specifically.
distr., distributive. lit., literal, in a literal sense. sq., sequens; sqq., sequentes (and the following).
dub., doubtful. Lith., Lithuanian. subj., subjunctive.
eccl., ecclesiastical. m. or masc., masculine. subject. or subj., subject, subjective. -ly.
ed., editio or editor. math., mathematics, -ical. subst., substantive, -ly.
e. g., exempli gratiâ. med., medio (in the middle). suff., suffix.
ellipt., elliptical, -ly. medic., medical or medicine. sup., superlative or supine.
elsewh., elsewhere. metaph., metaphorical, -ly. syll., syllable.
epic., epicene. meton., by metonymy. syn., synonym, -ymous.
epit., epitaph. mid. or med., medial; in a middle or reflexive sense. sync., syncopated.
equiv., equivalent. milit., military, in military affairs. tab., tabula (table, plate).
esp., especially. MS., manuscript; MSS. manuscripts. temp. tense or temporal.
etc., et cetera. n. or neutr. neuter. term., terminus.
etym. etymology, -ical. n. pr. or nom. propr., nomen proprium. trag., tragicus, tragic, or in tragedy.
euphon., euphonic, -ny. naut., nautical. trans., translated, -tion.
ex., exs., example, examples. neg., negative, -ly. transf., transferred.
expl., explanation, explained. no., numero. trisyl., trisyllable, -abic.
express., expression. nom., nominative. trop., in a tropical or figurative sense.
ext., externa. num. or numer., numeral. t. t., technical term.
extr., extremo (at the end). obj. or object., object, objective, -ly. usu., usual, -ly.
f. or fem., feminine. obl., oblique. v., verb, vide, or vox.
fig., figure, -ative, -atively. om., omit. v. h. v., vide hanc vocem.
onomat., onomatopoeia. var. lect., varia lectio (different reading.
vb., verb.
voc., vocative.

* A star before a word denotes that it is found but once; before a meaning, that the meaning is found but once; and before an author's name, that the word is used but once in his writings.

† This denotes that the word to which it is prefixed is borrowed from the Greek.

†† These indicate that a word is borrowed from some other language than the Greek.

‡ This shows that a word is found only in inscriptions, or in the old grammarians or lexicographers.

Words enclosed in brackets, at the beginning of articles, relate to etymology; elsewhere, are of questionable authenticity.

Words italicized in the citations have been supplied by the conjecture of editors.



Used in editing this work, with the abbreviations by which they are cited. (Only the most important titles are mentioned; the citations of other works are so full as to be intelligible without special explanation.)

Abdy and Walker, J. T. Abdy and B. Walker, editors of the Commentaries of Gaius, Cambridge, 1870.

B. and K., J. G. Baiter and C. L. Kayser, editors of Cicero's works.

Bach, E. C. C., editor of the Metamorphoses of Ovid.

Baumg.-Crus., D. C. G. Baumgarten-Crusius, editor of Ovid, Livy, and Suetonius.

Benfey, Theod., Griechischer Wurzellexicon, Berlin, 1839-1842.

Bentl., Richard Bentley, editor of Horace, Cambridge, 1711; of Terence and Phædrus, Cambridge, 1726, and of Manilius, London, 1739.

Bonn., Edward Bonnell, editor of Quintilian.

Bopp, Francis, Glossarium Comparativum Linguae Sanscritae, 3d ed., Berlin, 1867.

Bramb., W. Brambach, Aids to Latin Orthography, translated by W. G. McCabe, New York, 1877.

Brix, Julius, editor of Plays of Plautus.

Büch., F. Bücheler, editor of Petronius, etc.

Bünem., J. L. Bünemann, editor of Lactantius.

Burm., P. Burmann, editor of Vergil, Ovid, etc.

Burm., P. Burmann (Jun.), editor of Claudian, Propertius, and Anthologia Latina.

Buttm., Philip Buttmann, Lexilogus, etc.

Coningt., John Conington, editor of Vergil and Persius (the 10th and 12th bks. of the Aeneid edited by H. Nettleship, and the Persius published under his care).

Corss., W. Corssen.

Corss., Ausspr., Ueber Aussprache, Vocalismus und Betonung der Lateinischen Sprache, 2d ed., 1868.

Corss., Beitr., Kritische Beiträge zur Lateinischen Formenlehre, 1863.

Corss., Nachtr., Kritische Nachträge zur Lateinischen Formenlehre, 1866.

Cruq., Jacobus Cruquius, editor of Cicero's Pro Milone and of Horace.

Curt., Georg Curtius.

Curt., Gr. Etym., Grundzüge der Griechischen Etymologie, 4th ed., 1873.

Dict. Antiq., Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, edited by Wm. Smith, Ph. D., and Chas. Anthon, LL. D.

Dietsch, Rudolphus, editor of Sallust and Nepos.

Dillenb., W. Dillenburger, editor of Horace and Tacitus.

Dint., B. Dinter, editor of Cæsar.

Dober., A. Doberenz, editor of Cæsar.

Doed., Ludwig Doederlein, editor of Horace and Tacitus.

Doed., Lat. Syn., Lateinische Synonymik und Etymologie.

Don., Aelius Donatus, commentator on Terence and Vergil, of the fourth century.

Don., Ti. Claudius Donatus, commentator on Vergil, contemporary with the foregoing.

Donald., J. W. Donaldson, Latin Grammar, Varronianus.

Donat., vide Don.

Draeg., A. Draeger, editor of Tacitus.

Draeg., Hist. Syn., Historische Syntax der Lateinischen Sprache.

Drak., Arnold Drakenborch, editor of Livy, Silius Italicus, etc.

Ellendt, Friedrich, editor of Cicero's De Oratore and Brutus.

Ellis, Robinson, editor of Catullus.

Ernest., J. A. Ernesti, editor of Cicero, Tacitus, and Suetonius.

Ernest., A. W. Ernesti, editor of Livy, Leipsic, 1827.

Eyssen., Franciscus Eyssenhardt, editor of Ammianus Marcellinus, Berlin, 1871.

Fabretti, A., Corpus Inscriptionem Italicarum et Glossarium Italicum, Turin, 1867.

Fick, A., Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der Indogermanischen Sprachen.

Fischer, Gustavus, Latin Grammar, New York, 1876.

Fleck., Alfred Fleckeisen, editor of Plautus and Terence.

Forbig., Albert Forbiger, editor of Vergil.

Forcel., Facciolati et Forcellini Lexicon totius Latinitatis, new edition by Fr. F. Corradini, Padua, 1859-78: A-Phoenix.

Fritzsche, A. T. H., editor of the Satires of Horace.

Georg., K. E. Georges, Lateinisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch.

Gerber and Greef, A Gerber and A. Greef, Lexicon Taciteum, Leipsic, 1877, 1878.

Gerl. or Gerlach, F. D. Gerlach, editor of Sallust, of Tacitus's Germania, and of Nonius Marcellus.

Gesenius, W., Hebrew Lexicon, transl. from the Latin by Edward Robinson, D.D.

Gesn., J. M. Gesner, editor of Pliny the Younger

Gierig, G. E., editor of the Metamorphoses of Ovid and of Pliny the Younger.

Gildersleeve, B. L., editor of Persius.

Gronov. or Gronovius, I. F. Gronovius, editor of Plautus, Livy, and Tacitus, and author of Obss. Libri iv.

Gronov. or Gronovius, Abraham Gronovius, editor of Justin, Tacitus, et.

Grotefend, Aug., Lateinische Grammatik.

Grotefend, Georg Friedrich, Altitalienische Dialecte.

Haas., F. Masse editor of Seneca.

Habicht, E. C., Lateinische Synonymik, Lemgo, 1829.

Halm, Karl, editor of Cicero’s Select Orations, of Nepos, Tacitus, Quintilian, and Velleius Paterculus.

Hand, Turs., F. Hand, Tursellinus seu de Particulis Latinis Commentarii (an incomplete work: Ab—Puta).

Heind., L. F. Heindorf, editor of the Satires of Horace.

Herm., K. F. Hermann, editor of Juvenal and Persius.

Hertz, Martin, editor of Livy and Aulus Gellius.

Heyn. or Heyne, C. G. Heyne, editor of Tibullus and Vergil.

Hildebrand, G. F., editor of Appuleius.

Hint., Valentin Hintner, Lateinische Etymologie, Brixen, 1873.

Hoffm., E. Hoffman, Die Construction der Lateinischen Zeit-Partikeln, 3d ed., 1873.

Hofm., F. Hofmann editor of Cicero’s Select Letters.

Huschke, Ph. Edw., Jurisprudentiae AntejusUinianae quae supersunt, 3d ed., Leipsic, 1874.

Jahn, J. C., editor of Vergil and Horace.

Jahn, Otto, editor of Persius, Juvenal, etc.

Jan, L., editor of Pliny the Elder.

K. and H., 0. Keller and A. Holder, editors of Horace, Leipsic, 1864; editio minor 1878.

Keil, Heinrich, editor of Pliny the Younger, and of the Grammatici Latini.

Kennedy, B. H., author of the Public School Latin Grammar, 3d ed., London, 1875.

Key, T. Hewitt, Latin Grammar, London, 1856.

Kiepert, H., Lehrbuch der Alten Geographie, Berlin, 1877, 1878.

Kiessl., A. Kiessling, editor of Seneca Rhetor, Leipsic, 1872.

Klotz, B., Handwörterbuch dcr Lateinischen Sprache, Braunschweig, 1858.

Kopp, U. F., editor of Martianus Capella, Frankfurt, 1836.

Kram., Friedrich Kramer, editor of Cæsar.

Krebs, Antibarb., J. Ph. Krebs, Antibarbarus der Lateinischen Sprache, 5th ed. by Allgayer, 1876.

Kühner, Raphael, editor of Cicero’s Tusculanae and author of Ausführliche Grammatik der Lateinischen Sprache, Hannover 1877, 1878.

Lachm., Karl Lachmann, editor of Lucilius, Lucretius, Catullus, Tibullus, Propertius, etc.

Lamb., D. Lambinus, editor of Plautus, Lucretius, Cicero, and Horace.

Lor. or Lorenz, A. O. F. Lorenz, editor of Plays of Plautus.

Lübb., E. Lübbert, Beiträge zur Tempus- und Modus-Lehre des Aelteren Lateins.

Lübk., F. Lübker, Real-Lexicon des Classischen Alterthums.

Madv., J. N. Madvig, editor of Cicero’s De Finibus. Cato Major, Laelius, and Select Orations, author of Emendationes Livianae, Adversaria Critica, etc.

Madv., Gram., Latin Grammar, edited by Thacher.

Mann., Conrad Mannert, Geographie der Griechen und Römer.

Mayor, J. E. B., editor of Juvenal, 3d ed.. london, 1869—78.

Merguet, H., Lexicon zu den Reden des Cicero Vol. I., Jena, 1877.

Merk., Rudolph Merkel, editor of Ovid, Leipsic, 1852, 1853; Metamorphoses in new ed., 1875.

Momms., Theodor Mommsen, editor of the Digesta, and of the Corpus Inscriptionutn Latinarum.

Momms., Röm. Gesch., Römische Geschichte.

Müll., Karl Ottfried Müller, editor of Festus and of Varro de Lingu^acirc; Latinâ.

Müll., Lucian Muller, editor of Lucilius, Catullus, Tibullus. Propertius, and Horace; and author of Orthographiae et Prosodiae Latinae Summarium, Petropoli, 1878.

Munro, H. A. J., editor of Lucretius and author of Criticisms and Elucidations of Catullus.

Neue, Formenl., Friedrich Neue, Formenlehre der Lateinischen Sprache, 2d ed., 1875 and 1877.

Nieb. Röm. Gesch., B. Niebuhr. Römische Geschichte.

Nipp. or Nipperd., Karl Nipperdey, editor of Nepos and Tacitus.

Orell., J. G. Orelli, editor of Cicero, Horace, Tacitus, etc.

Osann, Friedrich, editor of Fragmenta Appulei de Orthographiâ, and of Cicero’s De Re Publicâ.

Oud., F. Oudendorp, editor of Cæsar and of Appuleius.

Paley, F. A., editor of Propertius, 3d ed. 1872.

Pauck., C. Paucker, Spicilegium Addendorum Lexicis Latinis, Mitau. 1875.

Peter, Hermann, editor of Ovid’s Fasti, Leipsic, 1874.

Pott, Aug. Friedrich, Etymologische Forschungen, Lemgo, 1833, 2d and greatly enlarged ed., 1869—76.

Queck, Gustavus, editor of Statius.

Ramshorn, Ludwig, Lateinische Grammatik, Leipzig, 1830.

Ramshorn, Syn., Lateinische Synonymik, Leipzig, 1831.

Rib., Otto Ribbeck, editor of Vergil and of the Scenicae Romanorum Poësis Fragmenta, and author of a Brief Treatise on the Latin Particles.

Riese, Alexander. editor of Ovid, Leipsic, 1871—1874.

Ritschl, Friedrich, editor of Plautus; continued by G. Loewe, H. Goetz, and F. Schoell.

Ritschl Opusc., Opuscula Philologica.

Ritt., F. Ritter, editor of Horace and Tacitus.

Rob, or Roby, H. J. Roby, A Grammar of the Latin Language from Plautus to Suetonius.

Rose and Strübing, Valentin Rose and H. Müler-Strübing, editors of Vitruvius.

Roth, C. L., editor of Suetonius.

Rudd., Thomas Ruddiman, author of Grammaticae Latinae Institutiones, edited by Stallbaum, Leipsic, 1823.

Sandars, T. C., editor of the Institutes of Justinian, London, 1874.

Schmalfeld, Dr. Fr., Lateinische Synonymik, Altenburg, 1869.

Schmid, F. E. T., editor of the Epistles of Horace.

Schneid., J. G. Schneider, editor of the Scriptores Rei Rusticae Veteres.

Schneid., J. K. L. Schneider, Ausführliche Grammatik der Lateineschen Sprache, 1819—21.

Schneid., F. G. Schneidewin, editor of Martial.

Schwartz, C. G. editor of Pliny the Younger.

Servius, Servius Honoratus, a commentator on Vergil, of the fourth century.

Seyffert, Moritz, editor of Cicero's Tusculanae and Laelius.

Sill., J. Sillig, editor of Pliny’s Historia Naturalis.

Struve, K. L., Ueber die Lateinesche Declination und Conjugation.

Teuff., W. Teuffel, Geschichte der Römischen Literatur, 2d ed., 1872; 3d ed., 1877.

Tisch., Constantinus Tischendorf editor of Novum Testamentum Vulgatae Editionis.

Torrini, R. P. F. Gabr., Concordantiae Bibliorum Sacrorum Vulgatae Editionia, Prati, 1861.

Umpf., Franciecus Umpfenbach, editor of Terence, Berlin, 1870.

Uss. or Ussing, J. L. Ussing, editor of Plautus, Hauniae, Vol. I., 1875; Vol. II., 1878.

Vahl., Joannes Vahlen, editor of the Fragments of Ennius, Lucilius, etc.

Van., Alois Vanicek, Griechisch - Lateinisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, 1877; Fremdwörter im Griechischen und Lateinischen, 1878.

Wagn. or Wagner, J. A. Wagner, editor of Valerius Flaccus.

Wagn. or Wagner, Philip Wagner, editor of Vergil, ed. maj. 1830—1841; ed. min. 1841.

Wagn. or Wagner, W. Wagner, editor of several plays of Plautus and of Terence.

Weisenb., W. Weissenborn, editor of Livy.

Wordsw., John Wordsworth, editor of Fragments and Specimens of Early Latin, Oxford, 1874.

Zumpt, Karl G., editor of Cicero’s Orations against Verres, and De Officiis, and of Curtius.

Zumpt, Gram., Latin Grammar. edited by Anthon.



A a

I. A, a, indeclinable noun sometimes joined with littera, i.e., littera a, the first letter of the Latin alphabet, corresponding to the a, α of the other Indo-European languages: A primum est: hinc incipiam, et quae nomina ab hoc sunt, C. Ennius Lucilius apud Terent, Scaur. p. 2255 P.: sus rostro si humi A litteram impresserit, M. Tullius Cicero’s De Divinatione ad M. Brutum 1, 13, 23: ne in A quidem atque S litteras exire temere masculina Graeca nomina recto casu patiebantur, M. T. Quintilianus 1, 5, 61.
II. The sound of the A is short or long in every part of the word; as, ăb, păter, ită; â, mâter, frustrâ. During a short period (between about 620 and 670 A.U.C. = from 134 to 84 B.C.) long a was written aa, probably first by the poet Lucius Attius, in the manner of the Oscan language; so we find in Latin inscriptions: AA. CETEREIS (i.e., a ceteris), CALAASI, FAATO, HAACE, MAARCIVM, PAAPVS, PAASTORES, VAARVS; and in Greek writing, ΜAAPKOY YIOΣ MAAPKEΛΛOΣ, KOINTON MAAPKION (like Oscan aasas = Latin âra, Oscan Paapi = Latin Pâpius, Oscan Paakul = Latin Pâculus, Pâcullus, Pâcuvius, etc.), vide Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl's Priscae Latinitatis Monumenta Epigraphica, page 28 sequens, and compare Theodor Mommsen, Die Unteritalischen Dialekte, page 210 sequens. (The Umbrian language has gone a step farther, and written long a by aha, as Aharna, Naharcom, trahaf, etc.; compare Aufrecht and Kirchoff, Umbrische Sprachdenkm. page 76 sequens) See also the letter E and U.
III. In etymological and grammatical formation of words, short a very often (sometimes also long a) is changed into other vowels.
A. Short a is changed, 1, into long a
a. In consequence of the suppression of the following consonants at the end or in the middle of the word: ăb, â; vădis, vâs; ăg-ăg-men, exâmen; tăg-, contâmino; căd-, câsus. Hence also in the ablative singular of the first declension, and in the particles derived from it, in consequence of the suppression of the original ablative ending. -d: PRAEDAD (Col. Rostr.), praedâ; SENTENTIAD (S. C. de Bacch.), sententiâ: EXTRAD (ibidem), extrâ; SVPRAD (ibidem), suprâ.—Hence
b. In perfect forms: scăb-o, scâbi; căv-eo, câvi; făv-eo, fâvi; păv-eo, pâvi (for scâbui, căvui, făvui, păvui).
c. In other forms: ăgo, ambâges; păc-, păc-iscor, pâcis (pâx); săg-ax, sâgus, sâga; măc-er, mâcero; făg- (φαγειν), fâgus. (Contrary to analogy, ă remains short in dănunt, from dă-in-unt, see Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl, Priscae Latinitatis Monumenta Epigraphica, l. 1. page 17.)
2. Short a is changed into ĕ or ê
a. Into ĕ. (α) Most frequently in the second part of compounds, particularly before two consonants: facio, confectus; jacio, conjectus; rapio, dereptus; dăm-, damno, condemno; făl-, fallo, fefelli; măn-, mando, commendo; scando, ascendo; ăp-, aptus, ineptus; ăr-, ars, iners, sollers; ăn-, annus, perennis; căpio, auceps; căput, triceps; ăgo, remex; jăcio, objex. And thus in Plautus, according to the best manuscripts, dispenno, dispessus from pando, compectus from compăciscor, anteceptus from capio (on the other hand, in Vergil, according to the manuscript, aspargo, attractare, detractare, kept their a unchanged).
(β) Sometimes ă is changed into ĕ also before one consonant (but in this case it is usually changed into ĭ; vide infra 3.a.α.): grădior, ingrĕdior; pătior, perpĕtior; părio, repĕrio; păro, vitupĕro; ăp-, coepi (i.e., co-ĕpi); căno, tubicĕn, tibicĕn; in the reduplicated carcĕr (from carcar) farfĕrus (written also farfărus); and so, according to the better manuscripts, aequipĕro from păro, and defĕtigo from fătigo.
(γ) In words taken from the Greek: τάλαντον, talĕntum; φάλαρα, phalĕrae; σίσαρον, sisĕr (but according to the best manuscripts, camăra from καμάρα, not camăra).
b. Short a is changed to ĕ in some perfect forms: ăgo, ĕgi; făcio, fĕci; jăcio, jĕci; frag-, frango, frĕgi; căpio, cĕpi, and păg-, pango, pĕgi (together with pepĭgi and panxi, vide pango).
3. Short a is changed to ĭ
a. (most frequently in the second part of compounds) (α) before one consonant: ăgo, abĭgo; făcio, confĭcio; cădo, concĭdo; sălio, assĭlio; răpio, abrĭpio; păter, Juppĭter (in Umbrian language unchanged, Jupater), Marspĭter; Diespĭter, Opĭter; rătus, irrĭtus; ămicus, inĭmicus (but ă remains unchanged in adămo, impătiens, and in some compounds of a later period of Roman literature, as praejacio, calefacio, etc.).—(β) Sometimes also before two consonants (where it is usually changed into ĕ; vide supra, 2.α.β.): tăg-, tango, contingo; păg-, pango, compingo (unchanged in some compounds, as peragro, desacro, depango, obcanto, etc.).
b. ă is changed into ĭ in the reduplicated perfect forms: cădo, cecĭdi; căno, cecĭni; tăg-, tango, tetĭgi; păg-, pango, pepĭgi.
c. Likewise in some roots which have ă: păg, pignus; străg- (strangulo, στράγγω), stringo.
d. In words taken from the Greek: μηχανή, machĭna; πατάνη, patĭna; βυκάνη, bucĭna; τρυτάνη, trutĭna; βαλανειον, balĭneum; Κατάνα, Catĭna; (written also as Catana); Άκράγας, Agrĭgentum.
4. Short a is changed into short or long o.
a. Into ŏ: scăbo, scobs; păr, pars, portio; dăm-, dŏmo; Fabii, Fŏvii (vide Paulus Diaconus' epitome of Sextus Pompeius Festus' De significatu verborum, page 87); μάρμαρον, marmŏr; Mars, redupl. Marmar, Marmor (Carm. Fratr. Arv.).
b. Into ô: dă-, dônum, dôs; ăc-, ăcuo, ôcior (vide this article).
5. Short a is changed into ŭ
a. In the second part of compounds, particularly before l, p and b: calco, inculco; salsus, insulsus; salto, exsulto; capio, occŭpo; răpio, surrupio and surruptus (also written surripio and surreptus); tăberna, contŭbernium;—before other consonants: quătio, concŭtio; as, decussis; Mars, Mamŭrius, Mamŭralia; and once also condumnari (Tab. Bant. lin. 8, immediately followed by condemnatus, vide Leo von Klenze, Philologische Abhandlungen tabula I., and Theodor Mommsen's, Die Unteritalischen Dialekte, page 149).
b. In words of Greek origin: `Εκάβη, Hecŭba; σκυτάλη, scutŭla; κραιπάλη, crapŭla; πάσσαλος, pessŭlus; `άφλαστον, aplustre; θρίαμβος, triumphus.
c. ă is perhaps changed into ŭ in ulciscor, compared with alc-, `αλέξω (arc-, arceo).
B. Long a is sometimes changed into ê or ô.
1. Into ê: hâlo, anhêlo; fâs-, fêstus, profêstus; nâm, nêmpe.
2. Into ô: gnâ-, gnârus, ignârus, ignôro. (But in general long a remains unchanged in composition: lâbor, delâbor; gnâbus, ignâvus; fâma, infâmis.)
IV. Contrary to the mode of changing Greek α into Latin e, i, o, u (vide supra), Latin a has sometimes taken the place of other Greek vowels in words borrowed from the Greek, as: λόγχη, lancea; κύλιξ, călix; Γανυμήδης, Catămītus.
V. The repugnance of the Latin language to the Greek combined vowels αο has caused the translocation of them in Alumento for Λαομέδων (Paul. ex Fest. p. 18 Müll.).—Greek α is suppressed in Hercules from `Ηρακλης (probably in consequence of the inserted u; in late Latin we find Heracla and Heracula, cf. Ritschl, in Rhein. Mus. Neue Folge, vol. 12, p. 108).
VI. Latin ă was early combined with the vowels i and u, forming the diphthongs ai and au; by changing the i into e, the diphthong ai soon became ae. So we find in the oldest inscriptions: AIDE, AIDILIS, AIQVOM, GNAIVOD, HAICE, DVELONAI, TABELAI, DATAI, etc., which soon gave place to aedem, aedilis, aequom, Gnaeo, haec, Bellonae, tabellae, datae, etc. (the Col. Rostr. has PRAESENTE, PRAEDAD, and the S. C. de Bacch. AEDEM. The triphthong aei, found in CONQVAEISIVEI(?), is very rare; Miliar. Popil. lin. 11, v. Ritschl, l. 1. p. 21). In some poets the old genetive singular of the first declension (-ai) is preserved, but is dissyllabic, âî. So in Ennius: Albâî Longâî, terrâî frugiferâî, frondosâî, lunâî, viâî; in Vergil: aulâî, aurâî, aquâî, pictâî; in Ausonius: herâî.
B. ae as well as au are changed into other vowels.
1. The sound of ae, e, and oe being very similar, these vowels are often interchanged in the best manuscripts. So we find caerimonia and cerimonia, caepa and cêpa, saeculum and sêculum; scaena and scêna; caelum and coelum, haedus and hoedus, maestus and moestus; cena, coena, and caena, etc.
2. In composition and reduplications ae becomes î: aequus, inîquus; quaero, inquîro; laedo, illîdo; taedet, pertîsum (noticed by Cicero); aestumo, exîstumo; caedo, cecîdi, concîdo, homicîda.
3. ae is also changed into î in a Latinized word of Greek origin: `Αχαιός (`ΑχαιFός), Achîvus.
4. The diphthong au is often changed to ô and û (the latter particularly in compounds): caudex, côdex; Claudius, Clodius; lautus, lôtus; plaustrum, plôstrum; plaudo, plôdo, explôdo; paululum, pôlulum; faux, suffôco; si audes (according to Cicero or according to others, si audies), sôdes, etc.; claudo, inclûdo; causa, accûso. Hence in some words a regular gradation of au, o, u is found: claudo, clôdicare, clûdo; raudus, rôdus, rûdus; caupo, côpa, cûpa; naugae, nôgae (both forms in the manuscripts of Plautus), nûgae; fraustra, frode, frude (in manuscripts of Vergil); cf. Ritschl, in Wintercatalog 1854-55, and O. Ribbeck, in Jahn's Neue Jahrb. vol. 77, p. 181 sq.—The change of au into oe and e appears only in audio, (oboedio) obêdio.
5. Au sometimes takes the place of av-: faveo, fautum, favitor, fautor; navis, navita, nauta; avis, auceps, auspex. So Latin aut corresponds to Sanscrit ave (whence -vâ, Latin -ve), Osc. avti, Umbr. ute, ote; and so the Latin preposition ab, through av, becomes au in the words aufero and aufugio (prop. av-fero, av-fugio, for ab-fero, ab-fugio). Vide the article ab init.
VII. In primitive roots, which have their kindred forms in the sister-languages of the Latin, the original a, still found in the Sanscrit, is in Latin either preserved or more frequently changed into other vowels.
A. Original a preserved: Sanscrit mâtri, Latin mâter; Sanscrit bhrâtri, Latin frâter; Sanscrit nâsâ, Latin nâsus and nâris; Sanscrit ap, Latin aqua; Sanscrit apa, Latin ab; Sanscrit nâma, Latin năm; Sanscrit catur, Latin, quattuor (in Greek changed: τέτταρες); Sanscrit capûla, Latin căput (in Greek changed: κεφαλή, etc.).
B. Original a is changed into other Latin vowels—
1. Into e: Sanscrit ad, Latin ed (ĕdo); Sanscrit as, Latin es (esse); Sanscrit pat, Latin pet (peto); Sanscrit pâd, Latin pĕd (pês); Sanscrit dant, Latin dent (dens); Sanscrit gan, Latin gen (gigno); Sanscrit , Latin mê-tior; Sanscrit saptan, Latin septem; Sanscrit daśan, Latin decem; Sanscrit śata, Latin centum; Sanscrit aham, Latin ĕgo; Sanscrit pâra, Latin per; Sanscrit paśu, Latin pĕcus; Sanscrit asva, Latin ĕquus, etc.
2. Into i: Sanscrit an-, a- (neg. part.), Latin in-; Sanscrit ana (prep.), Latin in; Sanscrit antar, Latin inter; Sanscrit abhara, Latin imber; Sanscrit panca, Latin quinque, etc.
3. Into o: Sanscrit avi, Latin ŏvi (ovis); Sanscrit vac, Latin vŏc (voco); Sanscrit pra, Latin pro; Sanscrit , Latin po (pôtum); Sanscrit nâma, Latin nômen; Sanscrit api, Latin ŏb; Sanscrit navan, Latin nŏvem; Sanscrit nava, Latin nŏvus, etc.
4. Into u: Sanscrit marmara, Latin murmur.
5. Into ai, ae: Sanscrit prati, Latin (prai) prae; Sanscrit śaśpa, Latin caespes.
6. Into different vowels in the different derivatives: Sanscrit , Latin mê-tior, mŏdus; Sanscrit prac, Latin prĕcor, prŏcus; Sanscrit vah, Latin vĕho, via.
C. Sometimes the Latin has preserved the original a, while even the Sanscrit has changed it: Latin pa-, pater, Sanscrit. , pitri.
2. As an abbreviation A. usually denotes the praenomen Aulus; A. A.=Auli duo, Inscriptiones Orelli 1530 (but A.A.=Aquae Aponi, the modern Abano, ibidem 1643 sequens; 2620; 3011). The three directors of the mint were designated by III. VIRI A. A. A. F. F. (i.e., auro, argento, aeri flando, feriundo), ibidem 569; 2242; 2379; 3134 alia; so also A. A. A., ibidem 3441 (compare Cicero's Epistulae ad Familiares 7, 13 at the end, and see the article Triumviri); A. D. A. agris dandis adsignandis, and A. I. A. agris judicandis adsignandis; A. O. amico optimo; A. P. a populo or aediliciae potestatis; A. P. R. aerario populi Romani.—Upon the voting tablets in judicial trials A. denotes absolvo; hence A. is called littera salutaris, Cicero's Miles Gloriosus 6, 15; vide littera. In the Roman Comitia A. (=antiquo) denoted the rejection of the point in question; see antiquo. In Cicero's Tusculan Disputations (Tusculanae Disputationes) the A. designated one of the disputants=adulescens or auditor, opposed to M. for magister or Marcus (Cicero); but it is to be remarked that the letters A and M do not occur in the best manuscripts of this treatise; refer to the editions ad Cicero’s Tusculanae Disputationes 1, 5, 9.—In dates A. D.=ante diem; vide ante; A. U. C.=anno urbis conditae; A. P. R. C. anno post Romam conditam.
3.a. preposition=ab, see ab.
4.ā. interjection=ah, see ah.

Ab ab


ăb, ā, abs, preposition with the ablative case. This Indo-European particle (Sanscrit apa or ava; Etruscan av; Greek 'απó; Gothic af; Old German aba; New German ab; English of, off) has in Latin the following forms: ap, af, ab (av), au-, â, ă; aps, abs, as-. The existence of the oldest form, ap, is proved by the oldest and best manuscripts analogous to the preposition apud, the Sanscrit api, and the Greek 'επí, and by the weakened form, af, which, by the rule of historical grammar and the nature of the Latin letter f, can be derived only from ap, not from ab. The form af, weakened from ap, also very soon became obsolete. There are but five examples of it in inscriptions, at the end of the sixth and in the course of the seventh century B.C., namely: AF VOBEIS, Inscriptiones Orelli, 3114; AF MVRO, ibidem 6601; AF CAPVA, ibidem 3308; AF SOLO, ibidem 589; AF LYCO, ibidem 3036 (afvolunt=avolant, Paul ex Sextus Pompeius Festus page 26. Karl Ottfried Müller [editor of Festus] is only a conjecture). In the time of Cicero this form was regarded as archaic, and only here and there used in account-books; see Cicero's Orator ad M. Brutum 47, 158 (where the correct reading is af, not abs or ab), and compare Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl's, Priscae Latinitatis Monumenta Epigraphica page 7 and following.—The second form of this preposition, changed from ap, was ab, which has become the principal form and the one most generally used through all periods—and indeed the only one used before all vowels and h; here and there also before some consonants, particularly l, n, r, and s; rarely before c, j, d, t; and almost never before the labials p, b, f, v, or before m, such examples as ab Massiliensibus, Caesar's Bellum Civile 1, 35, being of the most rare occurrence.—By changing the b of ab through v into u, the form au originated, which was in use only in the two compounds aufero and aufugio for ab-fero, ab-fugio; aufuisse for afuisse, in the Codex laurentianus mediceus of Tacitus A. 12. 17, is altogether unusual. Finally, by dropping the b of ab and lengthening the a, ab was changed into â, which form, together with ab, predominated through all periods of the Latin language, and took its place before all consonants in the later years of Cicero, and after him almost exclusively.—By dropping the b without lengthening the a, ab occurs in the form ă- in the two compounds ă-bîto and ă-pĕrio, quod videas.—On the other hand, instead of reducing ap to a and ă, a strengthened collateral form, aps, was made by adding to ap the letter s (also used in particles, as in ex, mox, vix). From the first, aps was used only before the letters c, q, t, and was very soon changed into abs (as ap into ab): abs chorago, Plautus' Persa 1, 3, 79 (159 Ritschl): abs quivis, Tertullianus' Ad Uxorem 2, 3, 1: abs terra, Cato, De Rustica 51; and in compounds: aps-cessero, Plautus' Trinummus 3, 1, 24 (625 Ritschl); idem ibidem 3, 2, 84 (710 Ritschl): abs-condo, abs-que, abs-tineo, etc. The use of abs was confined almost exclusively to the combination abs te during the whole ante-classic period, and with Cicero till about the year 700 A [b].U[rbe].C[ondita]. (=B.C. 54). After that time Cicero evidently hesitates between abs te and a te, but during the last five or six years of his life a te became predominant in all his writings, even in his letters; consequently abs te apeas but rarely in later authors, as in Titus Livius 10, 19, 8; 26, 15, 12; and who, perhaps, also used abs conscendentibus, idem 28, 37, 2; vide Arnold Drakenborch [editor of Livy] ad hunc locum (W. Weissenborn [editor of Livy] ab).—Finally abs, in consequence of the following p, lost its b, and became âs- in the three compounds as-pello, as-porto, and as-pernor (for as-spernor); vide these words.—The late Latin verb abbrevio may stand for adbrevio, the d of ad being assimilated to the following b. The fundamental signification of ab is departure from some fixed point (opposed to ad, which denotes motion to a point). I. In space, and, II. Figuratively, in time and other relations, in which the idea of departure from some point, as from source and origin, is included; English from, away from, out of; down from; since, after; by, at, in, on, etc.

I. Literally, in space: ab classe ad urbem tendunt, Lucius Accius (or Attius) in Nonius Marcellus 495, 22 (Trag. Rel. p. 177 Otto Ribbeck):[1] Caesar maturat ab urbe proficisci, Caesar Bellum Gallicum 1, 7: fuga ab urbe turpissima, Cicero Epistolae ad Atticum 7, 21: ducite ab urbe domum, ducite Daphnim, Vergil Eclogae 8, 68. Cicero himself gives the difference between ab and ex thus: si qui mihi praesto fuerit cum armatis hominibus extra meum fundum et me introire prohibuerit, non ex eo, sed ab (from, away from) eo loco me dejecerit. ... Unde dejecti Galli? A Capitolio. Unde, qui cum Graccho fuerunt? Ex Capitolio, etc., Cicero Oratio pro Caecinâ 30, 87; compare Diomedes p. 408 P., and a similar distinction between ad and in under ad. Elliptically: Diogenes Alexandro roganti, ut diceret, si quid opus esset: Nunc quidem paululum, inquit, a sole, a little out of the sun, Cicero Tusculanae Disputationes 5, 32, 92.—Often joined with usque: illam (mulierem) usque a mari supero Romam proficisci, all the way from, Cicero Oratio pro Cluentio 68, 192; vide usque, I.—And with ad, to denote the space passed over: siderum genus ab ortu ad occasum commeant, from...to, Cicero De Deorum Naturâ 2, 19 init.; compare ab...in; venti a laevo latere in dextrum, ut sol, ambiunt, Plinius 2, 47, 48, § 128.

b. Sometimes with names of cities and small islands, or with domus (instead of the usual ablative) particularly, in military and nautical language, to denote the marching of soldiers, the setting out of a fleet, or the departure of the inhabitants from some place: oppidum ab Aenea fugiente a Trojâ conditum, Cicero's Actio in Verrem 2, 4, 33: quemadmodum (Caesar) a Gergovia discederet, Caesar's Bellum Gallicum 7, 43 at the end; so idem ibidem 7, 80 at the end; Sallustius Crispus' Jugurtha 61; 82; 91; Livius 2, 33, 6 and others; compare: ab Arimino M. Antonium cum cohortibus quinque Arretium mittit, Caesar's Bellum Civile 1, 11 at the end; and: protinus a Corfinio in Siciliam miserat, idem ibidem 1, 25, 2: profecti a domo, Livius 40, 33, 2; of setting sail: cum exercitus vestri numquam a Brundisio nisi hieme summâ transmiserint, Cicero's Oratio de Imperio Cn. Pompei [or Pro Lege Maniliâ] 12, 32; so idem Epistulae Familiares 15, 3, 2; Caesar Bellum Civile 3, 23; 3, 24 at the end: classe quâ advecti ab domo fuerant, Livius 8, 22, 6; of citizens: interim ab Roma legatos venisse nuntiatum est, Livius 21, 9, 3; compare: legati ab Orico ad M. Valerium praetorem venerunt, idem 24, 40, 2.

c. Sometimes with names of persons or with pronouns: pestem abige a me, Ennius in Cicero's Academicae Quaestiones 2, 28, 89 (Tragoediae v. 50 Joannes Vahlen:[2] Quasi ad adulescentem a patre ex Seleucia veniat, Plautus Trinummus 3, 3, 41; compare: libertus a Fufiis cum litteris ad Hermippum venit, Cicero's Oratio pro L. Flacco 20, 47: Nigidium a Domitio Capuam venisse, idem Epistulae ad Atticum 7, 24: cum a vobis discessero, idem De Senectute [or Cato Major] 22: multa merces tibi defluat ab Jove Neptunoque, Horace's Carmina [or Odae] 1, 28, 29 others. So often of a person instead of his house, lodging, etc.: videat forte hic te a patre aliquis exiens, from the father, i.e. from his house, P. Terentius Afer's Heautontimorumenos 2, 2, 6; so a fratre, idem Phormio 5, 1, 5: a Pontio, Cicero's Epistulae ad Atticum 5, 3 at the end: ab eâ, P. Terentius Afer's Andria 1, 3, 21; and so often: a me, a nobis, a se, etc., from my, our, his house, etc. T. Plautus' Stichus 5, 1, 7; P. Terentius Afer's Heautontimorumenos 3, 2, 50; Cicero's Epistulae ad Atticum 4, 9, 1 and others.

B. Transfer without the idea of motion. To designate separation or distance, with the verbs abesse, distare, etc. and with the particles longe, procul, prope, etc. 1. Of separation: ego te afuisse tam diu a nobis dolui, Cicero's Epistulae ad Familiares 2, 1, 2: abesse a domu paulisper maluit, idem Actio in Verrem 2, 4, 18, § 39: tum Brutus ab Româ aberat, C. Sallustius Crispus' Catilina 40, 5: absint lacerti ab stabulis, Vergil's Georgica 4, 14.—2. Of distance: quot milia fundus suus abesset ab urbe, Cicero's Oratio pro Caecinâ 10, 28; compare: nos in castra properabamus, quae aberant bidui, idem Epistulae ad Atticum 5, 16 at the end; and: hic locus aequo fere spatio ab castris Ariovisti et Caesaris aberat, Caesar's Bellum Gallicum 1, 43, 1: terrae ab hujusce terrae, quam nos incolimus, continuatione distantes, Cicero's De Deorum Naturâ 2, 66, 164: non amplius pedum milibus duobus ab castris castra distabant, Caesar's Bellum Civile 1, 82, 3; compare idem ibidem, 1, 3, 103.—With adverbs: annos multos longinque ab domo bellum gerentes, Ennius in Nonius Marcellus 402, 3 (Tragoediae v. 103 Joannes Vahlen): cum domus patris a foro longe abesset, Cicero's Oratio pro M. Caelio 7, 18 at the end; compare: qui fontes a quibusdam praesidiis aberant longius, Caesar's Bellum Civiles 3, 49, 5: quae procul erant a conspectu imperi, Cicero's Orationes de Lege Agrariâ 2, 32, 87; compare: procul a castris hostes in collibus constiterunt, Caesar's Bellum Gallicum 5, 17, 1: and: tu procul a patria Alpinas nives vides, Vergil's Eclogae 10, 46 (procul often also with simple ablative; see procul): cum esset in Italia bellum tam prope a Sicilia, tamen in Sicilia non fuit, Cicero's Actio in Verrem 2, 5, 2, § 6; compare: tu apud socrum tuam prope a meis aedibus sedebas, idem Oratio in Pisonem 11, 26; and: tam prope ab domo detineri, idem Actio in Verrem 2, 2, 3, § 6.—So in Cæsar and Livy, with numerals to designate the measure of the distance: onerariae naves, quae ex eo loco ab milibus passuum octo vento tenebatur, eight miles distant, Caesar's Bellum Gallicum 4, 22, 4; and without mentioning the terminus a quo: ad castra contenderunt, et ab milibus passuum minus duobus castra posuerunt, less than two miles off or distant, idem ibidem 2, 7, 3; so idem ibidem 2, 5, 32; 6, 7, 3; idem Bellum Civile 1, 65; Titus Livius 38, 20, 2 (for which: duo milia fere et quingentos passus ab hoste posuerunt castra, idem 37, 38, 5).—3. To denote the side or direction from which an object is viewed in its local relations,=a parte, at, on, in: utrum hacin feriam an ab laevâ latus? Ennius in Plautus' Cistellaria 3, 10 (Tragedy v. 38 Joannes Vahlen); compare: picus et cornix ab laevâ, corvos, parra ab dexterâ consuadent, Plautus' Asinaria 2, 1, 12: clamore ab ea parte audito, on this side, Caesar's Bellum Gallicum 3, 26, 4: Gallia Celtica attingit ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum, on the side of the Sequani, i.e. their country, idem ibidem 1, 1, 5: pleraque Alpium ab Italiâ sicut breviora ita arrectiora sunt, on the Italian side, Titus Livius 21, 35, 11: non eadem diligentiâ ab decumanâ portâ castra munita, at the main entrance, Caesar's Bellum Gallicum 3, 25 at the end: erat a septentrionibus collis, on the north, idem ibidem 7, 83, 2; so, ab oriente, a meridie, ab occasu; a fronte, a latere, a tergo, etc. (see these words).

II. Figuratively. A. In time. 1. From a point of time, without reference to the period subsequently elapsed. After: Exul ab octava Marius bibit, Junius Juvenalis 1, 49: mulieres jam ab re divinâ adparebunt domi, immediately after the sacrifice, Plautus' Poenulus 3, 3, 4: Caesar ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum cornu profectus, Caesar's Bellum Gallicum 2, 25, 1: ab hac contione legati missi sunt, immediately after, Titus Livius 24, 22, 6; compare idem 28, 33, 1: 40, 47, 8; 40, 49, 1 others: ab eo magistratu, after this office, Sallustius Crispus' Jugurtha 63, 5: a summâ spe novissima exspectabat, after the greatest hope, Tacitus' Annales 6, 50 at the end.—Strengthened by the adverbs primum, confestim, statim, protinus, or the adjective recens, immediately after, soon after: ut primum a tuo digressu Romam veni, Cicero's Epistulae ad Atticum 1, 5, 4; so Suetonius' Tiberius 68: confestim a proelio expugnatis hostium castris, Livius' 30, 36, 1: statim a funere, Suetonius' Julius Caesar 85; and followed by statim: ab itinere statim, idem ibidem 60: protinus ab adoptione, Velleius Paterculus 2, 104, 3: Homerus qui recens ab illorum aetate fuit, soon after their time, Cicero's De Deorum Naturâ 3, 5; so Terentius Varro's De Re Rusticâ 2, 8, 2; Vergil's Aeneis 6, 450 others (see also primum, confestim, etc.)—Sometimes with the name of a person or place, instead of an action: ibi mihi tuae litterae binae redditae sunt tertio abs te die, i. e. after their departure from you, Cicero's Epistulae ad Atticum 5, 3, 1: in Italiam perventum est quinto mense a Carthagine Novâ i. e. after leaving (=postquam a Carthagine profecti sunt), Livius 21, 38, 1: secundo Punico (bello) Scipiones classis XL. die a securi navigavit, i. e. after its having been built, Plinius 16, 39, 74 § 192.—Hence the poetic expression: ab his, after this (compare ἐκ τούτων), i. e. after these words, hereupon, Ovid's Metamorphoses 3, 273; 4, 329; 8, 612; 9, 764.

2. With reference to a subsequent period. From, since, after: ab horâ tertiâ bibebatur, from the third hour, Cicero's Orationes Philippicae in M. Antonium 2, 41: infinito ex tempore, non ut antea, ab Sullâ et Pompeio consulibus, since the consulship of, idem Orationes de Lege Agrariâ, 2, 21, 56: vixit ab omni aeternitate, from all eternity, idem De Divinatione ad M. Brutum 1, 51, 115: cum quo a condiscipulatu vivebat conjunctissime, Cornelius Nepos' Atticus 5, 3: in Lycia semper a terrae motu XL. dies serenos esse, after an earthquake, Pliny 2, 96, 98 § 211 others: centesima lux est haec ab interitu P. Clodii, since the death of, Cicero's Oratio pro Milone 35, 98; compare: cujus a morte quintus hic et tricesimus annus est, idem De Senectute 6, 19; and: ab incenso Capitolio illum esse vigesumum annum, since, Sallustius Crispus' Catilina 47, 2: diebus triginta, a quâ die materia caesa est, Caesar's Bellum Civile 1, 36—Sometimes joined with usque and inde: quod augures omnes usque ab Romulo decreverunt, since the time of, Ciceros' Oratio in Vatinium 8, 20: jam inde ab infelici pugnâ ceciderant animi, from the very beginning of, Livy 2, 65 at the end.—Hence the adverbial expressions ab initio, a principio, a primo, at, in, or from the beginning, at first; see initium, principium, primus. Likewise ab integro, anew, afresh; see integer.—Ab ... ad, from (a time) ... to: ab horâ octavâ ad vesperum secreto collocuti sumus, Cicero's Epistulae ad Atticum 7, 8, 4; compare: cum ab horâ septimâ ad vesperum pugnatum sit, Caesar's Bellum Gallicum 1, 26, 2; and: a quo tempore ad vos consules anni sunt septigenti octoginta unus, P. Velleius Peterculus 1, 8, 4; and so in Plautus strengthened by usque: pugnata pugnast usque a mane ad vesperum, from morning to evening, Plautus' Amphitruo 1, 1, 97; idem Mostellaria 3, 1, 3; 3, 2, 80.—Rarely ab ... in: Romani ab sole orto in multum diei stetere in acie, from ... till late in the day, Livy 27, 2, 9; so Columella 2, 10, 17; Pliny 2, 31, 31, § 99; 2, 103, 106, § 229; 4, 12, 26, § 89.

b. Particularly with nouns denoting a time of life: qui homo cum animo inde ab ineunte aetate depugnat suo, from an early age, from early youth, Plautus' Trinummus 2, 2, 24; so Cicero's De Officiis 2, 13, 44 others: mihi magna cum eo jam inde a pueritiâ fuit semper familiaritas, Terrentius Afer's Heautontimorumenos 1, 2, 9; so, a pueritiâ, Cicero's Tusculanae Disputationes 2, 11, 27 at the end; idem Epistulae ad Familiarem 5, 8, 4: jam inde ab adulescentiâ, Terence Afer's Adelphia 1, 1, 16: ab adulescentiâ, Cicero's De Re Publicâ 2, 1: jam a primâ adulescentiâ, idem Epistulae ad Familiarem 1, 9, 23: ab ineunte adulescentiâ, idem ibidem 13, 21, 1; compare followed by ad: usque ad hanc aetatem ab ineunte adulescentiâ,


^ Otto Ribbeck (1827-1898), editor of Vergil and of the Scenicae Romanorum Poësis Fragmenta, and author of a Brief Treatise on the Latin Particles.

^ Joannes Vahlen (1830-1911) editor of the Fragments of Ennius, Lucilius, etc.

This work was published before January 1, 1929, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.

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