A Manchu Grammar

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A


MANCHU GRAMMAR,


WITH


ANALYSED TEXTS,


BY


P.G. VON MÖLLENDORFF,

Chinese Customs Service.



SHANGHAI:

Printed at the American Presbyterian Mission Press.


1892.

G

TABLE OF CONTENTS.





Page.
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v.
I.—Phonology.
1.
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vi.
2.
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3.
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4.
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II.—Etymology.
1.
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2.
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3.
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4.
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5.
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6.
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7.
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8.
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III.—Syntax
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53

Introduction




There is as yet no grammar of the Manchu language in English. Wylie's translation of Tsing Wan Ki Mung (清文啟蒙), Shanghai, 1855, a kind of Manchu hand-book for the use of Chinese, though useful and full of interest, is by no means a grammar.

The general interest taken in ever language will, of course, be also extended to Manchu; still a few words seem necessary to show the particular usefulness of its study.

There exist in all about 250 works in Manchu, nearly all of which are translations from the Chinese. They consist of translations from the Classics, some historical and metaphysical works, literary essays, collections of famous writers, novels. poetry, laws and regulations, Imperial edicts, dictionaries, phrase books, etc. Most of these translations are excellent, but they are all literal. Executed under the eyes of intelligent princes, they form a reliable expression of the meaning of the Chinese text and have therefore a right to acceptance equal to that enjoyed by commentaries of good writers. Manchu being infinitely easier to learn than Chinese, these translations are a great help towards obtaining a clear insight into Chinese syntax, and scholars like Stanislas Julien, who owed the remarkable precision in his renderings to his knowledge of Manchu, have repeatedly pointed this out. In a letter addressed to Dr. Legge he alludes to the study of Manchu as being of great assistance in translating the Classics. Dr Legge, however, in the preface to his translation of the Shuking, pronounced himself against it. The reasons advanced by this great scholar are not very cogent, and, in fact, not knowing the language, he was hardly competent to judge. But, even if he were right, others may be in a different position. Dr. Legge was perhaps more fortunate or more gifted than most people and had a thorough mastery of Chinese at the time when St. Julien wrote to him. Those who find Chinese more difficult will be inclined to consider the Manchu translations a great help.

This grammar being intended for the practical purpose of guiding the student in learning to read Manchu works, not of translating into Manchu, everything foreign to the aim is left out, especially all information which properly belongs to the sphere of the dictionary.

Shanghai, February, 1892.

P.G. von Möllendorff.

THE ALPHABET.

When alone. In the beginning of a word. In the middle of a word. At the end of a word.
a ᠠ‍᠊ ᠊ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ
e
when followed by n in the beginning of a word, a space is left to distinguish it from a: ᡝ᠊ᠨ᠊ en ᠠ᠊ a
ᡝ᠊ ᠊ᡝ᠊ ᠊ᡝ
i ᡳ᠊ ᠊ᡳ᠊ ᠊ᡳ
o ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ see b
u ᡠ᠊ ᠊ᡠ᠊ ᠊ᡠ
ū ᡡ᠊ ᠊ᡡ᠊ ᠊ᡡ
n
ᠨ᠊ ᠊ᠨ᠋᠊ ᠊ᠨ ‍᠊ᠨ᠌ like final a, but a vowel preceding shows that it must be n.
k
ᡴ‍᠊ when followed by a, o, ū
when followed by e, i, u
᠊ᡴ᠊ ᠊ᡴ᠋᠊
᠊ᡴ
g
ᡤ᠊ when followed by a, o, ū
when followed by e, i, u
᠊ᡤ᠊
᠊‍ᡬ‍᠊



h
ᡥ᠊ when followed by a, o, ū
when followed by e, i, u
᠊ᡥ᠊ ᠊‍ᡭ‍᠊


b
ᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪ the downstroke is longer than that of o.
p
ᡦ᠊ ᠊ᡦ᠊
s
ᠰ᠊ ᠊ᠰ᠊ ᠊ᠰ
š
ᡧ᠊ ᠊ᡧ᠊
t
ᡨ᠋᠊ foll. by a, ᡨ᠌᠊ foll. by e, ᠊ᡨ᠋᠊ ta, ᠊ᡨ᠍᠊ te, ᠊᠊ᡨ᠌᠊ after a vowel and before a consonant. ᠊ᡨ
d
ᡩ᠊ foll. by a, ᡩ᠋᠊ foll. by e, ᠊ᡩ᠋᠊ da, ᠊ᡩ᠊ de
l
ᠯ᠊ ᠊ᠯ᠊ ᠊ᠯ
m
ᠮ᠊ ᠊ᠮ᠊ ᠊ᠮ
c
ᠴ᠊ ᠊ᠴ᠊
j
ᠵ᠊ ᠊ᠵ᠊
y
ᠶ᠊ ᠊ᠶ᠊
r

᠊ᡵ᠊ ᠊ᡵ
f
ᡶ‍᠊ foll. by a or e ᡶ᠋‍᠊ foll by other vowels. ‍᠊ᡶ‍᠊ foll. by a or e, ᠊ᡶ᠋‍᠊ foll. by other vowels
w
ᠸ᠊ foll. by a or e ᠊ᡶ᠋‍᠊ foll. by a or e
For transcribing Chinese syllables:—

ᠺ᠊, gʽ ᡬ᠊, hʽ ᡭ᠊, tsʽ ᡮ᠊, ts ᡮᡟ, dz , ž ᡰ᠊, sy (四) ᠰᡟ, cʽy (勅) ᡱᡳ, jy (智) ᡷ᠊ᡳ,

ng

᠊ᠩᡤ‍᠊ (a) ᠊ᠩᡤᡝ᠊ (e) ᠊ᠩ

I. Phonology.

1. Alphabet.

Manchu writing consists of 34 elements, viz., 6 vowels, 18 essentially Manchu consonants and 10 marks specially intended for rendering of Chinese syllables (vide Table).

The 6 vowels are a, e (ä), i, o, u, ū, (not ō as generally represented).[1]

The 18 consonants are k, g, h, n, b, p, s, š, t, d, l, m, c, j, y, r, f, w.

The 10 marks are kʽ, gʽ, hʽ, tsʽ, ts, dz, ž, sy, cʽy, jy.[2]

k, g, h, t, d have two forms, one when followed by a, o, ū, the other when followed by e, i, u.

o in the middle or at the end of words may be doubled and then stands for oo or ao.

If u or ū is followed by a or e, w is placed between them: juwe (two) pronounced jue.

If a vowel is followed by i, the latter is doubled, except at the end of a word.

No word commences with r, nor with two or more consonants.

t after a vowel and before a consonant, or at the end of a word, is written like on.

To distinguish f from w, the rule is: at the beginning of a word w occurs only when followed by a or e. F before a and e has an additional stroke at the right.

Manchu is written from top to bottom, the lines following from left to right.[3]


Pronunciation.

Many of the Manchu words are now pronounced with some Chinese peculiarities of pronunciation, so k before i and e=chʽ, g before i and e=ch, h and s before i=hs, etc. H before a, o, u, ū, is the guttural Scotch or German ch.

n is the ordinary sonorous liquid; only as initial, when followed by iya, iye, iyo, io, it is pronounced like ny: e.g. niyalma man=nyalma; niyengniyeri spring=nyingnyiri; niolhon smooth=nyolhon (Radloff, Phonetik, p. 162).

š=sh; c=ch in Chinese; j=j in judge; y when initial=y in yonder.

a, i, o, u, ū as in German.

e=ä, ö; e.g. ejen master, Tungusic äjän; inenggi day, Tung. inägî; elgembi to lead, Tung. ölgöjäm; edun wind, Tung. ödyn.

i=i, y (=Russian ы); hali meadow=Tung. kowyr.

y with an e before and after, is not pronounced: beye bod=bee (bēö). Nor is it heard between i and a, or i and e.

ž=j in jardin.

The accent lies always on the last syllable, the same as in Mongolian.


2. Harmony of Vowels.

Manchu writing distinguishes 6 vowels; there are, however, in reality eight, which all occur in stem syllables: a, ä, o, ö, y, i, u, ü. As regards long and short vowels u only has two separate signs.

These 8 vowels are divided[4] into the following groups:—

4 guttural a o y u
4 palatal ä ö i ü
4 dental a ä y i
4 labial o u ö ü
2 dento-guttural a y
2 labio-guttural o u
2 dento-palatal ä i
2 labio-palatal ö ü
4 wide vowels a o ä ö according to the degree of widening or narrowing in inner organs of speech.
4 narrow vowels y u i ü

The harmony of vowels consists in a certain attraction of vowels physiologically related to each other; in accordance with it a vowel can only be followed by a corresponding one. All the Altaic languages show this peculiarity, the Turkish dialects the most, the Tungusic and Manchu the least. Within stems this harmony of vowels is of interest only to the philologist, but as most of the affixes in Manchu offer the choice between 2 or even 3 vowels (e.g. ha, ho, he; la, le; hon, hun, hūn), a few rules are necessary to show which vowels should be used.

  1. Stems terminating in a, e or o, take the same vowel in the affix: sula-ha left behind; mute-re being able to; tokto-ho fixed. Exceptions are given under “Verbs.”
    For affixes in on, un, ūn (hon, hun, hūn): stems in which a or o occurs twice, or those having i and a, take sometimes ū: yada-hūn poor; šoyos-hūn folded.
  2. Stems of one syllable, terminating in i or u, take mostly e: bi-he was; ku-he rotten. With one of the affixes on, un, ūn: his-hūn bashful.
  3. Stems of several syllables terminating in i or u, with a, u, ū, or oo preceding, take mostly a: mari-ha returned; jabu-ha answered; tumi-kan somewhat frequent; gūni-ha thought; kooli-ngga customary. An exception appears to be: ashū-re will refuse. Of affixes in on, un, ūn: tali-hūn doubtful; miosi-hūn or hon wrong.
  4. Stems of several syllables terminating in i or u, with e preceding, take e: julesi-ken a little forward; tebu-ngge laying down; of affixes in on, un, ūn: wesi-hun upper; etu-hun strong.
  5. Stems having u repeated, take mostly e, but sometimes a: uku-he accompanied; ulu-ken a little wrong; but usu-kan a little uncommon.
  6. Stems terminating in u with i preceding, take mostly a: bišu-kan a little smooth; but also e: kiru-re will be in heat.
  7. Stems in u and ū, take mostly a: mukū-ha breathed in.
  8. Stems with two i, take mostly a: ili-ha stood; but also e: iji-re will weave.

The exceptions for the verbal affixes ha, ra, will be given in extenso under “Verbs.”

If two or more affixes are used, the vowel of the first determines the vowels of the others.

The difference between wide and narrow vowels is also used to express the difference of gender, e.g.:—

a male principle (陽 yang) e female principle (陰 yin).
ama father. eme mother.
amha father-in-law. emhe mother-in-law.
haha man. hehe woman, etc.

3. Diphthongs and Triphthongs.

In these the rules of vowel harmony are not perceptible:

a may be followed by i, o: ai, ao; e by i, o: ei, eo; i by a, e, i, o, u: ia, ie, ii, io, iu; o by i, o: oi, oo; u by a, e, i, o: ua, ue, ui, uo; ū by a, e, i, o: ūa, ūe, ūi, ūo.

Triphthongs are ioa, ioo, io(w)an, io(w)en, ioi, i(y)ao.

Of the above oo stands for ao or ū; ioo for Chinese yao (); io(w)an, io(w)en for uan, üan; ioi for ü, i(y)oo for iao.


4. Word-changes and Foreign Words.

Vowels are often dropped:

  1. in the middle of words: tofohon fifteen, pronounced tofhon; ilha flower from ilaha; utha hunt—butaha; hojhon son-in-law—hojihon; ufhi part—ufuhi; gelhun fear—gelehun; narša niggard—naraša; cirku pillow—ciruku from cirumbi; forgon or forhon season—forohon, etc.
  2. in combination of two words: ertele till here—ere tele, emderi at the same time—emu derei; emuršu simple—emu ursu; erse such—ere se; ergi this side—ere gi; inenggishūn noon—inenggi sahūn; dergi upper—dere gi; baitakū unemployed—baita akū; memema step-father—meme ama; aba where?—ai ba; amargi behind—ama ergi, alimbaharakū inexpressible—alime baraha akū.

A final n, not being part of the root, is dropped in combinations: kumuda musician—kumun da; ilase three years—ilan se; daniyartu a mythological animal—daniyan artu, or transformed in m before b: dulimba middle—dulin ba.

K and h, g and h sometimes interchange: emekeemhe mother-in-law; julgejulehe formerly.

Foreign words in Manchu are mostly Chinese and Mongol. The latter, like gobi desert, sain good, have been taken over without change and are difficult to recognize as foreign.

In the beginning of Manchu literature Chinese words were:—

  1. borrowed without change, new words for new idea: ging (京, 經, 更), gung (公, 宮, 功, 工), wang (王), even when an original Manchu word existed: liyo hūwang (硫黃 liu huang sulphur) instead of hurku; funghūwang (鳳凰 fêng huang phœnix) instead of garudai. It has been calculated that one-third of the Manchu dictionary consists of Chinese words thus borrowed.
  2. with slight change in the termination: ging-gulembi to honour from 敬 (ching).
  3. with an addition explanatory of the meaning: gin liyan ilha (金蓮 chin lien lotus, ilha flower) lotus; ingturi or ingtoro cherry from 櫻 ying cherry with turi bean or toro (桃 tʽao) peach.

Other similarities seem to point to more ancient loans: fi brush (筆 pi), fafun law (法 fa); dulefun degree (度 tu); kemun measure (刻 kʽe). These may, however, originally spring from the same root (compare e.g. kemun with Jakutic käm measure).

Manchu words cannot begin with r (Buddhist works contain some transliterated Sanscrit words commencing with r) or ū (ūlet is Mongol). They generally terminate in vowels or n. Final r, k, and s is only found in onomatopoetic words like kacar kicir, kafur, kalar kilir, etc., cik cak, tok, katak kitik, kas kis. Words with final m, l, or t, are foreign: serim name of a place, serekul town in Turkestan, mandal Mongol word, a place where scared rites are practiced ūlet is a Mongol name.

Some few words terminate in b: tob right, cob mountain peak, kab kib, cib cab. The ending ng, if not onomatopoetic as in ang, cing cang, cung, etc., shows Chinese origin.

II. Etymology.

The words of Manchu language may be divided into: 1. nouns and adjectives, 2. pronouns, 3. numerals, 4. verbs, 5. adverbs, 6. postpositions, 7. conjunctions, 8. interjections.


1. Nouns and adjectives I treat together, as they have many terminations in common and as many adjectives may be used as nouns and vice versa.

The terminations for nouns are:—

  1. vowels: abka heaven, muke water, kesi favour, olo hemp, huncu sledge, boo house, buhū stag.
  2. n: morin horse, banin nature.
  3. ka, ko, ku, kū, ho, indicating mostly names of instruments and utensils: ujika, bow case; oboko washing basin; hujuku bellows; forikū drum; corho funnel; but also tacikū school.
  4. ha, he, ge, han, hen, gan, gen, gon: sujaha tent peg; suhe, suhen commentary, nedege news; hūsihan petticoat; hūrgan large net; turigen wages; bodogon intention.
  5. ba: hondoba whip lash; dulimba middle.
  6. bun: ulabun tradition.
  7. si, ci, cin: yafasi gardener; aduci herdsman; jacin second of two brothers.
  8. ra, re, ri, ro, ru, ran, ren, ron: jamaran quarrel; tohoro circle, wheel; heturen cross beam.

The terminations for nouns and adjectives are:—

  1. nggi: inenggi day; etenggi strong.
  2. hiyan, hiyen: acuhiyan slander, calumnious.
  3. hon, hun, hūn, shun, shūn: etuhun power, mighty; ijishūn compliance, compliant.
  4. sun: hūwaliyasun harmony, peaceful.
  5. tu, tun: iletu appearance, clear; iletun sign.
  6. ki, hi, hin: jabšaki luck, lucky; hūlhi stupid; aduhi leather trowsers; lekerki, lekerhi, lekerhin seal.
  7. cu, cun: suilacun anxiety, anxious.
  8. la, lo, le, lan, lon, len: fangkala low; dorolon ceremony.
  9. ju, ji: boihoju terrestrial, spirit of the earth; jiduji quite right; boigoji landlord.

The terminations for adjectives are:—

  1. ngga, nggo, ngge, nggū: moringga riding, doronggo regular; ambalinggū (o) earnest.
  2. (n) ingge: niyalmaingge human.
  3. su, da, do, de: gelesu timid; ubiyada hated.
  4. buru, cuka, cuke: hataburu, hatacuka odious; ferguwecuke wonderful.
  5. saka: ekisaka silent.

Diminutives and augmentatives are formed with the affixes kan, kon, ken, gan, gen, liyan, liyen, cen, si: ambakan somewhat large; biragan a small river; olhokon a little dry; gelfiyeken a little pale; adaliliyan somewhat similar; ambakaliyan a little big; isheliyen rather narrow; suhecen a small axe; ambakasi somewhat big.

Adjectives are transformed into nouns by adding urse (者): tacire urse (學者) the students, the scholars; or by adding ba (place): amba ba greatness.

The plural of nouns (adjectives remain unchanged) is formed:—

  1. by the affixes sa, se, si, so, ta, da, te, ri. These are simply added to the word; a final n (not being part of the root) is dropped (hafanhafasa); but han emperor—hansa. Jui loses final i: juse; omolo final lo: omosi. Thus šabi—šabisa; age, agese; aha—ahasi; monggo—monggoso; ama—amata; eme—emete; mafa—mafari. Some nouns use several affixes: urun—urusa and uruse; agu—agusa and aguse; nakču—nakčusa, nakčuse, and nakčuta; gioro or gioru—gioroso and gioruse; sargan—sargata and sargada.
  2. by repeating the noun: se se years.
  3. by adding numeral terms or words denoting plurality. These are:
    • Placed before the noun: tanggū hundred, e.g. tanggū hala (百姓) the hundred family names, the people; tumen ten thousand (萬), e.g. tumen jaka things, all things; geren all, e.g. geren niyalma all men; the latter is also used in combination with plural forms: geren ambasa hafasa the officials.
    • Placed after the noun: gemu all, e.g. bayan gemu the rich; tome all, e.g. niyalma tome men, all men; jergi rank (等), e.g. gurgu jergi the animals; urse (者) follows chiefly adjectives or participles, e.g. bayan urse the rich; tacire urse the scholars, but does not always denote plurality.
Combinations of nouns with other affixes: i, ni; de; be; ci.
  1. I, ni. I is placed after words terminating in a vowel or in n; ni follows words terminating in a consonant other than n. After words ending in i (words of Chinese origin excepted) the i may be left out.

    This affix denotes:

    1. the genitive case or possession, origin, habitation, part, intention with which a thing is done (之), e.g. boo i ejen the master of the house; abkai ejen the Lord of Heaven, God (天主); irgen i urse those of the people; urgun i doro the ceremony of congratulation.
    2. instrumentality (以), e.g. suhe i with an axe.
    3. an adverbial expression (然), e.g. fafun i legally.

    Sometimes the i is left out, e.g. gūnin sukdun the spirit of thought, i.e. energy; siden haha a supernumerary. The first noun is in such cases employed like an adjective.

    Of several nouns dependent on one, only the last of the dependent nouns takes the affix, e.g. ama jui i boo the house or houses of the son and of the father. Ama i jui i boo means the houses of the son of the father.

  2. De denotes the situation (in, at), the direction (towards, upon, on), the address (to), the remaining with, according to, the locative and the dative: gurun de in the empire, towards the empire; hoton de in or to the town; doron de according to custom, solemnly; na de on earth; ere niyalma de bumbi to give to this (ere) man (niyalma); tere niyalma de henduhe he spoke with that man; dere de sindambi to place on the table; si aibide genembi where (aibide) are you (si) going to? tuware de ja gojime yabure de mangga though (gojime) easy (ja) to look at (tuware de), it is difficult (mangga) to perform (yabure de); niyalma de it is for man to; abka de it is for heave to (hominis est, cœli est); juwe de gemu sartabure de isinambi to come to (isinambi) delaying (sartabure de) altogether (gemu) in either (juwe de) "雨下裡都至於躭攔" ; gemu like thi Chinese 都 tu is here expletive.
  3. Be denotes the direct complement of the verb, the accusative, e.g. baita de gaimbi to take a thing; erdemui beyebe dasambi by virtue we cultivate the body (beye be ourselves). Be is sometimes used as an expletive, e.g. hūwasabukū mutebukū tacikū tacihiyakū be ilibufi tacibume. hūwasabukū serengge ujire be tacihiyakū serengge tacibure be mutebukū serengge gabtabure be, establish (ilibufi) colleges, academies, schools and gymnasia for the instruction (tacibume) of the people. A college is for nourishment, an academy (and a school) for instruction, a gymnasium for archery (Mencius, Gabelentz p. 90, Legge p. 118). This use of be might be explained as an ellipsis, a verb like to give (bumbi) or to teach (tacimbi) being understood. It may be left out, if the sentence is otherwise clear, e.g. bithe arambi to write a letter.
  4. Ci is the sign of the ablative case (from, out of), denotes separation and is used in comparisons, e.g. ereci amasi henceforward; daci dubede isitala from beginning to end; ubaci goro akū not far from this; ama eniye ci fakcafi, booci aljafi inenggi goidaha taking leave of his father and mother, he was long separated from his family; yaci nenenme jihe bihe which came first?

    It serves to form the comparative, e.g. minci amba bigger than myself.

2. Pronouns.
  1. Personal pronouns.
    bi I, si thou, i he (tere that), be we, muse we, suwe you, ce they. Muse means (like the Pekingese 咱們 tsa men) we that are speaking together, we that belong to one family, one clan, one nation. The above are declined as follows:—
    nom. bi I be we muse we si thou suwe you i he, she, it ce they
    gen. mini meni musei sini suweni ini ceni
    dat. minde mende musede sinde suwende inde cende
    acc. mimbe membe musebe simbe suwembe imbe cembe
    abl. minci menci museci sinci suwenci inci cenci.
    For I, myself, etc., beye is added to the genitive: mini beye, sini beye, etc. For he himself ini beye or gūla beye is used.
  2. Possessive Pronouns. These are formed by adding ngge to the genitive of the personal pronouns: miningge mine, siningge thine, etc. Often the genitive without ngge is thus employed: meni morin our horse. Ere this, tere that frequently stand for the third person: terei gūnin his opinion; eseingge theirs, belonging to them.
  3. Demonstrative Pronouns. These are ere this, tere that:—
    nom. ere this ese these tere that tese those
    gen. erei, ereni esei terei tesei
    dat. ede, erede esede tede, terede tesede
    acc. erebe esebe terebe tesebe
    abl. ereci eseci tereci teseci
    If used as adjectives, ere and tere do not add the case affixes. Sometimes uba this and tuba that are used, but always alone, not in combination with nouns.
  4. Interrogative Pronouns. These are we (gen. wei, dat. wede, acc. webe, abl. weci) who? ai (acc. aimbe, abl. ainci) what? which? ya who? what? With we are formed weingge, weike which? of what nature? With ai: aibi, ai gese, aiba what? ai yadare how much? aba where? etc. With ya: yaci who? what? yaka how? At the end of interrogative sentences it is common to append ni or o, e.g. marimbio shall I back out? When following the future participle in ra (re, ro) o sometimes implies a request: mindehūlabureo do cause me to study! (hūlambi to study, hūlabumbi passive or causative, hūlabure future participle)
  5. Indefinite Pronouns: aika, aimaka somebody, ya everybody, yamaka whoever, etc.


3. Numerals.

  1. The cardinal numbers are:—
    1 emu, emke
    2 juwe
    3 ilan
    4 duin
    5 sunja
    6 ninggun
    7 nadan
    8 jakūn
    9 uyun
    10 juwan
    11 juwan emu
    12 juwan juew
    13 juwan ilan
    14 juwan duin
    15 tofohon
    16 juwan ninggun, etc
    20 orin
    21 orin emu, etc
    30 gusin
    40 dehi
    50 susai
    60 ninju
    70 nadanju
    80 jakūnju
    90 uyunju
    100 tanggū
    101 tanggū emu
    200 juwe tanggū
    300 ilan tanggū, etc.
    1000 minggan
    10000 tumen
    100000 juwan tumen
    1000000 tanggū tumen
    The higher numerals (up to 100 trillions buju baja) are not originally Manchu, but were introduced into Buddhist works in imitation of Tibetan numerals which again were originally Sanscrit.
  2. The Ordinal Numerals are formed by adding ci to the cardinals, dropping a final n except in juwan ten and tumen ten thousand, in which two the n is part of the root: The first uju, ujui, ujuci, tuktan, emuci, the very first ujui uju, niongnio, bonggo. The second jai, jaici, juweci.
    The third ilaci
    The fourth duici
    The fifth sunjaci
    The sixth ningguci
    The seventh nadaci
    The eighth jakūci
    The ninth uyuci
    The tenth juwanci
    The eleventh juwan emuci
    The hundredth tanggūci
    The thousandth minggaci
    The ten thousandth tumenci.
  3. Distributive Numerals are formed by adding ta, te, to, to the cardinals, final n being dropped as with the ordinal numerals (except in juwan 10 and tumen 10000).
    one by one emte (for emute)
    by twos juwete
    by threes itata
    by fours duite
    by fives sunjata
    by sixes ninggute
    by sevens nadata
    by 8 jakūta
    by 9 uyute
    by 10 juwanta
    by 15 tofohoto
    by 20 orita
    by 30 gūsita
    by 40 dehite
    by 50 susaita.
    by 60 ninjute.
    by 70 nadanjuta (te).
    by 80 jakūnjute.
    by 90 uyunjute.
    by 100 tanggūta.
    by 1000 minggata.
    by 10000 tumente.
    by several udute.
  4. Fractional numerals: dulin, dulga, andala, tubi, dulimba, hontoho half; 1/4 duin ci emu; 1/3 ilan ci emu.
  5. Multiplicative Numerals are formed by adding ubu or rsu (ursu) to the cardinals with elision of final n (except as above in juwan and tumen):
    • single emursu, emu ubu;
    • double jursu, juwe ubu, ubui: ubui fulu (twice as much), juru, bakcin;
    • threefold ilarsu ilan ubu;
    • ninefold uyursu;
    • hundredfold tanggūrsu.
    With reference to textile fabrics ri is used: ilari threefold, sunjari fivefold, jakūri eightfold.

Other numeral expressions are: gemu both, durbejengge square, with four angles.


4. Verbs.

There are in Manchu pure verbal stems of one and more syllables lite o to be, ara to write, and verbs derived from nouns and adjectives.

The more common syllables used in case of such derivations are:

  • ta, to, te, da, do, de: gosin humanity--gositambi (also without any insertation: gosi-mbi); jali crafty--jalidambi to cheat.
  • na, no, ne: abdaha a leaf --abdahanambi to leaf; acan union--acanambi to meet.
  • la, le: hiyoošun (孝順) filial piety--hiyoosulambi to treat with filial piety; aba a hunt--abalambi to hunt
  • du, ndu: hiyoošun filial piety--hiyoosundumbi
  • ra, ro, re: gisun word--gisurembi to speak
  • ša, šo, še: injeku merry--injekušembi to laugh at; ddali similar--adalisambi to be similar.

In some cases it is doubtful whether the verb is derived from the noun or whether the latter is of verbal derivation: isan a meeting, isambi to meet; iren the track of fish, irenembi to ruffle the water (as fish do).

There are further syllables which, when added to the stem of verbs form new verbs. These are:

  • ja, mostly reflexive: gūninambi to think, gūninjambi the same; isambi to meet, isamjambi to collect.
  • nu, ndu, mostly cooperative: injembi to laugh, injendumbi to laugh together (injenumbi); arambi to do, arandumbi to do together.
  • ca, co, ce, cooperative and frequentative: injembi to laugh, injecembi to laugh together; dedumbi to sleep, deducembi to sleep together.
  • ji: wambi to kill, wajimbi to die; arambi to do, aranjimbi to come to do.
  • na, no, ne: isimbi to come near, isinambi to arrive.

An accumulation fo these syllables frequently occurs: ijumbi--ijurambi--ijursambi to besmear: abalambi to hunt, abalanambi to go hunting, abalanjimbi to come to the hunt, abalandumbi to hunt together; acambi to meet, acalambi to agree upon, acamjambi to collect, acanambi to meet, acandumbi to meet together, acanjimbi to come to meet.

Moods and Tenses. To express the moods and tenses the Manchu verb has 23 forms.

  1. The stem; the moods and tenses are produced by adding the following affixes to the stem of the verb:--
  2. mbi, 3. me, 4. ha (he, ho, ka, ke, ko, ngka, ngke, ngko), 5. ra (re, ro, ndara, ndere), 6. ci, 7. ki, 8. fi (pi, mpi), 9. mbihe, 10. habi (hebi, hobi, kabi, kebi, kobi), 11. habihe (hebihe, hobihe, kabihe, kebihe, kobihe), 12. habici (hebici, hobici, kabici, kobici); 13. cibe, 14. cina (cun), 15. kini, 16. mbime, 17. mbifi, 18. nggala (nggele, n?ggolo), 19. mbumbi, 20. mbubumbi, 21. ngge, 22. le (lengge), 23. leme (lame).[5]

Of these ha (4), ra (5), habi (10), habihe (11), habici (12), and nggala (18) are subjected to the laws of vowel harmony.

Taking in order the parts of the paradigm arambi to write I will now explain each form.

  1. The stem is ara which at the same time seves as the Imperative: ara write!
  2. By adding mbi we obtain the Present Tense: ara--mbi I write (there being no distinction of persons, this stans for I, thou, he, we, you, they write).
  3. Me added to the stem makes the Infinitve: ara--me to write; this form is also an Indefinite Gerund: writing
  4. The affix ha forms the preterite: ara--ha I wrote. It is also a past participle: written, having written.
  5. The affix ra forms the Future: ara--ra I shall write; it is also a participle: writing, going to write.
  6. Ci makes a Conditional Tense: ara--ci I should write, if I wrote, should I write, sometimes to be translated by the present tense implying a doubt.
  7. Ki forms a Subjunctive of the present: ara--ki may he write.
  8. Fi forms a past Gerund: ara--fi having written, after having written.

The above eight are the fundamental forms; the 15 orthers are formed by adding affixes to them, Those which are added to the stem are:--

  1. Mbihe forming an Imperfect Tense: ara--mbihe I was writing.
  2. Habi forming an Indefinite Past: ara--habi I have written.
  3. Habihe forming a Pluperfetc: ara--habihe I had written.
  4. Habici forming a Past Conditional Tense: ara--habici if I had written.
  5. Cibe forming an Adversative: ara--cibe although I may write, even if I write.
  6. Cina forming a Concessive: ara--cina may he write if he likes, may he write what he likes. An old fomr cun (ara--cun) is found in a translation of the Shiking (Book of Odes).
  7. Kini forming an Optative: ara--kini would that he wrote! Cina and kini are also used in an imperative or passive sense.
  8. Mbime forming a Gerund: ara--mbime whilst writing.
  9. Mbifi forming a Gerund: ara--mbifi having written.
  10. Nggala denotes that at thing has not yet been done: ara--nggala before I wrote, before writing.
  11. Mbumbi formin the Passive or Causative Mood: ara--mbumbi is written, causes to write. This then becomes a new verb, which as an independent stem (arambu) takes all the other affixes.
  12. Mbubumbi forming a Causative of the Passive: ara-mbubumbi causes to be written.

The following affixes are added to the forms in ha (4) and ra (5) :--

  1. Ngge forming Verbal Nouns and Adjectives: ara--ha--ngge, ara--ra--ngge that which is written, the writing; that which he has written; he is writing; he who is writing.
  2. Le adds an indefinite meaning: ara--ha--le, ara--ra--le whoever writes, whatever is written. This affix is originally ele (whoever) and the Chinese-Manchu Grammar Tsing Wen Ki Mung (vol. II, fol. 32 b) is wrong in giving two forms le and la, subjecting them to the law of harmony. This form also takes the affix ngge: ara--ha--le--ngge, ara--ra--le--ngge--whosoever is writing.
  3. lame (leme) added to the future in ra (5) renders the meaning adverbial: ara--ra--lame in the manner of writing.

PARADIGM OF ARAMBI TO WRITE.

1. Imperative ara write!
2. Present Tense arambi I write.
3. Infinitive arame to write.
4. Preterite araha I wrote.
5. Future arara I shall write.
6. Conditional araci should I write.
7. Subjunctive Present araki may he write.
8. Past Gerund arafi having written.
9. Imperfect arambihe I was writing.
10. Indefinite Past arahabi? I have written.
11. Pluperfect arahabihe I had written.
12. Past Conditional arahabici if I had written.
13. Adversative aracibe although he may write.
14. Concessive aracina may he write.
15. Optative arakini would that he wrote.
16. Gerund I. arambime whilst writing.
17. Gerund II. arambifi having written.
18. Gerund III. aranggala before writing.
19. Passive arambumbi it is written.
20. Causative or Passive arambubumbi I cause to be written.
21. Verbal Noun arahangge, ararangge the writing, the writer.
22. Indefinite arahale, ararale whoever writes.
23. Adverbial araralame in the manner of writing.


IRREGULARITIES.

  1. The following verbs have an irregular Imperative:—
    baimbi to request --baisu.
    bimbi to be --bisu.
    gaimbi to receive --gaisu.
    jembi to eat --jefu.
    jimbi to come --jio, ju.
    ombi to become --oso.
    tucimbi to go forth --tusinu
    wasimbi to fall --wasinu
    wesimb ito rise --wesinu
  2. The sign of the Past Tense ha, he, ho, ka, ke, ko, ngka, ngke, ngko, and the sign of the Future ra, re, ro, ndara, ndere, ndoro are subject to the laws of vowel harmony. The general rules are:---
    1. verbs with the stem in a have ha (ka) and ra. Exceptions with ha, re: buktalambi, cihalšambi, cilcilambi, maimašambi, manjurambi, miyoocalambi, nionggalambi, niyakurambi, tungnigambi. With he, ra: derakulambi, faishalambi, sosambi. With ho, ro: morilambi.
    2. verbs with the stem in e have he (ke) and re. Exceptions: siderilembi (ha, re); giyoloršembi (ho, ro).
    3. verbs with the stem in o have ho (ko) and ro. Exceptions: doombi (ha, re); fombi (ha, re); gombi, goha, gondoro; joombi (ha, re); leombi or loombi (ha, re); neombi (he, re); niyaniombi (ha, re); šombi (ha, re); tungniombi (ha, re); yombi, yoha, yoro, yondoro.
    4. verbs in u with a preceding have ha (ka), ra (re). Exception: niyanggumbi (he, re).
    5. verbs in i with a preceding have ha (ka), ra (re). Exception: alanggimbi (he, re).
    6. verbs in i with e preceding have he (ke), re. Exception: kesimbi (ha, re).
    7. verbs in u with e preceding have he (ke), re. Exception: feksimbi (ha, re).

Dakambi forms daha (instead of dahaha), bahambi forms baha.

A number of verbs, however, contrary to the above rules, take ha, ra; ha, re; he re; ho, ro; ka, ra; ka, re; ke, re; ko, ro; ha and ka, ra; ha and ka, re; ha and ke, re; ha and he, re; ha and ko, ro; ke and ho, ro; he and ke, re; ho and ko, ro; ke and ko, ro. It would be to no purpose to give the long lists of these verbs, Sakharoff's Dictionary gives the affixes used by each verb.

The following verbs are only used in the Indefinite Past: abulikabi, abšakabi, bemberekebi, delerekebi, farakabi, feherekebi, giegerekebi, genggerekebi, giyabsarakabi, gūwasakabi, ilmerekebi, jakjarakabi, jerekebi, joholikabi, juyekebi, laifarakabi, lebderekebi, lukdurekebi, werukebi.

The following verbs are found only as participles in ka, ke and ko: fuseke, niyekseke, oyoko, sureke, uldeke, undarako.

Certain verbs form the Preterite in ngka, ngke, ngko, the future in ndara, ndere, ndoro. Other form the Past Gerund in pi, mpi instead of in fi The following liste gives the vergs with these irregualarities, incluyding the verbs already mentioned with irregular Imperatives.


LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS.

Verb. Imperative. Preterite. Future. Past Gerund.
bahambi baha
baimbi baisu baiha baire
bambi bangka bandara
bimbi bisu bihe bisire
bisarambi bisarapi
bombi bongko bore, bondoro infin. bonme
cambi caha, cangka cara cafi
colgorombi colgoroko colgororo colgoropi
dahambi daha
deserembi deserepi
duksembi duksepi
dulembi dulepi
eldembi eldeke eldere eldepi
eyembi eyepi
falarambi falarapi
farambi faraha, faraka farara farapi
febumbi (fembi) febuhe febure fempi
fombi foha fore fompi, condit. fomci
fosombi fosopi
fumbi fungke fumpi
gaimbi gaisu gaiha gaire
gajimbi gaju
gerembi gerehe, gereke gerere, gerendere
gombi goha gondoro
guwembi guwengke guwendere guwempi, cond. guwen
gūmbi gūha gūndere
gūwaliyambi (hū) gūwaliyaka gūwaliyara gūwaliyapi, hūwaliyapi
hafumbi hafuka hafundere hafupi
hatambi hataha hatara, hatandara
juilambi jailaha jailara, jailandara
jaksambi jaksapi
jalambi jalaka jalara, jalandra jalapi
jalumbi jaluka jalura jalupi
jembi jefu jeke, jengke jetere, jendere jempi
jimbi jio, ju jihe jidere
jombi jongko jondoro jompi, cond. jonci, opt. jongki
jumbi jungke jure jumpi, opt. jubki
jurambi jurapi
juwambi juwangka, juwaka juwara, jore juwampi
niorombi nioropi
ombi, oombi oso oho ojoro
sambi sangka sara sampi
sembi sengke sere
sosombi sosoko sosoro sosopi
sumbi sungke, suhe sure
šahūrambi šahūraka šahūrara šahūrapi
šambi šangka, šaha šara
šarambi šarapi
šumbi šungke šure šumpi
teyembi teyehe teyere, teyendere
tucimbi tucinu tucihe, tucike tucire
ukambi ukaha, ukaka ukara, ukandara
wasimbi wasinu wasika, ha wasire
wembi wengke were, wendere wempi, inf. weme
wesimbi wesinu wesike wesire wesipi
yombi yoha yoro, yondoro
yumbi yungke yudere, yundere yumpi


The Verb in the Negative.

Negation is expressed by akū not, is not (無, 不, 未, 沒有), waka not, no (不是), ume (莫) do not, unde not yet, umai not, not at all.

When joined to the Present Tense akū simply follows: bi gisurembi akū I do not speak. With other verbal forms akū loses its a: araha--kū he has not written, genehe--kū he did not go. Joined to the Future the a of akū remains: arar--akū he will not write, gener--akū he will not go. The affixes ci, fi, and ngge follow akū: generakūci if he does not go, akūfi not existing, bisirakūngge those who are not present (不在的). When alone akū takes the regular affixes: bi akūmbi I am not. A double negation often occurs, akūngge akū (無不): serakungge akū nothing unsaid, he says everything.

In interrogative sentences akū adds an n: si sembi akūn will you eat or not?

Waka not, no, is either employed like akū, but without taking the affixes, or stands at the beginning of a sentence and then means no: manju bithe hūlambi wakao do you not study Manchu?

Ume followed by the verb in the Future Tense (ra) expresses prohibition: ume fusikūsara do not despise; ume gunire do not think.

Unde is preceded by the verb in the Future Tense (ra): bi sabure unde I have not yet seen.

5. Adverbs.

Manchu adverbs are either primitive or derived from nouns, pronouns, numerals or verbs.

  1. Primitive Adverbs are indeclinable words like inu yes, coro after to-morrow, etc., of which there are a great number.
  2. Nouns are transformed into Adverbs by the affix i: an-i according to custom; de: doron de solemnly; ci: daci from the beginning, naturally; dari: biyadari monthly. Many adjectives, especially those ending in saka, cuka, cuke may be used as Adverbs.
  3. The Pronouns furnish a great number of Adverbs: aid where?, aibaci wherefrom?, etc.
  4. Most of the Numerals may be used as Adverbs. To the Ordinal Numerals de is added: jaide secondly. Others are formed by adding geri, nggeri, jergi, mudan, mari: emgeri once; ilanggeri thrice; emu mudan, emu mari once. Leme forms multiplicative Adverbs: tumenleme 10000 fold.
  5. The verbal forms in me (arame), mbime (arambime), leme, lame preceded by the verb in the Future Tense (araralame) may all be used as adverbial expressions.
  6. Many Adverbs are formed by adding the negation akū: erin akū never; hercun akū unexpectedly.


6. Postpositions.

These are either simple or compound.

  1. The Simple Postpositions are the case affixes i, de, ci: i with, with the help of: suhe i with the axe; de in, at, on, towards, upon, to: hoton de in or to the town; ci from, out of: boo ci from the house.
  2. The Compound Postpositions follow the noun without any case affix or are preceded by i, de, be, or ci: omoi jakade near the pond; alin de isitala as far as the mountain; fafun be dahame in accordance with the law; julge ci ebsi from antiquity.


7. Conjunctions.

Beside several postpositions being used as Conjunctions like jakade when, because, isitala as soon as, turgunde as, because, etc., there are primitive Conjunctions like uthai therefore, damu but, and derivatives of verbs like cohome consequently, tuwame with regard to, oci (from ombi) if, ocibe although, ofi because, of nouns like fonde at the time when, bade when, of pronouns like aibe......aibe as well as, and of numerals like emgeri......emgeri now... ..now.


8. Interjections.

There is a great variety of Interjections in Manchu: ai ah, ara alas, yaha ah, adada bravo, cibse hush, takasu stop, cu off, etc. A number of onomatepoetic interjections are used as verbs when followed by sembi (to speak): kab snap, kab sembi to snap at; kanggūr kinggur helter-skelter, with sembi to fall with a great noise.


III. Syntax.

The position of words in a sentence is governed by the general rule, that every word precedes that by which it is governed. Thus the genitive stands before the noun on which it depends, e.g. boo i ejen the master of the house.

The adjective, participle, or demonstrative pronoun precedes its noun, e.g. nikan mudan the Chinese pronunciation; mutere baita a thing which can be done; tere niyalma that man.

The object stands before its governing verb, e.g. bithe arambi I write a letter.

The verb stands last in the sentence and can only be followed by a conjunction. The sentence "when I had given that thing to my father yesterday" would be rendered in Manchu: sikse (yesterday) bi (I) mini ama de (to my father) tere (that) baita be (thing) buhabike (pluperfect of bumbi to give) manggi (when).

Subordinate verbs precede the conclusive verb and thake the form of the Past Gerund in fi or the Conditional in ci, e.g. cooha be gaifi amasi bederehe he took (gaifi, Past Gerund of gaimbi) the army (cooha be) and retreated (bederehe, Preterit of bederembi ) backwards (amasi); having collected his army he retreated.

Coordinate verbs standing first in the same sentence take the form of the Infinitive (or Gerund) in me and only the last verb takes the tense affix required, e.g. muse niyalma jalan de banjifi inenggidari jabošome seoleme, beye dubentele kiceme faššame dulekengge be amcame aliyara gosihon babi, we men (muse niyalma) having been born (banjifi, Past Gerund of banjimbi) into the world (jalan de), are daily (inenggidari) afflicted (jobošome, Gerund of jobošombi) and vexed (seoleme, Gerund of seolembi), till the end (dubentele) we fatigue (kiceme, Gerund of kicembi) and exert (faššame, Gerund of faššambi) ourselves (beye), expecting (aliy ara, Future Participle of aliyambi) again and again (amcame) that which is past (dulekengge be) we are really (babi) miserable (gosihon).

The following pages will serve as reading lessons and as exercises for the elucidation of Manchu syntax. The text is taken from the "Tanggū meyen" (Hundred Chapters) a book of Manchu-Chinese dialogues, v. page 10 of my "Essay on Manchu Literature" in Journal of C. B. or R. A. S. vol. xxiv (1890). The Chinese version of these dialogues is familiar to every student of Chinese, as it forms the "Hundred Lessons" in the Tzū-êrh-chi of Sir Thomas Wade, of whose classical English translation I have availed myself. By comparing the Chinese of these dialogues the interesting fact will be noticed that certain peculiarities of Pekingese are Manchuisms foreign to ordinary "Mandarin."


1 2 3 4
ᡩᠣᠨᠵᡳᠴᡳ ᠰᡳ ᡨᡝ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ ᡨᠠᠴᡳᠮᠪᡳ ᠰᡝᠮᠪᡳ᠈ ᡠᠮᡝᠰᡳ ᠰᠠᡳᠨ᠈ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ ᠰᡝᡵᡝᠩᡤᡝ᠈ ᠮᡠᠰᡝᡳ ᡠᠵᡠᡳ ᡠᠵᡠ ᠣᠶᠣᠩᡤᠣ ᠪᠠᡳᡨᠠ᠈ ᡠᡨᡥᠠᡳ ᠨᡳᡴᠠᠰᠠᡳ ᠮᡝᠨᡳ ᠮᡝᠨᡳ ᠪᠠ ᡳ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ ᡳ ᠠᡩᠠᠯᡳ᠈ ᠪᠠᡥᠠᠨᠠᡵᠠᡴᡡᠴᡳ ᠣᠮᠪᡳᠣ᠈

Senior. So I hear you are studying Manchu, eh? that's right. Manchu is with us Manchus the first and foremost of essentials; it is to us, in short, what the language spoken in his own part of the country is to a Chinese; so it would never do to be without a knowledge of Manchu, would it?

donjici, Condit. tense (6) of donjimbi to hear: I hear, but I am not sure, whether it is so

si thou

te now

manju Manchu

bithe book

tacimbi Present Tense (2) to learn

sembi (2) to say, here merely closing the report he heard

umesi very

sain good

manju Manchu

gisun word, speech

serengge Future Part. of sembi to say, namely

musei we, with genitive affix i, of us

manjusai Manchus, gen. plur. sa-i

ujui first, with genitive affix the first of the first
uju first

oyonggo important

baita thing, matter

uthai therefore, it is as

nikasai, pl. of nikan Chinese (nikasa) with gen. affix i of the Chinese

meni meni every

ba place

i genitive affix

gisun word, speech

i genitive affix

adali alike, similar to

bahanarakūci Fut. (5) of bahanambi comprehend, with negation akū and oci Conditional (6) of ombi to be, you should know

ombio Pres. Tense (2) of ombi to be, with interrogative o, will that do?


1 2 3 4
ᡳᠨᡠ ᠸᠠᡴᠠ ᠣᠴᡳ ᠠᡳ᠈ ᠪᡳ ᠵᡠᠸᠠᠨ ᠠᠨᡳᠶᠠ ᡶᡠᠨᠴᡝᠮᡝ ᠨᡳᡴᠠᠨ ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ ᡨᠠᠴᡳᡥᠠ᠈ ᡨᡝᡨᡝᠯᡝ ᡠᠮᠠᡳ ᡩᡠᠪᡝ ᡩᠠ ᡨᡠᠴᡳᡵᠠᡴᡡ᠈ ᠵᠠᡳ ᠠᡳᡴᠠᠪᠠᡩᡝ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ ᡥᡡᠯᠠᡵᠠᡴᡡ᠈ ᡠᠪᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠮᠪᡠᡵᡝ ᠪᡝ ᡨᠠᠴᡳᡵᠠᡴᡡ ᠣᠴᡳ᠈ ᠵᡠᠸᡝ ᡩᡝ ᡤᡝᠮᡠ ᠰᠠᡵᡨᠠᠪᡠᡵᡝ ᡩᡝ ᡳᠰᡳᠨᠠᠮᠪᡳ

Junior. To be sure not. I have been studying Chinese for over ten years, but I am still as far as ever from seeing my way in it. Then if I can't master Manju and learn to translate, I shall have broken down at both ends of the line.

inu yes, indeed

waka not

oci Cond. (6) of ombi to be, it may

ai what?

bi I

juwan ten

aniya year

funceme Inf. (3) of funcembi to exceed, coordinate definite verb followed by taciha: I have exceeded and learned

nikan Chinese

bithe book

taciha Pret. (4) of tacimbi to learn: I have learned

tetele from te now and tele till; up to the present, still

umai not at all

dube point, end, extreme

da beginning dube da the very beginning

tucirakū Fut. (5) of tucimbi to appear, with akū not: it does not appear

jai second, further

aikabade if

manju Manchu

bithe book

hūlarakū Fut. (5) of hūlambi to read, to study, with akū not: shall not study

ubaliyambure Fut. partic. (5) of ubaliyam-bumbi to translate

be accusative affix

tacirakū Fut. (5) of tacimbi to learn with akū not

oci Cond. (6) of ombi to be

juwe de two, with postpos. in

gemu both, alike

sartabure Fut. (5) of sartabumbi to be delayed

de postpos. to

isinambi to arrive


1 2 3 4
ᡨᡠᡨᡨᡠ ᠣᡶᡳ᠈ ᠪᡳ ᡝᠮᡩᡝ ᠣᠴᡳ᠈ ᠠᡤᡝ ᠪᡝ ᡨᡠᠸᠠᠨᠵᡳᡥᠠ᠈ ᠵᠠᡳ ᡩᡝ ᠣᠴᡳ᠈ ᡤᡝᠯᡳ ᠰᠠᡴᡩᠠ ᠠᡥᡡᠨ ᡩᡝ ᠪᠠᡳᡵᡝ ᠪᠠᠪᡳ᠈ ᡩᠠᠮᡠ ᠪᠠᡳᠪᡳ ᠠᠩᡤᠠ ᠵᡠᠸᠠᡵᠠ ᡩᡝ ᠮᠠᠩᡤᠠ᠈ ᡝᡩᡝ ᠠᡳᠪᡳ᠈ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ ᠪᡳᠴᡳ᠈ ᡠᡨᡥᠠᡳ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᡵᡝ᠈ ᠮᡳᠨᡳ ᠮᡠᡨᡝᡵᡝ ᠪᠠᡳᡨᠠ ᠣᠴᡳ᠈ ᠰᡳᠨᡩᡝ ᠪᡳ ᡤᡝᠯᡳ ᠮᠠᡵᠠᠮᠪᡳᠣ᠈

So I am come to-day, sir, in the first place, to pay my respects to you, and, in the next, to ask a favour of you. I find it not so easy to open the subject, however.

Senior. What's your difficulty? pray say what you have got to say. If it's anything that I can do for you, do you suppose that, with the relations existing between us, I shall try to back out?

uttu thus

ofi Past Gerund (8) of ombi to be: having been

emude firstly

oci Cond. (6) of ombi to be

age elder brother, sir

be accusative affix

tuwanjiha Pret. (4) of tuwanjimbi to call (composed of tuwambi to see and jimbi to come)

jaide secondly

oci Cond. (6) of ombi to be

geli also

sakda old, experienced

ahun elder brother

de dative affix

baire Fut. Participle (5) of baimbi to request

babi from ba place, occasion and bi there is

damu but

baibi only

angga mouth

juwara Fut. Part. (5) of juwambi to open

de in

mangga difficult

ede so, then

aibi (from ai what and bi is) what?

gisun word, speech

bici Cond. (6) of bimbi to be: if there are words

uthai then

gisure Imp. (1) of gisurembi to speak

mini (gen of bi I) my

mutere Fut. Part. (5) of mutembi to be able to do

baita matter

oci Cond. (6) of ombi to be

sinde dative of si thou

bi I

geli too

marimbio to turn the head away, to back out, with interrogative o.


1 2 3 4
ᠮᡳᠨᡳ ᠪᠠᡳᡵᡝᠩᡤᡝ᠈ ᠠᡤᡝ ᡤᠣᠰᡳᠴᡳ᠈ ᡧᠠᡩᠠᠮᠪᡳ ᠰᡝᠮᡝ ᠠᡳᠨᠠᡵᠠ᠈ ᡧᠣᠯᠣ ᡧᠣᠯᠣ ᡩᡝ᠈ ᡠᡩᡠ ᠮᡝᠶᡝᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ ᠪᠠᠨᠵᡳᠪᡠᡶᡳ᠈ ᠮᡳᠨᡩᡝ ᡥᡡᠯᠠᠪᡠᡵᡝᠣ᠈ ᡩᡝᠣ ᠪᡳ ᠪᠠᡥᠠᡶᡳ ᡥᡡᠸᠠᡧᠠᠴᡳ᠈ ᡤᡝᠮᡠ ᠠᡤᡝ ᡳ ᡴᡝᠰᡳ ᡴᠠᡳ᠈

Junior. What I have to ask, then, is this: that you will so far take an interest in me as to put yourself to a little trouble on my account; I will tell you how. Find time, if you can, to compose a few phrases in Manchu for me to study, and if I manage to succeed at all, I shall regard it entirely as your work.

mini my

bairengge Fut. Part. (21) of baimbi to request: that which I shall request

age elder brother, sir

gosici Cond. (6) of gosimbi to be kind to

šadambi Present (2) to be (get) tired

seme Inf. or Ger. (3) of sembi to say: saying

ainara Fut. (5) of ainambi to do what?

šolo leisure

šolo leisure

de in

udu several, some

meyen chapter

manju Manchu

gisun word, speech

banjibufi Past Ger. (8) of banjibumbi to create, prepare: having prepared

minde dat. for me

hūlabureo Future (5) of causative of hūlambi to read, to study with o implying a request: please cause me to study

deo younger brother

bi I

bahafi Past Ger. (8) of bahambi to obtain, to succeed

hūwašaci Cond. (6) of hūwašambi to increase, to prosper

gemu entirely

age elder brother, sir

i genitive affix

kesi grace

kai is (final particle).


1 2 3 4
ᠠᡳᠨᠠᡥᠠ ᠰᡝᠮᡝ ᠪᠠᡳᠯᡳ ᠪᡝ ᠣᠩᡤᠣᡵᠠᡴᡡ᠈ ᡠᡵᡠᠨᠠᡴᡡ ᡠᠵᡝᠯᡝᠮᡝ ᡴᠠᡵᡠᠯᠠᡴᡳ᠈ ᠠᡳᠨᡠ ᡠᡨᡨᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᡵᡝᠮᠪᡳ᠈ ᠰᡳ ᠠᡳᡴᠠ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ ᡤᡡᠸᠠᠣ ᡩᠠᠮᡠ ᠰᡳᠨᡳ ᡨᠠᠴᡳᡵᠠᡴᡡ ᠪᡝ ᡥᡝᠨᡩᡠᠮᠪᡳ ᡩᡝᡵᡝ ᡨᠠᠴᡳᡴᡳ ᠰᡝᠴᡳ ᡨᡝᡨᡝᠨᡩᡝᡵᡝ᠈ ᠨᡳ ᠨᡝᡴᡠᠯᡝᡶᡳ ᠰᡳᠮᠪᡝ ᠨᡳᠶᠠᠯᠮᠠ ᠣᡴᡳᠨᡳ ᠰᡝᠮᠪᡳᡴᠠᡳ

Sir, I shall never forget your kindness, and shall not fail to repay it handsomely.

Senior. What are you talking about? you are one of us, are you not? My only fear would have been that you were not anxious to learn; but, since you are willing, I shall be only too glad to contribute to your success.

ainaha seme certainly

baili kindness

be accusative affix

onggorakū Fut. (5) of onggombi to forget, with akū not

urunakū must

ujeleme Ger. (3) of ujelembi to make heavy, to increase: increasingly

karulaki Subj. (7) of karulambi to repay

ainu why?

uttu thus

gisurembi to speak

si thou

aika perhaps

gurun empire foreigner, with interrogative o
gūwao other

damu only

sini gen. of si thou

tacirakū Fut. (5) of tacimbi to learn, with akū not.

be accusative affix

hendumbi to speak

dere final particle expressing a doubt

taciki Subj (7) of tacimbi to learn

seci Cond. (6) of sembi to say, to be willing

tetendere supposing

bi I

nekulefi Past Ger. (8) of nekulembi to be useful

simbe acc. of si thou

niyalma man

okini Opt. (15) of ombi to make

sembikai to say, with kai, final particle


1 2 3
ᡴᠠᡳᡵᡠᠯᠠᡴᡳ ᠰᡝᡵᡝᠩᡤᡝ ᠠᡳ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ᠈ ᠮᡠᠰᡝᡳ ᡩᠣᠯᠣ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᡵᡝᠴᡳ ᠣᠮᠪᡳᠣ᠈ ᡨᡠᡨᡨᡠ ᠣᠴᡳ᠈ ᠪᡳ ᡥᡠᡴᡧᡝᡥᡝ ᠰᡝᠮᡝ ᠸᠠᠵᡳᡵᠠᡴᡡ᠈ ᡩᠠᠮᡠ ᡥᡝᠩᡴᡳᡧᡝᠮᡝ ᠪᠠᠨᡳᡥᠠ ᠪᡠᡵᡝ ᡩᠠᠪᠠᠯᠠ ᡤᡝᠯᡳ ᠠᡳᠰᡝᡵᡝ᠉

Talk of handsome return, indeed! people as intimate as you and I are should never use such language to one another.

Junior. Well, sir, if that's the way of it, I ams sure I feel extremely obliged. I have only to make you my best bow, and I shall say no more.

karulaki Subj. (7) of karulambi to repay

serengge Verbal Noun (21) of sembi to say: that which you said

ai what?

gisun word, speech

musei gen. of muse we, we two

dolo interior, in the family

gisureci Cond. (6) of gisurembi to speak

ombio to be, can, may, with interrogative o: will that do?

tuttu thus

oci Cond. (6) of ombi to be

bi I

hukšehe Pret. (4) of hukšembi to be thankful

seme Inf. or Ger. (3) of sembi to say

wajirakū Fut. (5) of wajimbi to end, with akū not: infinitely

damu only

hengkišeme Inf. or Ger. (3) of hengkišembi to prostrate oneself

baniha thanks

bure Fut. (5) of bumbi to give

dabala only

geli besides

ai what?

sere Fut. (5) of sembi to say


1 2 3 4
ᠠᡤᡝ ᠰᡳᠨᡳ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ᠈ ᠠᡳ ᡧᠣᠯᠣ ᡩᡝ ᡨᠠᠴᡳᡥᠠ᠈ ᠮᡠᡩᠠᠨ ᡤᠠᡳᡵᡝᠩᡤᡝ ᠰᠠᡳᠨ ᠪᡳᠮᡝ ᡨᠣᠮᠣᡵᡥᠣᠨ᠈ ᠮᡳᠨᡳ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ ᠪᡝ ᠠᡳ ᡩᠠᠪᡠᡶᡳ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᡵᡝᡵᡝ ᠪᠠᠪᡳ᠈ ᠠᡤᡝ ᡤᠣᠰᡳᠮᡝ ᠣᡶ᠋‍ᡳ ᡠᡨᡨᡠ ᡩᠠᠪᠠᠯᡳ ᠮᠠᡴᡨᠠᡵᠪᡳ᠈ ᠮᡳᠨᡳ ᡝᠮᡠ ᡤᡠᠴᡠ ᡳ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ ᠰᠠᡳᠨ᠈

II. Senior. Why, when did you find, time to learn all the Manchu you know sir? Your pronunciation is good and you speak quite intelligibly.

Junior. Oh, sir, you are too complimentary. My Manchu does not amount to anything. There's a friend of mine who really does talk well;

age elder brother, sir

sini thy

manju Manchu

gisun word, speech

ai what?

šolo leisure

de in

taciha Pret. (4) of tacimbi to learn

mudan pronunciation

gairengge Verbal Noun (21) of gaimbi to take, to obtain

sain good

bime Ger. (3) of bimbi to be

tomorhon clear

mini my

manju Manchu

gisun word, speech

be accusative affix

ai what?

dabufi Past. Ger. (8) of dabumbi to count

gisurere Fut. Part. of gisurembi to speak

babi from ba place and bi it is

age elder brother, sir

gosime Ger. (3) of gosimbi to love

ofi Past Gerund (8) of ombi to be

uttu thus

dabali excessively

maktara Fut. (5) of maktambi to praise

mini my

emu one

gucu friend

i genitive affix

manju Manchu

gisun word, speech

sain good


1 2 3 4
ᡤᡝᡨᡠᡴᡝᠨ ᠪᡳᠮᡝ ᡩᠠᠴᡠᠨ᠈ ᠮᠠᠵᡳᡤᡝ ᠨᡳᡴᠠᠨ ᠮᡠᡩᠠᠨ ᠠᡴᡡ᠈ ᡠᠮᡝᠰᡳ ᡠᡵᡝᡥᡝᠪᡳ᠈ ᡨᡠᡨᡨᡠ ᠪᡳᠮᡝ ᡧᠠᠨ ᡤᡝᠯᡳ ᡶᡝ᠈ ᡨᡝᡵᡝ ᡨᡝᠨᡳ ᠮᠠᠩᡤᠠ ᠰᡝᠴᡳ ᠣᠮᠪᡳ᠈ ᡨᡝᡵᡝ ᠰᡳᠨᠴᡳ ᠠᠨᡨᠠᡴᠠ᠈ ᠪᡳ ᠠᡨ᠋ᠠᡵᠠᠮᡝ ᡳᠨᡩᡝ ᡩᡠᡳᠪᡠᠯᡝᠴᡳ ᠣᠮᠪᡳᠨᡳ᠈ ᡶᡠᡥᠠᠯᡳ ᡨᡝᡨ᠊ᡝ ᠪᠠᡴ᠋ᠴᡳᠨ ᠸᠠᡴᠠ᠈

He is thoroughly at home in the language—intelligible, fluent, and speaks without a particle of Chinese accent,he is quite proficient. Then, besides, he has such a stock of words and phrases. Now, that is what one may call a good scholar, if you please

Senior. How does he compare with you?

Junior. Me! I should never venture to compare myself with him; I am as far from being his match

getuken intelligible

bime Ger. (3) of bimbi to be

dacun quick, fluent

majige little

nikan Chinese

mudan pronunciation

akū not

umesi very

urehebi Indef. Past (10) of urembi to be ripe, proficient

tuttu thus

bime Ger. (3) of bimbi to be

šan ear

geli further

fe old, the meaning is: he has heard much old language

tere he

teni high, with adverbial affix i

mangga difficult, qualified

seci Cond. (6) of sembi to say, to call

ombi to be

tere he

sinci from si thou and ci from, to express the comparative

antaka how?

bi I

adarame how?

inde dat. of i he: to him

duibuleci Cond. (6) of duilembi to compare

ombini to be, with interrogative ni: would that do?

fuhali altogether

tede dat. of tere he

bakcin rival, match

waka not


1 2 3 4
ᠠᠪᡴᠠ ᠨᠠ ᡳ ᡤᡝᠰᡝ ᡤᡳᠶᠠᠯᠠᠪᡠᡥᠠᠪᡳ᠈ ᡨᡠᡵᡤᡠᠨᡩᡝ ᠠᡳ ᠰᡝᠴᡳ᠈ ᡳᠨᡳ ᡨᠠᠴᡳᡥᠠᠩᡤᡝ ᡧᡠᠮᡳᠨ᠈ ᠪᠠᡥᠠᠨᠠᡥᠠᠩᡤᡝ ᠯᠠᠪᡩᡠ᠈ ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝᡩᡝ ᠠᠮᡠᡵᠠᠨ᠈ ᡨᡝᡨᡝᠯᡝ ᡥᠣᠨᠣ ᠠᠩᡤᠠ ᠴᡳ ᡥᠣᡴᠣᠪᡠᡵᠠᡴᡡ ᡥᡡᠯᠠᠮᠪᡳ᠈ ᡤᠠᠯᠠ ᠴᡳ ᠠᠯᠵᠠᠪᡠᡵᠠᡴᡡ ᡨᡠᠸᠠᠮᠪᡳ᠈ ᡳᠮᠪᡝ ᠠᠮᠴᠠᡴᡳ ᠰᡝᠴᡳ ᠶᠠᠯᠠ ᠮᠠᠩᡤᠠ᠈

as the heavens are from the earth.

Senior. What is the reason of that?

Junior. Oh, he has been much longer at it, and knows a great deal more. Then he is very studious; he has been committing to memory steadily ever since he began, without stopping; the book is never out of his hand. I should have trouble enough to come up to him.

abka heaven

na earth

i genitive affix

gese equal

sandalabuhabi Ind. Past. (10) of sandalabumbi to be separated.

turgun reason

ai what?

seci Cond. (6) of sembi to say, call

ini his

tacihangge verbal noun (21) of tacimbi to learn

šumin deep

bahanahangge Verbal Noun (21) of bahanambi to comprehend

labdu much

bithe book

de in, for

amuran having a passion for

tetele till now

hono also

angga mouth

ci from

hokoburakū Fut. (5) of hokobumbi to leave off, with akū not

hūlambi to read, study

gala hand

ci from

aljaburakū Fut. of aljabumbi to separate, with akū not

tuwambi to see, to look

imbe him

amcaki Subj. (7) of amcambi to reach

seci Cond. of sembi to say

yala certainly

mangga difficult


1 2 3 4
ᠠᡤᡝ ᠰᡳᠨᡳ ᡝᡵᡝ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ᠈ ᠮᠠᠵᡳᡤᡝ ᡨᠠᡧᠠᡵᠠᠪᡠᡥᠠᡴᡡ ᠰᡝᠮᡝᠣ᠈ ᡥᡳᠩ ᠰᡝᡵᡝ ᠣᠴᡳ᠈ ᡥᠠᡩᠠ ᡥᠠᡶᡠᠮᠪᡳ ᠰᡝᡥᡝᠪᡳ᠉ ᡨᡝᡵᡝ ᡳᠨᡠ ᡨᠠᠴᡳᡶᡳ ᠪᠠᡥᠠᠨᠠᡥᠠᠩᡤᡝ ᡩᠠᠪᠠᠯᠠ ᡠᠮᠠᡳ ᠪᠠᠨᠵᡳᡨᠠᡳ ᠪᠠᡥᠠᠨᠠᡵᠠᠩᡤᡝ ᠸᠠᡴᠠ ᡴᠠᡳ᠈ ᠮᡠᠰᡝ ᡨᡝᡩᡝ ᡳᠰᡳᡵᠠᡴᡡᠩᡤᡝ ᠶᠠ ᠪᠠ᠈

Senior. Nay, my young friend, I think you are making a slight mistake. Don't you remember what the proverb says: “If you are constant, you will penetrate a rock”? What he knows he knows only because he has learnt it; it has not come to him by intuition. And are we in any way otherwise constituted? not at all!

age elder brother, sir

sini thy

ere this

gisun word, speech

majige little

tašarabuhakū Pret. (4) of tašarabumbi to cause an error, with akū not

semeo Inf. or Ger. (3) of sembi to say, to think, with terrogative o

danjici Cond. (6) of donjimbi to hear

hing with sembi to he careful, constant

sere Fut. (5) of sembi to say

oci Cond. (6) of ombi to be: if

hada rock

de in

hafumbi to penetrate

sehebi Indef. Past (10) of sembi to say

tere he

inu yes, also

tacifi Past Ger. (8) of tacimbi to learn

bahanahangge Verbal Noun (21) of bahanambi to comprehend

dabala only

umai not at all

banjinjigi Past Ger. (8) of banjinjimbi to come into life

bahanahangge Verbal Noun (21) bahanambi to comprehend

waka not

kai is, final particle

muse we (two)

tede dat. of tere he: to hime

isirakūngge Verbal Noun (21) of isimbi to arrive, with akū not

ya whatsoever

ba place


1 2 3 4
ᡳ ᠠᡳ ᡥᠠᠴᡳᠨ ᡳ ᠪᠠᡥᠠᠨᠠᡥᠠ ᠣᡵᡝᡥᡝ ᠣᡴᡳᠨᡳ᠈ ᠮᡠᠰᡝ ᡩᠠᠮᡠ ᠮᡠᠵᡳᠯᡝᠨ ᠪᡝ ᡨᡝᠩ ᠰᡝᠮᡝ ᠵᠠᡶᠠᡶᡳ᠈ ᡤᡡᠨᡳᠨ ᡤᡳᡵᡴᡡᡶᡳ ᡨᠠᠴᡳᠴᡳ ᡠᡩᡠ ᡨᡝᡵᡝ ᡨᡝᠨ ᡩᡝ ᡳᠰᡳᠨᠠᠮᡝ ᠮᡠᡨᡝᡵᠠᡴᡡ ᠪᡳᠴᡳᠪᡝ ᡳᠨᡠ ᡠᡵᡠᠨᠠᡴᡡ ᡥᠠᠮᡳᠨᠠᠮᠪᡳᡩᡝᡵᡝ᠉

Well, then, no matter how exact or practised a speaker he may be, all we have to do is to make up our mind and apply ourselves to the language; and if we don't quite reach the point he has attained, we shall not be very far behind him, I suspect.

i he

ai what?

hacin kind

i genitive affix

bahanaha Pret. (4) of bahanambi to comprehend

urehe Pret. (4) of urembi to be proficient

okini Opt. (15) of ombi to be, may

muse we

damu only

mujilen heart

be accusative affix

teng with sembi to be firm

seme Ger. (3) of sembi to say

jafafi Past Ger. (8) of jafambi to take

gūnin thought

girkūfi Past Ger. (8) of girkūmbi to exert

tacici Cond. (6) of tacimbi to learn

udu although

tere that

'ten hight

de to, at

isiname Ger. (3) of isinambi to arrive

muterakū Fut. (5) of mutembi to be able, with akū not

bicibe Advers. (13) of bimbi to be

inu yes, certainly

urunakū without doubt

haminambi to come near

dere final particle expressing a presumption.


1 2 3 4
ᠰᡳ ᠨᡳᡴᠠᠨ ᠪᡳᡨ᠌ᡥᡝ ᠪᠠᡥᠠᠨᠠᡵᠠ

III. Senior. As to becoming a translator of Manchu, you are a Chinese scholar, and you can have no difficulty in learning to translate. All you need is an exclusive devotion of your mind to the one subject. Don't let anything interfere with your studies, and let these be progressive; and in two or three years,

si thou

nikan Chinese

bithe book

bahanara Fut. Part. (5) of bahanambi to comprehend

niyalma man

kai is, final particle

ubaliyambure Fut. (5) of ubaliyambumbi to translate

be accusative affix

tacici Cond. (6) of tacimbi to learn

umesi very

ja easy

dabala only

gūnin thought

girkūfi Past Ger. (8) of girkūmbi to exert

giyalan interval

lakcan interruption

akū not

emu one; emu anani one after the other without interruption

tacime Ger. (3) of tacimbi to learn

ohode supposing, if

juwe two

ilan three

aniya year

i genitive affix

siden middle

de in


1 2 3 4

as a matter of course, you will be well on your way. If you glow for one day and are cold for ten days in your study, you may read for 20 years, but it will come to nothing.

IV. Junior. Will you do me the favour to look over these translations, sir, and make a few corrections?

ini cisui as a matter of course

dube point, end, extreme

da beginning, dube da the very beginning

tucimbi to come out

aika if

emu one

inenggi day

fiyakiyara Fut. (5) of fiyakiyambi to glow

juwan ten

inenggi day

šahūrara Fut. (5) of šahūrambi to be cold

adali like, similar to

tacici Cond. (6) of tacimbi to learn

utahi then

orin twenty

aniya year

bithe book

hūlaha Pret. (4) of hūlambi to read, study

seme Ger. (3) of sembi to say

inu yes, truly

mangga difficult

kai is, final particle


age elder brother, sir

mini my

ubaliyambuhangge Verbal Noun (21) of ubaliyambumbi to translate

be accusative affix

tuwafi Past Ger. (8) of tuwambi to look at

majige little

dasatarao Fut. (5) of dasatambi to correct with o implying a request.


1 2 3 4

Senior. Oh, come, you really have made very great progress; every sentence runs as it should; every word is clear; I have not a fault to find. If you go up for your examination, success is in your own hands.

V. Senior. Have you returned yourself as a candidate at these examinations that are coming off now?

Junior. I should be glad enough to stand,

sini thy

tacihangge Verbal Noun (21) of tacimbi to learn

labdu much

nonggibuha Pret. (4) of nonggibumbi to make progress

gisun word, speech

tome all

ijishūn proper

hergen letter

aname singly

tomorhon clear

majige little

cilcin fault

akū not

simneci Cond. (6) of simnembi to be examined

seferehei Past Part. (4) of seferembi to take in the hand, with i, which makes the word an adverb

bahambi to obtain.


ere this

mudan time

ubaliyambure Fut. Part. (5) of ubaliyambumbi to translate

be accusative affix

simnere Fut. Part. (5) of simnembi to be examined

de in

gebu name

alibuhao Pret. (4) of alibumbi to offer, with interrogative o

akūn or not?

simneci Cond. (6) of simnembi to be examined

oci Cond. (6) of ombi to be

esi certainly

sain good

oci Cond. (6) of ombi to be


1 2 3 4

but I am afraid that, being a B. A., I am not qualified.

Senior. What? when any bannerman can go up, do you mean to say that a man of your attainments would not be allowed to? Nonsense! why, even the boys from public schools may stand;

damu only

bithei book, with gen. affix i (文 wén)

šusai B. A. (秀才 hsiu t'sai)

ainahai how should it?

ombini to be, it will do, with interrogative particle ni

wei whose?

kooli custom

sini thy

gesengge similar

jakūn eight

gūsa banner

gemu all

simneci Cond. (6) of simnembi to be examined

ombime Ger. I (16) of ombi to be, may

sini thy

beye body, self

teile only

simneburakū Fut. Pass. (5) of simnembi to be examined, with akū not: will not be allowed to be examined

doro rule

bio is, with interrogative o

tere that

anggala not only

jurgangga public (義 i)

tacikūi school, with gen. affix. i

juse plural of jui son, child, scholar

gemu all

ojoro Fut. (5) of ombi to be, may

bade when


1 2 3 4

and if so, how should a B. A. not be qualified? my younger brother is now working as hard as he can at Manchu for the little time that remains before he has to go up. Don't you throw away the opportunity. Add your name to the list at once.

šusai B. A.

be accusative affix

ai what?

hendure Fut. (5) of hendumbi to speak

simneci Cond. (6) of simnembi to be examined

ome Inf. (3) of ombi to be, may

ofi Past Ger. (8) of ombi to be, because

mini my

deo younger brother

ere this

siden interval

de to, in

teni highly

hacihiyame Ger. (3) of hacihiyambi to exert oneself

manju Manchu

bithe book

hūlambikai to read, with kai final particle

hūdun quickly

gebu name

yabubu Imp. Pass. (1) of yabumbi to go: cause to go, forward

nashūn opportunity

be accusative affix

ume do not

ufarabure Fut. (5) of ufarabumbi to neglect


1 2 3 4

VI. Senior. Well, I hear that you have made such way in Manchu, that you are beginning to speak it quite correctly.

Junior. Nonsense! I understand it, certainly, when I hear it spoken, but it will be sometime yet before I can speak it myself. It is not only that I can't go right through with a piece of conversation of any length like other people, but I can't even string half a dozen sentences together.

sini thy

manjurarangge Verbal Noun (21) of manjurambi to speak Manchu

majige little

muru appearance

tucikebi Indef. Past (10) of tucimbi to come forth

aibide how?

bi I

niyalmai man, with gen. affix i

gisurere Fut. Part. (5) of gisurembi to speak

be accusative affix

ulhire Fut. (5) of ulhimbi to understand

gojime only

mini my

beye body, self

gisureme Ger. (3) of gisurembi to speak

ohode when

oron interval, place

unde not yet, oron unde not yet time, too early

gūwai other, with gen. affix i

adali like, similar

fiyelen chapter, piece, fiyelen fiyeleni connectedly

gisureme Inf. (3) of gisurembi to speak

muerakū Fut. (3) of mutembi to be able, with akū not

sere Fut. (5) of sembi to say

anggala not only

emu one

siran continuation

i adverbial particle, emu sirani uninterruptedly

duin four

sunja five

gisun word


1 2 3 4

Then there is another odd thing I do: whenever I am going to begin, without being the least able to say why, I become so alarmed about mistakes that I dare not go on without hesitating; now, so long as this continues to be the case, how am I to make a speaker? Indeed, so far from considering myself one, I quite despair.

gemu all

sirabume Inf. (3) of sirabumbi to connect

muterakū Fut. (5) of mutembi to be able, with akū not

tere that

anggala not only

hono further

emu one

aldungga extraordinary, strange

babi place, with bi is

gisurere Fut. Part (5) of gisurembi to speak

onggolo before

baibi in vain

tašaraburakū Fut. (5) of tašarabumbi to make mistakes, with akū not

calaburakū Fut. (5) of calabumbi to err, with akū not

seme Inf. (3) of sembi to say

tathūnjame Inf. (3) tathūnjambi to doubt, to be incertain, to be alarmed

gelhun akū without fear, to dare

kengse lasha constantly

gisurerakū Fut. (5) of gisurembi to speak, with akū not

uttu thus

kai it is

mimbe acc. of I

adarame how?

gisure Imp. (1) of gisurembi to speak

sembi to say, to call

bi I

inu yes, indeed

usaka in despair


1 2 3 4

of ever learning to speak. I say to myself that if with all my studying I have not got farther than this, I shall certainly never be a proficient.

Senior. This is all mere want of practice. Listen to me. Whenever you meet a man, no matter who, (that can talk Manchu), at him at once, and talk away with him.

gūnici Cond. (6) of gūnimbi to think

ai what?

hacin kind

i genitive affix

taciha Pret. (4) of tacimbi to learn

seme Inf. (3) of sembi to say

inu indeed

ere this

hūman ability

dabala only

nonggibure Fut. (5) of nonggibumbi to make progress

aibi how could?

ere this

gemu all

sini thy

urehekū Pret. (4) of urembi to practice, with akū not

haran reason

bi I

sinde dat. of si thou

tacibure Fut. (5) of tacibumbi to teach

yaya whoever

webe acc. of we who

seme Inf. (3) of sembi to say

ume not, do not

bodoro Fut. (5) of bodombi to consider

damu only

ucaraha Pret. (4) of ucarambi to meet

ucaraha Part. Pret. (4) of ucarambi to meet

be sign of accusative

tuwame Ger. (3) of tawambi to try

amcatame Ger. (3) of amcatambi to address one against his will

gisure Fut. (5) of gisurembi to speak


1 2 3 4

You must go and take lessons of competent professors of the language as well, you know; and if you have any friends who are good Manchu scholars, you should be for ever talking to them. Read some Manchu every day, and talk incessantly, until the habit of speaking comes quite naturally to the mouth. If you follow this rule in a year or two at the farthest

jai secondly

bithede book. with de in

šungke well read

sefu teacher (師傅 shih-fu)

be accusative affix

baifi Past Gerund (8) of baimbi to seek

bithe book

hūla Imp. (1) of hūlambi to read

manju Manchu

gisun word, speech

de in

mangga proficient

gucuse plur. of gucu friend

de in, with

adanafi Past Gerund (8) of adanambi to go to, to be together

gisure Fut. (5), here Imp. of gisurembi to speak

inenggidari daily

hūlaci Cond. (6) of hūlambi to read

gisun word, speech

ejembi to remember

erindari always

gisureci Cond. (6) of gisurembi to speak

ilenggu tongue

urembi to be accustomed

uttu thus

tacime Inf. (3) of tacimbi to learn

ohode when

manggai scarcely

emu one

juwe two


1 2 3 4

you will speak it without effort; so now don't despair any more.

VII. Junior. Where are you from, sir, may I ask?

Senior. I have been to visit a relation of mine who lives down yonder. Won't you step in and sit down on your way, sir?

aniya year

i genitive affix

sidende interval, with de in

inu yes, certainly; inu cisui naturally

gūnin thought

i sign of genitive

cihai will, with adverbial affix i, gūnin i cihai as you like

anggai mouth, with genitive affix

ici in accordance

tang sembi to speak without interruption

kai final particle

muterakū Fut. (5) of mutembi to be able, with akū not

jalin as regards

geli again

aiseme how could it?

jobombi to apprehend, to fear

ni interrogative particle.


absi why?

yoha Pret. (4) of yombi to go, to walk

bihe Pret. (4) of bimbi to be

bi I

ergi this side

emu one

niyamangga related

niyalmai man, with genitive affix i

boode house, with de in

genehe Pret. (4) of genembi to go

bihe Pret. (4) of bimbi to be

ere this

ildun opportunity

de in

mini my

boode house, with de in, to

darifi Past Gerund (8) of darimbi to pass

majige little

teki Subj. Present (7) of tembi to sit down.


1 2 3 4

Junior. Do you reside in this neighbourhood, sir?

Senior. Yes, I moved into this house not long ago.

Junior. Oh! indeed, sir; then we are not so very far from each other. If I had been aware that you lived here, I should have called before. Go on, sir, pray (I'll follow you, if you please).

Senior. What, in my own house? Now, please take the upper seat.

Junior. Thang you, I am very well where I am.

Senior. But if you site where you are sitting, what place am I to take?

age elder brother, sir

si thou

ubade here

tehebio Indef. Past. (10) of tembi to sit, to reside, with interrogative o

inu yes

jakan lately

gurinjihe Pret. (4) of gurinjimbi to come to change place

uttu thus

oci Cond. (6) of ombi to be

musei we two, with genitive affix i

tehengge Verbal Noun (21) of tembi to sit, to reside

giyanaūk far from

udu how much?

goro distant

saha Pret. (4) of sambi to know

bici Cond. (6) of bimbi to be

aifini before

simbe acc. of si thou

tuwanjirakū Fut. (5) of tawanjimbi to come to see, to call, with akū not

biheo Pret. (4) of bimbi to be, with interrogative o

age elder brother, sir

yabu Imp. (1) of yambumbi to go

ai geli how could that be?

mini my

boode house, with postpos. de in

kai it is

age elder brother, sir

wesifi Past Gerund (8) of wesimbi to ascend

teki Subj. Pres. (2) of tembi to sit

ubade here

icangga convenient

si thou

tuttu thus

tehede seat, with postpos. de in

bi I

absi how?

tembi to sit.


1 2 3 4

Junior. I have got a seat, thank you; and a seat with a back to it.

Senior. Here! bring a light!

Junior. Not for me, thank you, sir, I can't smoke; I have a sore mouth.

Senior. Well, then, bring some tea.

Junior. Drink first, then, pray. Oh, isn't it hot.

Senior. If it is too hot, let it be taken away for a while, that it may get cooler. I am very sorry. Boy, go and see what there is in the kitchen,

sain good

teme Inf. (3) of tembi to sit

jabduha Pre. (4) of jabdumbi to reach one's aim

ubade here

emu one

nikere Fut. Partic. (5) of nikembi to lean against

babi place (ba) is (bi)

booi house, with genitive affix i

urse those who

aba how?

yaha coal

gaju Imp. (1) of gajimbi to fetch

age elder brother, sir

bi I

dambagu tobacco

omirakū Fut. (5) of omimbi to eat, to smoke, with akū not

angga mouth

furugahabi to have ulcers in the mouth

tuttu thus

oci Cond. (6) of ombi to be

cai tea

gana Imp. (1) of ganambi to bring

age elder brother, sir

cai tea

gaisu Imp. (1) of gaimbi to take

ko oh, exclamation of pain

absi how?

halhūn hot

halhūn hot

oci Cond. (6) of ombi to be

majige little

tukiyecebu Imp. (1) of tukiyecebumbi to take away

hūwanggiyarakū it does not signify

mukiyebukini Opt. (15) of mukiyebumbi to become cool

je exclamation of compassion

buda rice

be accusative affix

tuwana Imp. (1) of tuwanambi to go and look after


1 2 3 4

and bring quickly whatever is ready.

Junior. No, indeed, sir; do not put yourself to so much trouble. I have still got to go somewhere else.

Senior. But it's only whatever is ready; nothing is being prepared for you. Do try to eat a little, then you may go.

Junior. Not just now, thank you, sir; but now that I have found out where you live, I'll come another time

beleni ready

bisirengge Verbal Noun (21) of bimbi to be

be accusative affix

hasa? quickly

banju Imp. (1) of banjimbi to produce

se Imp. (1) of sembi to say

akū no

age elder brother, sir

ume do ont

bi I

kemuni further

gūwa other

bade place, with de to

geneki Subj. Pres. (7) of genembi to go

sembi to say

ainahabi how is that?

beleni ready

bisirengge Verbal Noun (21) of bimbi to be

sini thy

jalin postpos. on account of

dagilahangge Verbal Noun (21) of dagilambi to prepare

geli also

waka not is

majige little

jefi Past Ger. (8) of jembi to eat

genecina Conessive (14) of genembi to go

joo enough

bi it is

emgeri once

sini thy

boo house

be accusative affix

takaha Pret. (4) of takambi to recognise

kai it is

encu different, other

inenggi day

jai again

cohome specially

jifi Past. Ger. (8) of jimbi to come


1 2 3 4

and spend the day with you.

VIII. Senior. I observe you pass this way every day, sir, what place is it that you go to?

Junior. I go to my studies.

Senior. To read Manchu, isn't it?

Junior. It is.

Senior. What are you reading in Manchu?

Junior. Oh, no new books, only every day talk

gulhun completely

emu one

inenggi day

gisureme Inf. (3) of gisurembi to speak

teceki Subj. Pres. (7) of tecembi to sit together


age elder brother, sir

si thou

inenggidari daily

ederi this way

yaburengge Verbacl Noun (21) of yabumbi to go

gemu all

aibide whither?

genembi to go

bithe book

hulanme Inf. (3) of hūlanambi to go to read [konstigt att första saknar ū]

genembi to go

manju Manchu

bithe book

hūlambi to read

wakao it is not, with interrogative o

inu yes

ne now

aici which?

jergi order

bithe book

hūlambi to read

gūwa other

bithe book

akū not

damu only

yasai eye, with genitive affix i

juleri postpos. before

buyarame Ger. (3) of buyarambi to do petty things

gisun word, speech


1 2 3 4

and the "Important explanation of Manchu speech."[6]

Senior. Are they teaching you to write Manchu round hand yet?

Junior. The days are too short at present to leave any time for writing; but presently, when they begin to lengthen, we shall be taught to write and translate, too.

Senior. Well, sir, I have been wanting to study Manchu myself

jai secondly

manchu Manchu

gisun word, speech

i genitive affix

oyonggo important

jorin aim, explanation

i genitive affix

bithe book

teile only

suwende dat. of suwe you

ginggulere Fut. Part. (5) to ginggulembi to honour; here with hergen the 楷書 ch'ieh-shu an elegant style of writing [楷書 ch'ieh-shu must be a mistake for 楷書 kǎishū]

hergen letter, writing

tacibumbio to teach, with interrogative o

akū or not?

te now

inenggi day day
šun sun

foholon short

hergen letter

arara Fut. Part. (5) of arambi to write

šolo leisure

akū not is

ereci this, with postpos. ci from, hereafter

inenggi day day
šun sun

saniyaha Pret. (4) of saniyambi to extend

manggi as soon as

hergen letter

arabumbi Pass. of arambi to write; to cause to write

sere Fut. (5) of sembi to say

anggala not only

hono also

ubaliyambu Imp. (1) of ubaliyambumbi to translate

sembikai to say, with kai final particle

age elder brother, sir

bi I

bithe book

hūlara Fut. Part. (5) of hūlambi to read

jalin because of


1 2 3 4

and I have looked, I assure you, everywhere (for a school) and left no place unexamined; but in our neighbourhood, I am sorry to say, there is no school for Manchu.

I was thinking that the one you go to would do for me well enough, and that one of these days I might commence my attendance. Will you be so good as to say a word for me to the master beforehand?

Junior. Ah! I see you think that it is a regular professor that teaches us; but that

yala really

uju head

silgime Ger. (3) of silgimbi to put into

aibide where?

baihanahakū Pret. (4) of baihanumbi to go to search, with akū not

musei we two, with genitive affix i

ubai here, with genitive affix i

šurdeme all round

fuhali altogether

manju Manchu

tacikū school

akū not

gūnici Cond. (6) of gūnimbi to think

sini thy

tacire Fut. Part. (5) of tacimbi to learn

ba place

ai what?

hendure Fut. (5) of hendumbi to speak

atanggi when? whenever it may be
bicibe Advers. (13) of bimbi to be

bi I

inu also

bithe book

hūlanaki Subj. Pres. (7) of hūlanambi to go to read

mini gen. of bi I

funde postpost. for

majige little

gisureci Cond. (6) of gisurembi to speak

ojoroo can, may, with interrogative o

age elder brother, sir

si thou

mende dat. plur. of be we

tacibure Fut. Part. (5) of tacibumbi to teach

niyalma man

be accusative affix

we who

sembi to say, call;


1 2 3 4

is not the case. Our instructor is one of the elders of our clan and his pupils are all our own near cousins; any other that may attend are relations by marriage; there is not an outsider among them. But the fact is that our elder is too busy to give regular lessons; for, besides teaching us, he has to go to the yamên every day. It is only because we entreat him day and night

sefu teacher (師傅 shih fu)

sembio to say, call, with interrogative o

waka no

kai final particle.

mini my

emu one

mukūn clan

i genitive affix

ahūn elder

tacibure Fut. Part. (5) of tacibumbi to teach

ele whoever

urse plural affix

gemu all

meni our

emu one

uksun relationship

i genitive affix

juse pl. of jui son

deote pl. of deo younger brother

jai secondly

niyaman blood relation

hūncihin relation by marriage

umai not at all

gūwa other

niyalma man

akū not is

adarame how

seci Cond. (6) of sembi to say

mini my

ahūn elder

inenggidari daily

yamulambi to go to the yamên

jabdurakū Fut. (5) of jabdumbi to have leisure, with akū not

ineku the same

be accusative affix

erde morning

yamji evening

nandame Inf. (3) of nandambi to request

genere Fut. (5) of genembi to go

jakade conj. because

arga trick, expedient


1 2 3 4

that he feels obliged to find time to play the tutor. Were the case otherwise, you desire to study Manchu is a thing commandable in itself, and as for the trouble of speaking in your behalf, I should not have thought it any trouble at all.

IX. Senior. That gentleman is our old neighbour, you know; the lad we have seen grow up here.

akū not, arga akū

he cannot help it

šolo leisure

jalgiyanjafi Past Ger. (8) of jalgiyanjambi to supply

membe acc. of be we

tacibumbi to teach

waka not

oci if

age elder brother, sir

bithe book

hūlame Inf. (3) of hūlambi to read

geneki Subj. Pres. (7) of genembi to go

sehengge Verbal Noun (21) of sembi to say

sain good

baita thing

dabala only

sini gen. of si thou

funde postpos. for

majige little

gisureci Cond. (6) of gisurembi to speak

minde dat. of bi I

geli then

ai what

wajiha Pret. (4) of wajimbi to end, finish

ni interrogative particle.


tere that

age elder brother

serengge Verbal Noun (21) of sembi to say

musei our, with genitive affix i

fe old

adaki neighbour

kai is

kemneme Inf. (3) of kemnembi to measure to regard carefully
tuwame Inf. (3) of tuwambi to see

mutuha Pret. (4) of mutumbi to grow


1 2 3 4

He has not been away from us very long, and now one hears that he is doing very well; that he has got an appointment. I only half believed the report when I first heard it, until on inquiring of friends I find it really is the case. It shows the truth of the proverb "If a man but resolve, the thing he wants to do is done"; and of the other proverb "No man is too young to make a resolution."

juse plur. of jui child

kiyalafi Past Ger. (8) of kiyalambi to be separated

giyanakū how could

udu how much

goidaha Pret. (4) of goidambi to last

donjici Cond. (6) of donjimbi to hear

mujakū exceedingly

hūwašafi Past Ger. (8) of hūwašambi to increase, to get on

hafan official

oho Pret. (4) of ombi to be

sere Fut. (5) of sembi to say

sucungga first

bi I

hono also

akdara Fut. (5) of akdambi to believe

dulin half

kenehunjere Fut. (5) of kenehunjembi to doubt

dulin half

bihe Pret. (4) of bimbi to be

amala afterwards

gucuse pl. of gucu friend

de postpos. in

fonjici Cond. (6) of fonjimbi to ask

mujangga certain

erebe this, with accusative affix be

tuwaci Cond. (6) of tuwambi to see, to regard

mujin resolution

bisirengge Verbal Noun (21) of bimbi to be

baita thing

jiduji completely

mutebumbi it can be done

se year

mulan seat; se mulan age

de postpos. in

akū not

sehe Pret. (4) of sembi to say

gisun word

tašan wrong


1 2 3 4

Junior. That is all very well, sir; still, his father's infinite virtues must have enabled him to beget a son of such promise; a young man so kind and good, so fond of his studies; in foot and horse archery, in every manly exercise beyond his years accomplished; spending any spare time

akū not

ni final particle

age elder brother, sir

i genitive affix

gisun word

inu true

tuttu thus

secibe Advers. (13) of sembi to say

inu certainly

terei his

sakdasa pl. of sakda old man, father

de postpos. in

wajirakū infinite

sain good

ba place

bifi Past Ger. (5) of bimbi to be

teni therefore

ere this

gese similiarity

dekjingge prosperous

juse child

banjiha Pret. (4) of banjimbi to beget

nomhon kind

bime Ger. (3) of bimbi to be

sain good

tacin learning

jorin interpretation

de postpos. in

amuran fond of

gabtara Fut. Part. (5) of gabtambi to shoot on foot (with the bow)

niyamniyara Fut. Part. (5) of niyamniyara to shoot on horseback

eiten every

haihai man, with sign of genitive i

erdemu virtue

se year, age

de postpos. to

teisu corresponding to

akū not

ambula greatly

tacihabi Indef. Past (10) of tacimbi to learn, to study

an i ucuri generally


1 2 3 4

at home, and there always at his studies; never moving one step in the direction of a dissolute life.

Then he is so careful and attentive in the discharge of his public duties; and when he is able to obtain information about something, he remains perfectly spotless. It is quite a case in which one may observe that "The house where virtue accumulates (from generation to generation) will not fail to have more than an ordinary share of happiness."

boode house. with postpos. de in

bici Cond. (6) of bimbi to be

bithe book

tuwara Fut. (5) of tuwambi to look at

dabala only

balai firvolous

bade place, with postpos. de to

emu one

okson step

seme Inf. (3) of sembi to say

inu really

feliyerakū Fut. (5) of feliyembi to walk, with akū not

tere that

anggala not only

siden public

i genitive affix

baita affair

de postpos. in

oci Cond. (6) of ombi to be

ginggun careful

olhoba attentive

bahara Fut. Part. (5) of bahambi to obtain

sara Fut. Part. (5) of sambi to know

bade place, with postpos. de in

oci Cond. (6) of ombi to be

fimenere Fut. Part. (5) of fimenembi to smudge

ba place

akū not

ere this

tob right

seme Inf. (3) of sembi to say

sain good

ba place

iktambuha Part. Pret. (4) of iktambumbi to accumulate

boode house, with postpos. de in

urunakū must

funcetele superabundant

hūturi luck

bi has

sehe Pret. (4) of sembi to say

gisun word, speech

de postpos. in

acanaha Pret. (4) of acanambi to agree


1 2 3 4

X. Junior. Keep on your horse, sir, pray! I went out of your sight.

Now, why should you go through the form of dismounting when you are so tired?

Senior. Not dismount, indeed! If I had not seen you, well and good; but when I did see you ever so far off, you would not have had me pass you on horseback, would you?

Junior. Well, sir, won't you step in and sit down?

Senior. Oh, yes, I'll step in and sit down a moment, it is so long since we met.

secina Concess. (14) of sembi to say


age elder brother, sir

yalu Imp. (1) of yalumbi to ride

bi I

sinde Dat. of si thou

jailaha Pret. (4) of jailambi to escape

kai final particle

šadame Ger. (3) of šadambi to be tired

geli also

aiseme how could

ebumbi to dismount

ai gisun what language

serengge Verbal Noun (21) of sembi to say

sabuhakū Pret. (4) of sabumbi to notice, with akū not

oci Cond. (6) of ombi to be

ainara what is to be done?

bi I

kejine far off

aldangga distant

ci postpos. from

uthai therefore

simbe acc. of si thou

sabuha Pret. (4) of sabumbi to notice

bade conj. because

morilahai Part. Pret. (4) of morilambi to ride, with adverbial affix i: on horseback

dulere Fut. Part. (5) of dulembi to pass

kooli custom

bio it is, with interrogative o

age elder brother, sir

boode house, with postpos. de in, to

dosifi Past Ger. (8) of dosimbi to enter

terakūn Fut. (5) of tembi to sit, with akūn or not?

inu yes

kai final particle

muse we two

acahakūngge Verbal Noun (21) of acambi to meet, with akū not

kejine far off.


1 2 3 4

But, dear me! what a show of trees and flowers you have, and what a stock of goldfish! and your rockery, so ingeniously concieved; every tier of it has a character of its own! and what a tidy library! everything in it looks

goidaha Pret. (4) of goidambi to last

bi I

dosifi Past Ger. (8) of dosimbi to enter

majige little

teki Subj. Pres. (7) of tembi to sit

ara hallo!

utala so many

hacingga of all kinds

moo tree

ilha flower

tebuhebio Indef. Past (10) of tebumbi to plant, with interrogative o

geli also

utala so many

boconggo coloured goldfish
nisiha small fish

ujihebi Indef. Past (10) of ujimbi to nourish

wehe stone

ai what

jibsime Inf. (3) of jibsimbi to lay in tiers

iktambuhangge Verbal Noun (21) of iktambumbi, pass of iktambi to heap up

inu really

sain good

gūnin thought

isinaha Part. Pret. (4) of isinambi to arrive

be accusative affix

umesi very

faksi ingenious

jergi order, tier, jergi jergi every tier

de postpos. in

gemu all

doro rule

yangse beauty

bi is, has

ere this

bithei book, with genitive affix i

boo house, room

yala certainly

bolgo clean

absi how

tuwaci Cond. (6) of tuwambi to regard


1 2 3 4

so convenient, it is quite the place for reading men like us.

Junior. It is nice enough, no doubt; the misfortune is that I have no friend to study with, and studying all alone is tame work.

Senior. Well, there needn't be much difficulty on that score. I'll be your fellow-student, provided that I don't bother you; what say you?

Junior. Bore, indeed! It will be a real blessing if you will. I never asked you

absi so

icangga fit, convenient

tob true

seme Ger. (3) of sembi to say

musei we, with genitive affix i

bithe book

hulaci Cond. (6) of hūlambi to read [strange loss of ū igen]

acara Fut. Part. (5) of acambi to suit

ba place

damu but

korsorongge Verbal Noun (21) of Korsombi to be discontented

minde dat. of I

asuru many

gucu friend

gargan associate

akū not

emhun alone

bithe book

tacici Cond. (6) of tacimbi to learn

dembei extremely

simeli lonesome

ede this

ai what?

mangga diffiult?

si thou

aika perhaps

eimerakū Fut. Pat. (5) of eimembi to be bored, with akū not

oci if

bi I

sinde dat. of si thou

gucu friend

arame Inf. (3) of arambi to represent

jici Cond. (6) of jimbi to come

antaka how

tuttu thus

oci Cond. (6) of ombi to be

minde dat. of bi I

tusa profit

oho Pret. (4) of ombi to be, to have

solinaci Cond. (6) of solinambi to go to invite


1 2

to come, because I feared you would refuse; but if you really are coming I shall be the most fortunate of men.

hono yet

jiderakū Fut. (5) of jimbi to come, with akū not

jalin postpos. on account of

jobošombikai to be uneasy, with kai final particle

yala indeed

jici Cond. (6) of jimbi to come

mini my

jabšan luck

dabala only

eimembi to be bored

sere Fut. (5) of sembi to speak

doro rule, custom

geli still

bio it is, with interrogative o.


INDEX of AFFIXES and TERMS.


(The number in brackets indicates the verbal affix as explained on page 9).



absi-35.36.37.48.49 adali-15.31 ai-6.16.20.25.30.33.41.43.48.49 aibi-33.aibide 39. 41. aici 39 aika-27.49. aikabade 16 aimbe-6. ainci 6 aiseme-35 akū, akūn, akūngge-12.13.22.23.24.28.31.32.39.40.41.44.45.49 anggala-29.31.32 ba-4.24.41.46.49. bade 13.29.46.47 babi-17.21.32.37.45 be-5.6 beye-6.29.31 bi-6.50. bici 17.36.46.47. bicibe 25.41. bifi 45 bihe 11.35.36.44. bime 21.22 45. bisirengge 38.44 bun-4 buru-4 ca,ce,co-8 ce,ceni,cende,cembe,cenci-6 cen-4 ci-(6) 4.6.7.8.13 cibe-(13) 8 cin-4 cina-(14) 8 cu-4 cuka, cuke-4.13 cun-(14)4.8 da,de,do-4.8 dari-13 de-4.5.8.13 dere-19.25 du-8 de-42 ere-6 ese-6 fi-(8) 8

gan, gen, gon-4 ge-4 gemu-8.16.29.32.33.48 geren-5 geri-13 ha,he,ho-(4) 4.8.9.10 habi (10) 8.9. habici (12) 8.9. habihe (11) 8.9 han, hen, hon, hun, hūn-4 hi,hin-4 hiyan,hiyen-4 i,ini,inde,imbe,inci-5.6.13.22.23.25.27 ingge-4 inu-13 ja-8 jergi-5.13 ji-4.8 ju-4 ka,ke,ko-(4) 4.8.10, v. ha. kai-18.24.26.27.etc. kan,ken,kon-4 ku,kū-4 la-4.8 lame,leme-(23) 8.13 lan,len,lon-4 le-(22) 4.8 lengge-(22)8 liyan,liyen-4 lo-4 mari-13 mbi 8, mbifi (17) 8. mbihe (9) 8. mbime (16) 8. 13 mbubumbi-(20) 8 mbumbi-(19) 8 me-(3) 8. 13 meni, mende, membe, menci-6 mini, minde, mimbe, minci-6 mpi-8.11 mudan-13 muse-6

n-4 na,ne,no,nu-8 ndara,ndere-8. 10 ndu-8 ngga,ngge,nggo-(21)4.6.8 nggala,nggele,nggolo-(18) 8.9 nggeri-13 nggi-4 nggū-4 ngka,ngke,ngko-8.10.11 ni-5.6.35.43.45 ningge-4 o-6 ombi-13.15.20.22 ombini 22.29. ombime 29. oho 44.49. ohode 26.31.34. ofi 13.17.21.30. ojoro 29.41.

  ome. 30. oci 13.16.17.20.24.28.36.37.43.46.47.49. ocibe 13

pi-8.11 ra,re,ro-(5) 4.8.9.10 ran,ren,ron-4 ri-4 ru-4 sa,se,so-4 saka-4.13 sembi-13.15.32.38.40.41. seme 18.19.20.24.27.32.33.46.49. sehe 44.46. sehengge 43. sehebi 24.

  sere 20.24.31.40.44.50. serengge 15.20.43.47. seci 19.22.23.42. 0secibe 45

si,sini,sinde,simbe,sinci-6 su-4 sun-4 suwe,suwen,suwende,suwembe,suwenci-6 ša,šo,še-8 šun,šūn-4 ta,te,to-4.7.8 tanggū-5.7 tede-22 tere,tese-6 tetendere-19 tome-5.28 tu-4 tumen-5.7 tun-4 ubu-7 udu-25.36.44 umai-12.42 ume-12.30.33 unde-12.31 urse-4.5.37.42 uthai-15.27 waka-12 we,wei,wede,webe,weci-6 weike-6 weingge-6

ya-6.24

Appendix.




For Manchu Literatur see my Essay on Manchu litterature in Journal of China Branch of R. A. S., Shanghai, vol. xxiv (1890) p. 1-45.

The following are the principal European works for the study of Manchu:—

J. Klaproth, Chrestomathie mandchou or recueil de textes mandchou. Paris 1828. 8vo, 273pp.

H. C. von der Gabelentz, Elémens de la grammaire mandchoue. Altenbourg, 1832. 8vo, 156pp.

Additional remarks on the Manchu verb in "Beiträge zur mandschuischen Conjugationslehre, Zeitschr. der D. M. Ges. xviii, p. 202-219.

—Sse-schu, Schu-king, Schi-king in mandschuischer Uebersetzung mit einem mandschu- deuschem Wörterbuch. Leipzig, 1864. 2 vols. 8vo.

Vol. I containing the romanized Manchu text of the four books (四書), the Shuking and Shiking, 304 pp.

Vol. II containing the dictionary, 231 pp.

T. T. Meadows, Translations from the Manchu language with the original text. Canton, 1849. 8vo.

A. Wylie, T'sing-wen-k'i-ung, a Chinese grammar of the Manchu Tartar language with introductory notes on Manchu literature. Shanghai, 1855. 8vo, II, lxxx, 310 pp.

F. Kaulen, Linguae mandschuricae institutiones quas conscripsit indicibus ornavit chrestomathia et vocabulario auxit. Ratisbonae, 1856. 8vo., 152 pp.

W. Wassilyeff, Manchu Chrestomathy. St. Petersburg, 1863. 8v0, 228 pp.

L. Adam, Grammaire de la langue mandchou. Paris, 1873. 8vo, 137 pp.

Sakharoff, Complete Manchu-Russian Lexicon. St. Petersburg, 1875. Imp. 8vo, xxx, 1636 pp.

G. von der Gabelentz, Thai-kih-thu. Tafel des Urprinzips, chinesisch mit mandschuisher und deutscher Uebersetzung. Dresedn, 1876. 8vo.

W. Grube, T'ung-schu des Ceu-tsi, chinesisch und mandschuisch mit Uebersetzung und Commentar. Wien, 1880. 8vo.

E. Teza, Mangiurica, note raccolte. Pisa.

G. Hoffmann, Grammatica mancese compendiata dall' opera zinese Zing wen ki mung. Turin, 1883. 8vo, 36pp.

L. Nocentini, Il santo editto di Kanghi e l'amplificazione di Yung-ceng. Versione mancese. Firenze, 1883.

C. de Harlez, Manuel de la langue mandchoue. Grammaire, anthologie et lexique. Paris, 1884. 8vo., 232 pp

For older works see Manual of Chinese Bibliography by myself and my brother. Shanghai, 1876, p 300-305.



  1. The name of the Emperor 舜 shun is given in Manchu as šūn.
  2. The y in these 3 Chinese syllables represents the vowel transcribed by Wade with ŭ as in tzŭ and ssŭ, with ih as in chih and shih.
  3. This alphabet was adopted by the Uigurs from a Syriac or Mandaic source, thence adapted to the Mongolian language and in 1599 slightly altered to suit the pronunciation of Manchu. Unfortunately 3 vowels were left unrepresented: ö, ü, y. By comparing the Tungusic dialects these vowels can be partly restored.
  4. I follow J. Grunzel, Die Vocalharmonie der Altaischen Sprachen, Sitz. Ber. der Kais. Ak. der Wiss. Wien, 1888, which is based on Radloff's eminent work: Phonetik der Nördlichen Türksprachen. Leipzig, 1883.
  5. Whenever hereafter any of these affixes is referred to, its number as here given will be quoted in brackets.
  6. See Essay on Manchu Literature, page 10. [清話指要 qīng huà zhǐyào]

This work was published before January 1, 1923, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.