A Manchu Grammar
P.G. VON MÖLLENDORFF,
Chinese Customs Service.
Printed at the American Presbyterian Mission Press.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
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There is as yet no grammar of the Manchu language in English. Wylie’s translation of Tsing Wan Ki Mung (清文啟蒙), Shanghai, 1855, a kind of Manchu hand-book for the use of Chinese, though useful and full of interest, is by no means a grammar.
The general interest taken in every language will, of course, be also extended to Manchu; still a few words seem necessary to show the particular usefulness of its study.
There exist in all about 250 works in Manchu, nearly all of which are translations from the Chinese. They consist of translations from the Classics, some historical and metaphysical works, literary essays, collections of famous writers, novels, poetry, laws and regulations, Imperial edicts, dictionaries, phrase books, etc. Most of these translations are excellent, but they are all literal. Executed under the eyes of intelligent princes, they form a reliable expression of the meaning of the Chinese text and have therefore a right to acceptance equal to that enjoyed by commentaries of good writers. Manchu being infinitely easier to learn than Chinese, these translations are a great help towards obtaining a clear insight into Chinese syntax, and scholars like Stanislas Julien, who owed the remarkable precision in his renderings to his knowledge of Manchu, have repeatedly pointed this out. In a letter addressed to Dr. Legge he alludes to the study of Manchu as being of great assistance in translating the Classics. Dr Legge, however, in the preface to his translation of the Shuking, pronounced himself against it. The reasons advanced by this great scholar are not very cogent, and, in fact, not knowing the language, he was hardly competent to judge. But, even if he were right, others may be in a different position. Dr. Legge was perhaps more fortunate or more gifted than most people and had a thorough mastery of Chinese at the time when St. Julien wrote to him. Those who find Chinese more difficult will be inclined to consider the Manchu translations a great help.
This grammar being intended for the practical purpose of guiding the student in learning to read Manchu works, not of translating into Manchu, everything foreign to the aim is left out, especially all information which properly belongs to the sphere of the dictionary.
Shanghai, February, 1892.
P.G. von Möllendorff.
|When alone.||In the beginning of a word.||In the middle of a word.||At the end of a word.|
when followed by n in the beginning of a word, a space is left to distinguish it from a: ᡝ᠊ᠨ᠊ en ᠠ᠊ a
|o||ᠣ||ᠣ᠊||᠊ᠣ᠊||᠊ᠣ see b|
|n||ᠨ᠊||᠊ᠨ᠋᠊||᠊ᠨ ᠊ᠨ᠌ like final a, but a vowel preceding shows that it must be n.|
|k||ᡴ᠊ when followed by a, o, ū
ᡴ when followed by e, i, u
|g||ᡤ᠊ when followed by a, o, ū
ᡤ when followed by e, i, u
|h||ᡥ᠊ when followed by a, o, ū
ᡥ when followed by e, i, u
|b||ᠪ᠊||᠊ᠪ᠊||᠊ᠪ the downstroke is longer than that of o.|
|t||ᡨ᠋᠊ foll. by a, ᡨ᠌᠊ foll. by e,||᠊ᡨ᠋᠊ ta, ᠊ᡨ᠍᠊ te, ᠊᠊ᡨ᠌᠊ after a vowel and before a consonant.||᠊ᡨ|
|d||ᡩ᠊ foll. by a, ᡩ᠋᠊ foll. by e,||᠊ᡩ᠋᠊ da, ᠊ᡩ᠊ de|
|f||ᡶ᠊ foll. by a or e ᡶ᠋᠊ foll by other vowels.||᠊ᡶ᠊ foll. by a or e, ᠊ᡶ᠋᠊ foll. by other vowels|
|w||ᠸ᠊ foll. by a or e||᠊ᡶ᠋᠊ foll. by a or e|
|For transcribing Chinese syllables:—
kʽ ᠺ᠊, gʽ ᡬ᠊, hʽ ᡭ᠊, tsʽ ᡮ᠊, ts ᡮᡟ, dz ᡯ, ž ᡰ᠊, sy (四) ᠰᡟ, cʽy (勅) ᡱᡳ, jy (智) ᡷ᠊ᡳ,
|ng||᠊ᠩᡤ᠊ (a) ᠊ᠩᡤᡝ᠊ (e)||᠊ᠩ|
Manchu writing consists of 34 elements, viz., 6 vowels, 18 essentially Manchu consonants and 10 marks specially intended for rendering of Chinese syllables (vide Table).
The 6 vowels are a, e (ä), i, o, u, ū (not ō as generally represented).
The 18 consonants are k, g, h, n, b, p, s, š, t, d, l, m, c, j, y, r, f, w.
The 10 marks are kʽ, gʽ, hʽ, tsʽ, ts, dz, ž, sy, cʽy, jy.
k, g, h, t, d have two forms, one when followed by a, o, ū, the other when followed by e, i, u.
o in the middle or at the end of words may be doubled and then stands for oo or ao.
If u or ū is followed by a or e, w is placed between them: juwe (two) pronounced jue.
If a vowel is followed by i, the latter is doubled, except at the end of a word.
No word commences with r, nor with two or more consonants.
t after a vowel and before a consonant, or at the end of a word, is written like on.
To distinguish f from w, the rule is: at the beginning of a word w occurs only when followed by a or e. F before a and e has an additional stroke at the right.
Manchu is written from top to bottom, the lines following from left to right.
Many of the Manchu words are now pronounced with some Chinese peculiarities of pronunciation, so k before i and e=chʽ, g before i and e=ch, h and s before i=hs, etc. H before a, o, u, ū, is the guttural Scotch or German ch.
n is the ordinary sonorous liquid; only as initial, when followed by iya, iye, iyo, io, it is pronounced like ny: e.g. niyalma man=nyalma; niyengniyeri spring=nyingnyiri; niolhon smooth=nyolhon (Radloff, Phonetik, p. 162).
š=sh; c=ch in Chinese; j=j in judge; y when initial=y in yonder.
a, i, o, u, ū as in German.
e=ä, ö; e.g. ejen master, Tungusic äjän; inenggi day, Tung. inängî; elgembi to lead, Tung. ölgöjäm; edun wind, Tung. ödyn.
i=i, y (=Russian ы); hali meadow=Tung. kowyr.
y with an e before and after, is not pronounced: beye body=bee (bēö). Nor is it heard between i and a, or i and e.
ž=j in jardin.
The accent lies always on the last syllable, the same as in Mongolian.
2. Harmony of Vowels.
Manchu writing distinguishes 6 vowels; there are, however, in reality eight, which all occur in stem syllables: a, ä, o, ö, y, i, u, ü. As regards long and short vowels u only has two separate signs.
These 8 vowels are divided into the following groups:—
The harmony of vowels consists in a certain attraction of vowels physiologically related to each other; in accordance with it a vowel can only be followed by a corresponding one. All the Altaic languages show this peculiarity, the Turkish dialects the most, the Tungusic and Manchu the least. Within stems this harmony of vowels is of interest only to the philologist, but as most of the affixes in Manchu offer the choice between 2 or even 3 vowels (e.g. ha, ho, he; la, le; hon, hun, hūn), a few rules are necessary to show which vowels should be used.
- Stems terminating in a, e or o, take the same vowel in the affix: sula-ha left behind; mute-re being able to; tokto-ho fixed. Exceptions are given under “Verbs.”
For affixes in on, un, ūn (hon, hun, hūn): stems in which a or o occurs twice, or those having i and a, take sometimes ū: yada-hūn poor; šoyos-hūn folded.
- Stems of one syllable, terminating in i or u, take mostly e: bi-he was; ku-he rotten. With one of the affixes on, un, ūn: his-hūn bashful.
- Stems of several syllables terminating in i or u, with a, u, ū, or oo preceding, take mostly a: mari-ha returned; jabu-ha answered; tumi-kan somewhat frequent; gūni-ha thought; kooli-ngga customary. An exception appears to be: ashū-re will refuse. Of affixes in on, un, ūn: tali-hūn doubtful; miosi-hūn or hon wrong.
- Stems of several syllables terminating in i or u, with e preceding, take e: julesi-ken a little forward; tebu-ngge laying down; of affixes in on, un, ūn: wesi-hun upper; etu-hun strong.
- Stems having u repeated, take mostly e, but sometimes a: uku-he accompanied; ulu-ken a little wrong; but usu-kan a little uncommon.
- Stems terminating in u with i preceding, take mostly a: bišu-kan a little smooth; but also e: kiru-re will be in heat.
- Stems in u and ū, take mostly a: mukū-ha breathed in.
- Stems with two i, take mostly a: ili-ha stood; but also e: iji-re will weave.
The exceptions for the verbal affixes ha, ra, will be given in extenso under “Verbs.”
If two or more affixes are used, the vowel of the first determines the vowels of the others.
The difference between wide and narrow vowels is also used to express the difference of gender, e.g.:—
|a male principle (陽 yang)||e female principle (陰 yin).|
|ama father.||eme mother.|
|amha father-in-law.||emhe mother-in-law.|
|haha man.||hehe woman, etc.|
3. Diphthongs and Triphthongs.
In these the rules of vowel harmony are not perceptible:
a may be followed by i, o: ai, ao; e by i, o: ei, eo; i by a, e, i, o, u: ia, ie, ii, io, iu; o by i, o: oi, oo; u by a, e, i, o: ua, ue, ui, uo; ū by a, e, i, o: ūa, ūe, ūi, ūo.
Triphthongs are ioa, ioo, io(w)an, io(w)en, ioi, i(y)ao.
Of the above oo stands for ao or ū; ioo for Chinese yao (要); io(w)an, io(w)en for uan, üan; ioi for ü, i(y)oo for iao.
4. Word-changes and Foreign Words.
Vowels are often dropped:
- in the middle of words: tofohon fifteen, pronounced tofhon; ilha flower from ilaha; utha hunt—butaha; hojhon son-in-law—hojihon; ufhi part—ufuhi; gelhun fear—gelehun; narša niggard—naraša; cirku pillow—ciruku from cirumbi; forgon or forhon season—forohon, etc.
- in combination of two words: ertele till here—ere tele, emderi at the same time—emu derei; emuršu simple—emu ursu; erse such—ere se; ergi this side—ere gi; inenggishūn noon—inenggi sahūn; dergi upper—dere gi; baitakū unemployed—baita akū; memema step-father—meme ama; aba where?—ai ba; amargi behind—ama ergi, alimbaharakū inexpressible—alime baraha akū.
A final n, not being part of the root, is dropped in combinations: kumuda musician—kumun da; ilase three years—ilan se; daniyartu a mythological animal—daniyan artu, or transformed in m before b: dulimba middle—dulin ba.
K and h, g and h sometimes interchange: emeke—emhe mother-in-law; julge—julehe formerly.
Foreign words in Manchu are mostly Chinese and Mongol. The latter, like gobi desert, sain good, have been taken over without change and are difficult to recognize as foreign.
In the beginning of Manchu literature Chinese words were:—
- borrowed without change, new words for new idea: ging (京, 經, 更), gung (公, 宮, 功, 工), wang (王), even when an original Manchu word existed: liyo hūwang (硫黃 liu huang sulphur) instead of hurku; funghūwang (鳳凰 fêng huang phœnix) instead of garudai. It has been calculated that one-third of the Manchu dictionary consists of Chinese words thus borrowed.
- with slight change in the termination: ging-gulembi to honour from 敬 (ching).
- with an addition explanatory of the meaning: gin liyan ilha (金蓮 chin lien lotus, ilha flower) lotus; ingturi or ingtoro cherry from 櫻 ying cherry with turi bean or toro (桃 tʽao) peach.
Other similarities seem to point to more ancient loans: fi brush (筆 pi), fafun law (法 fa); dulefun degree (度 tu); kemun measure (刻 kʽe). These may, however, originally spring from the same root (compare e.g. kemun with Jakutic käm measure).
Manchu words cannot begin with r (Buddhist works contain some transliterated Sanscrit words commencing with r) or ū (ūlet is Mongol). They generally terminate in vowels or n. Final r, k, and s is only found in onomatopoetic words like kacar kicir, kafur, kalar kilir, etc., cik cak, tok, katak kitik, kas kis. Words with final m, l, or t, are foreign: serim name of a place, serekul town in Turkestan, mandal Mongol word, a place where scared rites are practiced ūlet is a Mongol name.
Some few words terminate in b: tob right, cob mountain peak, kab kib, cib cab. The ending ng, if not onomatopoetic as in ang, cing cang, cung, etc., shows Chinese origin.
The words of Manchu language may be divided into: 1. nouns and adjectives, 2. pronouns, 3. numerals, 4. verbs, 5. adverbs, 6. postpositions, 7. conjunctions, 8. interjections.
1. Nouns and adjectives I treat together, as they have many terminations in common and as many adjectives may be used as nouns and vice versa.
The terminations for nouns are:—
- vowels: abka heaven, muke water, kesi favour, olo hemp, huncu sledge, boo house, buhū stag.
- n: morin horse, banin nature.
- ka, ko, ku, kū, ho, indicating mostly names of instruments and utensils: ujika, bow case; oboko washing basin; hujuku bellows; forikū drum; corho funnel; but also tacikū school.
- ha, he, ge, han, hen, gan, gen, gon: sujaha tent peg; suhe, suhen commentary, nedege news; hūsihan petticoat; hūrgan large net; turigen wages; bodogon intention.
- ba: hondoba whip lash; dulimba middle.
- bun: ulabun tradition.
- si, ci, cin: yafasi gardener; aduci herdsman; jacin second of two brothers.
- ra, re, ri, ro, ru, ran, ren, ron: jamaran quarrel; tohoro circle, wheel; heturen cross beam.
The terminations for nouns and adjectives are:—
- nggi: inenggi day; etenggi strong.
- hiyan, hiyen: acuhiyan slander, calumnious.
- hon, hun, hūn, shun, shūn: etuhun power, mighty; ijishūn compliance, compliant.
- sun: hūwaliyasun harmony, peaceful.
- tu, tun: iletu appearance, clear; iletun sign.
- ki, hi, hin: jabšaki luck, lucky; hūlhi stupid; aduhi leather trowsers; lekerki, lekerhi, lekerhin seal.
- cu, cun: suilacun anxiety, anxious.
- la, lo, le, lan, lon, len: fangkala low; dorolon ceremony.
- ju, ji: boihoju terrestrial, spirit of the earth; jiduji quite right; boigoji landlord.
The terminations for adjectives are:—
- ngga, nggo, ngge, nggū: moringga riding, doronggo regular; ambalinggū (o) earnest.
- (n) ingge: niyalmaingge human.
- su, da, do, de: gelesu timid; ubiyada hated.
- buru, cuka, cuke: hataburu, hatacuka odious; ferguwecuke wonderful.
- saka: ekisaka silent.
Diminutives and augmentatives are formed with the affixes kan, kon, ken, gan, gen, liyan, liyen, cen, si: ambakan somewhat large; biragan a small river; olhokon a little dry; gelfiyeken a little pale; adaliliyan somewhat similar; ambakaliyan a little big; isheliyen rather narrow; suhecen a small axe; ambakasi somewhat big.
Adjectives are transformed into nouns by adding urse (者): tacire urse (學者) the students, the scholars; or by adding ba (place): amba ba greatness.
The plural of nouns (adjectives remain unchanged) is formed:—
- by the affixes sa, se, si, so, ta, da, te, ri. These are simply added to the word; a final n (not being part of the root) is dropped (hafan—hafasa); but han emperor—hansa. Jui loses final i: juse; omolo final lo: omosi. Thus šabi—šabisa; age, agese; aha—ahasi; monggo—monggoso; ama—amata; eme—emete; mafa—mafari. Some nouns use several affixes: urun—urusa and uruse; agu—agusa and aguse; nakču—nakčusa, nakčuse, and nakčuta; gioro or gioru—gioroso and gioruse; sargan—sargata and sargada.
- by repeating the noun: se se years.
- by adding numeral terms or words denoting plurality. These are:
- Placed before the noun: tanggū hundred, e.g. tanggū hala (百姓) the hundred family names, the people; tumen ten thousand (萬), e.g. tumen jaka things, all things; geren all, e.g. geren niyalma all men; the latter is also used in combination with plural forms: geren ambasa hafasa the officials.
- Placed after the noun: gemu all, e.g. bayan gemu the rich; tome all, e.g. niyalma tome men, all men; jergi rank (等), e.g. gurgu jergi the animals; urse (者) follows chiefly adjectives or participles, e.g. bayan urse the rich; tacire urse the scholars, but does not always denote plurality.
- I, ni. I is placed after words terminating in a vowel or in n; ni follows words terminating in a consonant other than n. After words ending in i (words of Chinese origin excepted) the i may be left out.
This affix denotes:
- the genitive case or possession, origin, habitation, part, intention with which a thing is done (之), e.g. boo i ejen the master of the house; abkai ejen the Lord of Heaven, God (天主); irgen i urse those of the people; urgun i doro the ceremony of congratulation.
- instrumentality (以), e.g. suhe i with an axe.
- an adverbial expression (然), e.g. fafun i legally.
Sometimes the i is left out, e.g. gūnin sukdun the spirit of thought, i.e. energy; siden haha a supernumerary. The first noun is in such cases employed like an adjective.
Of several nouns dependent on one, only the last of the dependent nouns takes the affix, e.g. ama jui i boo the house or houses of the son and of the father. Ama i jui i boo means the houses of the son of the father.
- De denotes the situation (in, at), the direction (towards, upon, on), the address (to), the remaining with, according to, the locative and the dative: gurun de in the empire, towards the empire; hoton de in or to the town; doron de according to custom, solemnly; na de on earth; ere niyalma de bumbi to give to this (ere) man (niyalma); tere niyalma de henduhe he spoke with that man; dere de sindambi to place on the table; si aibide genembi where (aibide) are you (si) going to? tuware de ja gojime yabure de mangga though (gojime) easy (ja) to look at (tuware de), it is difficult (mangga) to perform (yabure de); niyalma de it is for man to; abka de it is for heaven to (hominis est, cœli est); juwe de gemu sartabure de isinambi to come to (isinambi) delaying (sartabure de) altogether (gemu) in either (juwe de) 兩下裡都至於躭擱; gemu like the Chinese 都 tu is here expletive.
- Be denotes the direct complement of the verb, the accusative, e.g. baita be gaimbi to take a thing; erdemui beyebe dasambi by virtue we cultivate the body (beye be ourselves). Be is sometimes used as an expletive, e.g. hūwašabukū mutebukū tacikū tacihiyakū be ilibufi tacibume. hūwašabukū serengge ujire be tacihiyakū serengge tacibure be mutebukū serengge gabtabure be, establish (ilibufi) colleges, academies, schools and gymnasia for the instruction (tacibume) of the people. A college is for nourishment, an academy (and a school) for instruction, a gymnasium for archery (Mencius, Gabelentz p. 90, Legge p. 118). This use of be might be explained as an ellipsis, a verb like to give (bumbi) or to teach (tacimbi) being understood. It may be left out, if the sentence is otherwise clear, e.g. bithe arambi to write a letter.
- Ci is the sign of the ablative case (from, out of), denotes separation and is used in comparisons, e.g. ereci amasi henceforward; daci dubede isitala from beginning to end; ubaci goro akū not far from this; ama eniye ci fakcafi, booci aljafi inenggi goidaha taking leave of his father and mother, he was long separated from his family; yaci nenenme jihe bihe which came first?
It serves to form the comparative, e.g. minci amba bigger than myself.
- Personal pronouns.
bi I, si thou, i he (tere that), be we, muse we, suwe you, ce they. Muse means (like the Pekingese 咱們 tsa men) we that are speaking together, we that belong to one family, one clan, one nation. The above are declined as follows:—
nom. bi I be we muse we si thou suwe you i he, she, it ce they gen. mini meni musei sini suweni ini ceni dat. minde mende musede sinde suwende inde cende acc. mimbe membe musebe simbe suwembe imbe cembe abl. minci menci museci sinci suwenci inci cenci.
- Possessive Pronouns. These are formed by adding ngge to the genitive of the personal pronouns: miningge mine, siningge thine, etc. Often the genitive without ngge is thus employed: meni morin our horse. Ere this, tere that frequently stand for the third person: terei gūnin his opinion; eseingge theirs, belonging to them.
- Demonstrative Pronouns. These are ere this, tere that:—
nom. ere this ese these tere that tese those gen. erei, ereni esei terei tesei dat. ede, erede esede tede, terede tesede acc. erebe esebe terebe tesebe abl. ereci eseci tereci teseci
- Interrogative Pronouns. These are we (gen. wei, dat. wede, acc. webe, abl. weci) who? ai (acc. aimbe, abl. ainci) what? which? ya who? what? With we are formed weingge, weike which? of what nature? With ai: aibi, ai gese, aiba what? ai yadare how much? aba where? etc. With ya: yaci who? what? yaka how? At the end of interrogative sentences it is common to append ni or o, e.g. marimbio shall I back out? When following the future participle in ra (re, ro) o sometimes implies a request: minde hūlabureo do cause me to study! (hūlambi to study, hūlabumbi passive or causative, hūlabure future participle)
- Indefinite Pronouns: aika, aimaka somebody, ya everybody, yamaka whoever, etc.
- The cardinal numbers are:—
1 emu, emke 2 juwe 3 ilan 4 duin 5 sunja 6 ninggun 7 nadan 8 jakūn 9 uyun 10 juwan 11 juwan emu 12 juwan„ juwe 13 juwan„ ilan 14 juwan„ duin 15 tofohon 16 juwan ninggun, etc. 20 orin 21 orin emu, etc. 30 gūsin 40 dehi 50 susai 60 ninju 70 nadanju 80 jakūnju 90 uyunju 100 tanggū 101 tanggū emu 200 juwe tanggū 300 ilan tanggū, etc. 1000 minggan 10000 tumen 100000 juwan tumen 1000000 tanggū tumen.
- The Ordinal Numerals are formed by adding ci to the cardinals, dropping a final n except in juwan ten and tumen ten thousand, in which two the n is part of the root:
The first uju, ujui, ujuci, tuktan, emuci, the very first ujui uju, niongnio, bonggo.
The second jai, jaici, juweci.
The third ilaci The fourth duici The fifth sunjaci The sixth ningguci The seventh nadaci The eighth jakūci The ninth uyuci The tenth juwanci The eleventh juwan emuci The hundredth tanggūci The thousandth minggaci The ten thousandth tumenci.
- Distributive Numerals are formed by adding ta, te, to, to the cardinals, final n being dropped as with the ordinal numerals (except in juwan 10 and tumen 10000).
one by one emte (for emute) by twos juwete by„ threes itata by„ fours duite by„ fives sunjata by„ sixes ninggute by„ sevens nadata by„ 8 jakūta by„ 9 uyute by„ 10 juwanta by„ 15 tofohoto by„ 20 orita by„ 30 gūsita by„ 40 dehite by„ 50 susaita. by„ 60 ninjute. by„ 70 nadanjuta (te). by„ 80 jakūnjute. by„ 90 uyunjute. by„ 100 tanggūta. by„ 1000 minggata. by„ 10000 tumente. by„ several udute.
- Fractional numerals: dulin, dulga, andala, tubi, dulimba, hontoho half; 1/4 duin ci emu; 1/3 ilan ci emu.
- Multiplicative Numerals are formed by adding ubu or rsu (ursu) to the cardinals with elision of final n (except as above in juwan and tumen):
- single emursu, emu ubu;
- double jursu, juwe ubu, ubui; ubui fulu (twice as much), juru, bakcin;
- threefold ilarsu ilan ubu;
- ninefold uyursu;
- hundredfold tanggūrsu.
Other numeral expressions are: gemu both, durbejengge square, with four angles.
There are in Manchu pure verbal stems of one and more syllables like o to be, ara to write, and verbs derived from nouns and adjectives.
The more common syllables used in case of such derivations are:
- ta, to, te, da, do, de: gosin humanity—gositambi (also without any insertion: gosi—mbi); jali crafty—jalidambi to cheat.
- na, no, ne: abdaha a leaf —abdahanambi to leaf; acan union—acanambi to meet.
- la, le: hiyoošun (孝順) filial piety—hiyoosulambi to treat with filial piety; aba a hunt—abalambi to hunt
- du, ndu: hiyoošun filial piety—hiyoosundumbi
- ra, ro, re: gisun word—gisurembi to speak
- ša, šo, še: injeku merry—injekušembi to laugh at; adali similar—adalisambi to be similar.
In some cases it is doubtful whether the verb is derived from the noun or whether the latter is of verbal derivation: isan a meeting, isambi to meet; iren the track of fish, irenembi to ruffle the water (as fish do).
There are further syllables which, when added to the stem of verbs form new verbs. These are:
- ja, mostly reflexive: gūninambi to think, gūninjambi the same; isambi to meet, isamjambi to collect.
- nu, ndu, mostly cooperative: injembi to laugh, injendumbi to laugh together (injenumbi); arambi to do, arandumbi to do together.
- ca, co, ce, cooperative and frequentative: injembi to laugh, injecembi to laugh together; dedumbi to sleep, deducembi to sleep together.
- ji: wambi to kill, wajimbi to die; arambi to do, aranjimbi to come to do.
- na, no, ne: isimbi to come near, isinambi to arrive.
An accumulation of these syllables frequently occurs: ijumbi—ijurambi—ijursambi to besmear: abalambi to hunt, abalanambi to go hunting, abalanjimbi to come to the hunt, abalandumbi to hunt together; acambi to meet, acalambi to agree upon, acamjambi to collect, acanambi to meet, acandumbi to meet together, acanjimbi to come to meet.
Moods and Tenses. To express the moods and tenses the Manchu verb has 23 forms.
- The stem; the moods and tenses are produced by adding the following affixes to the stem of the verb:—
- mbi, 3. me, 4. ha (he, ho, ka, ke, ko, ngka, ngke, ngko), 5. ra (re, ro, ndara, ndere), 6. ci, 7. ki, 8. fi (pi, mpi), 9. mbihe, 10. habi (hebi, hobi, kabi, kebi, kobi), 11. habihe (hebihe, hobihe, kabihe, kebihe, kobihe), 12. habici (hebici, hobici, kabici, kobici); 13. cibe, 14. cina (cun), 15. kini, 16. mbime, 17. mbifi, 18. nggala (nggele, nggolo), 19. mbumbi, 20. mbubumbi, 21. ngge, 22. le (lengge), 23. leme (lame).
Of these ha (4), ra (5), habi (10), habihe (11), habici (12), and nggala (18) are subjected to the laws of vowel harmony.
Taking in order the parts of the paradigm arambi to write I will now explain each form.
- The stem is ara which at the same time serves as the Imperative: ara write!
- By adding mbi we obtain the Present Tense: ara—mbi I write (there being no distinction of persons, this stands for I, thou, he, we, you, they write).
- Me added to the stem makes the Infinitive: ara—me to write; this form is also an Indefinite Gerund: writing
- The affix ha forms the preterite: ara—ha I wrote. It is also a past participle: written, having written.
- The affix ra forms the Future: ara—ra I shall write; it is also a participle: writing, going to write.
- Ci makes a Conditional Tense: ara—ci I should write, if I wrote, should I write, sometimes to be translated by the present tense implying a doubt.
- Ki forms a Subjunctive of the present: ara—ki may he write.
- Fi forms a past Gerund: ara—fi having written, after having written.
The above eight are the fundamental forms; the 15 others are formed by adding affixes to them, Those which are added to the stem are:—
- Mbihe forming an Imperfect Tense: ara—mbihe I was writing.
- Habi forming an Indefinite Past: ara—habi I have written.
- Habihe forming a Pluperfect: ara—habihe I had written.
- Habici forming a Past Conditional Tense: ara—habici if I had written.
- Cibe forming an Adversative: ara—cibe although I may write, even if I write.
- Cina forming a Concessive: ara—cina may he write if he likes, may he write what he likes. An old form cun (ara—cun) is found in a translation of the Shiking (Book of Odes).
- Kini forming an Optative: ara—kini would that he wrote! Cina and kini are also used in an imperative or passive sense.
- Mbime forming a Gerund: ara—mbime whilst writing.
- Mbifi forming a Gerund: ara—mbifi having written.
- Nggala denotes that at thing has not yet been done: ara—nggala before I wrote, before writing.
- Mbumbi forming the Passive or Causative Mood: ara—mbumbi is written, causes to write. This then becomes a new verb, which as an independent stem (arambu) takes all the other affixes.
- Mbubumbi forming a Causative of the Passive: ara—mbubumbi causes to be written.
The following affixes are added to the forms in ha (4) and ra (5):—
- Ngge forming Verbal Nouns and Adjectives: ara—ha—ngge, ara—ra—ngge that which is written, the writing; that which he has written; he is writing; he who is writing.
- Le adds an indefinite meaning: ara—ha—le, ara—ra—le whoever writes, whatever is written. This affix is originally ele (whoever) and the Chinese-Manchu Grammar Tsing Wen Ki Mung (vol. II, fol. 32 b) is wrong in giving two forms le and la, subjecting them to the law of harmony. This form also takes the affix ngge: ara—ha—le—ngge, ara—ra—le—ngge—whosoever is writing.
- lame (leme) added to the future in ra (5) renders the meaning adverbial: ara—ra—lame in the manner of writing.
PARADIGM OF ARAMBI TO WRITE.
|2.||Present Tense||arambi||I write.|
|5.||Future||arara||I shall write.|
|6.||Conditional||araci||should I write.|
|7.||Subjunctive Present||araki||may he write.|
|8.||Past Gerund||arafi||having written.|
|9.||Imperfect||arambihe||I was writing.|
|10.||Indefinite Past||arahabi?||I have written.|
|11.||Pluperfect||arahabihe||I had written.|
|12.||Past Conditional||arahabici||if I had written.|
|13.||Adversative||aracibe||although he may write.|
|14.||Concessive||aracina||may he write.|
|15.||Optative||arakini||would that he wrote.|
|16.||Gerund I.||arambime||whilst writing.|
|17.||Gerund„ II.||arambifi||having written.|
|18.||Gerund„ III.||aranggala||before writing.|
|19.||Passive||arambumbi||it is written.|
|20.||Causative or Passive||arambubumbi||I cause to be written.|
|21.||Verbal Noun||arahangge, ararangge||the writing, the writer.|
|22.||Indefinite||arahale, ararale||whoever writes.|
|23.||Adverbial||araralame||in the manner of writing.|
- The following verbs have an irregular Imperative:—
baimbi to request —baisu. bimbi to be —bisu. gaimbi to receive —gaisu. jembi to eat —jefu. jimbi to come —jio, ju. ombi to become —oso. tucimbi to go forth —tusinu wasimbi to fall —wasinu wesimbi to rise —wesinu
- The sign of the Past Tense ha, he, ho, ka, ke, ko, ngka, ngke, ngko, and the sign of the Future ra, re, ro, ndara, ndere, ndoro are subject to the laws of vowel harmony. The general rules are:—
- verbs with the stem in a have ha (ka) and ra. Exceptions with ha, re: buktalambi, cihalšambi, cilcilambi, maimašambi, manjurambi, miyoocalambi, nionggalambi, niyakurambi, tungnigambi. With he, ra: derakulambi, faishalambi, sosambi. With ho, ro: morilambi.
- verbs with the stem in e have he (ke) and re. Exceptions: siderilembi (ha, re); giyoloršembi (ho, ro).
- verbs with the stem in o have ho (ko) and ro. Exceptions: doombi (ha, re); fombi (ha, re); gombi, goha, gondoro; joombi (ha, re); leombi or loombi (ha, re); neombi (he, re); niyaniombi (ha, re); šombi (ha, re); tungniombi (ha, re); yombi, yoha, yoro, yondoro.
- verbs in u with a preceding have ha (ka), ra (re). Exception: niyanggumbi (he, re).
- verbs in i with a preceding have ha (ka), ra (re). Exception: alanggimbi (he, re).
- verbs in i with e preceding have he (ke), re. Exception: kesimbi (ha, re).
- verbs in u with e preceding have he (ke), re. Exception: feksimbi (ha, re).
Dahambi forms daha (instead of dahaha), bahambi forms baha.
A number of verbs, however, contrary to the above rules, take ha, ra; ha, re; he re; ho, ro; ka, ra; ka, re; ke, re; ko, ro; ha and ka, ra; ha and ka, re; ha and ke, re; ha and he, re; ha and ko, ro; ke and ho, ro; he and ke, re; ho and ko, ro; ke and ko, ro. It would be to no purpose to give the long lists of these verbs, Sakharoff’s Dictionary gives the affixes used by each verb.
The following verbs are only used in the Indefinite Past: abulikabi, abšakabi, bemberekebi, delerekebi, farakabi, feherekebi, giegerekebi, genggerekebi, giyabsarakabi, gūwasakabi, ilmerekebi, jakjarakabi, jerekebi, joholikabi, juyekebi, laifarakabi, lebderekebi, lukdurekebi, werukebi.
The following verbs are found only as participles in ka, ke and ko: fuseke, niyekseke, oyoko, sureke, uldeke, undarako.
Certain verbs form the Preterite in ngka, ngke, ngko, the future in ndara, ndere, ndoro. Other form the Past Gerund in pi, mpi instead of in fi The following list gives the verbs with these irregularities, including the verbs already mentioned with irregular Imperatives.
LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS.
|bombi||bongko||bore, bondoro||infin. bonme|
|fombi||foha||fore||fompi, condit. fomci|
|gerembi||gerehe, gereke||gerere, gerendere|
|guwembi||guwengke||guwendere||guwempi, cond. guwen|
|gūwaliyambi (hū)||gūwaliyaka||gūwaliyara||gūwaliyapi, hūwaliyapi |
|jembi||jefu||jeke, jengke||jetere, jendere||jempi|
|jombi||jongko||jondoro||jompi, cond. jonci, opt. jongki|
|jumbi||jungke||jure||jumpi, opt. jubki|
|juwambi||juwangka, juwaka||juwara, jore||juwampi|
|ukambi||ukaha, ukaka||ukara, ukandara|
|wembi||wengke||were, wendere||wempi, inf. weme|
The Verb in the Negative.
Negation is expressed by akū not, is not (無, 不, 未, 沒有), waka not, no (不是), ume (莫)) do not, unde not yet, umai not, not at all.
When joined to the Present Tense akū simply follows: bi gisurembi akū I do not speak. With other verbal forms akū loses its a: araha—kū he has not written, genehe—kū he did not go. Joined to the Future the a of akū remains: arar—akū he will not write, gener—akū he will not go. The affixes ci, fi, and ngge follow akū: generakūci if he does not go, akūfi not existing, bisirakūngge those who are not present (不在的). When alone akū takes the regular affixes: bi akūmbi I am not. A double negation often occurs, akūngge akū (無不): serakungge akū nothing unsaid, he says everything.
In interrogative sentences akū adds an n: si sembi akūn will you eat or not?
Waka not, no, is either employed like akū, but without taking the affixes, or stands at the beginning of a sentence and then means no: manju bithe hūlambi wakao do you not study Manchu?
Ume followed by the verb in the Future Tense (ra) expresses prohibition: ume fusikūsara do not despise; ume gunire do not think.
Unde is preceded by the verb in the Future Tense (ra): bi sabure unde I have not yet seen.
Manchu adverbs are either primitive or derived from nouns, pronouns, numerals or verbs.
- Primitive Adverbs are indeclinable words like inu yes, coro after to-morrow, etc., of which there are a great number.
- Nouns are transformed into Adverbs by the affix i: an-i according to custom; de: doron de solemnly; ci: daci from the beginning, naturally; dari: biyadari monthly. Many adjectives, especially those ending in saka, cuka, cuke may be used as Adverbs.
- The Pronouns furnish a great number of Adverbs: aide where?, aibaci wherefrom?, etc.
- Most of the Numerals may be used as Adverbs. To the Ordinal Numerals de is added: jaide secondly. Others are formed by adding geri, nggeri, jergi, mudan, mari: emgeri once; ilanggeri thrice; emu mudan, emu mari once. Leme forms multiplicative Adverbs: tumenleme 10000 fold.
- The verbal forms in me (arame), mbime (arambime), leme, lame preceded by the verb in the Future Tense (araralame) may all be used as adverbial expressions.
- Many Adverbs are formed by adding the negation akū: erin akū never; hercun akū unexpectedly.
These are either simple or compound.
- The Simple Postpositions are the case affixes i, de, ci: i with, with the help of: suhe i with the axe; de in, at, on, towards, upon, to: hoton de in or to the town; ci from, out of: boo ci from the house.
- The Compound Postpositions follow the noun without any case affix or are preceded by i, de, be, or ci: omoi jakade near the pond; alin de isitala as far as the mountain; fafun be dahame in accordance with the law; julge ci ebsi from antiquity.
Beside several postpositions being used as Conjunctions like jakade when, because, isitala as soon as, turgunde as, because, etc., there are primitive Conjunctions like uthai therefore, damu but, and derivatives of verbs like cohome consequently, tuwame with regard to, oci (from ombi) if, ocibe although, ofi because, of nouns like fonde at the time when, bade when, of pronouns like aibe......aibe as well as, and of numerals like emgeri......emgeri now... ..now.
There is a great variety of Interjections in Manchu: ai ah, ara alas, yaha ah, adada bravo, cibse hush, takasu stop, cu off, etc. A number of onomatopoetic interjections are used as verbs when followed by sembi (to speak): kab snap, kab sembi to snap at; kanggūr kinggur helter-skelter, with sembi to fall with a great noise.
The position of words in a sentence is governed by the general rule, that every word precedes that by which it is governed. Thus the genitive stands before the noun on which it depends, e.g. boo i ejen the master of the house.
The adjective, participle, or demonstrative pronoun precedes its noun, e.g. nikan mudan the Chinese pronunciation; mutere baita a thing which can be done; tere niyalma that man.
The object stands before its governing verb, e.g. bithe arambi I write a letter.
The verb stands last in the sentence and can only be followed by a conjunction. The sentence “when I had given that thing to my father yesterday” would be rendered in Manchu: sikse (yesterday) bi (I) mini ama de (to my father) tere (that) baita be (thing) buhabike (pluperfect of bumbi to give) manggi (when).
Subordinate verbs precede the conclusive verb and take the form of the Past Gerund in fi or the Conditional in ci, e.g. cooha be gaifi amasi bederehe he took (gaifi, Past Gerund of gaimbi) the army (cooha be) and retreated (bederehe, Preterit of bederembi) backwards (amasi); having collected his army he retreated.
Coordinate verbs standing first in the same sentence take the form of the Infinitive (or Gerund) in me and only the last verb takes the tense affix required, e.g. muse niyalma jalan de banjifi inenggidari jabošome seoleme, beye dubentele kiceme faššame dulekengge be amcame aliyara gosihon babi, we men (muse niyalma) having been born (banjifi, Past Gerund of banjimbi) into the world (jalan de), are daily (inenggidari) afflicted (jobošome, Gerund of jobošombi) and vexed (seoleme, Gerund of seolembi), till the end (dubentele) we fatigue (kiceme, Gerund of kicembi) and exert (faššame, Gerund of faššambi) ourselves (beye), expecting (aliy ara, Future Participle of aliyambi) again and again (amcame) that which is past (dulekengge be) we are really (babi) miserable (gosihon).
The following pages will serve as reading lessons and as exercises for the elucidation of Manchu syntax. The text is taken from the “Tanggū meyen” (Hundred Chapters) a book of Manchu-Chinese dialogues, v. page 10 of my “Essay on Manchu Literature” in Journal of C. B. or R. A. S. vol. xxiv (1890). The Chinese version of these dialogues is familiar to every student of Chinese, as it forms the “Hundred Lessons” in the Tzū-êrh-chi of Sir Thomas Wade, of whose classical English translation I have availed myself. By comparing the Chinese of these dialogues the interesting fact will be noticed that certain peculiarities of Pekingese are Manchuisms foreign to ordinary “Mandarin.”
Senior. So I hear you are studying Manchu, eh? that’s right. Manchu is with us Manchus the first and foremost of essentials; it is to us, in short, what the language spoken in his own part of the country is to a Chinese; so it would never do to be without a knowledge of Manchu, would it?
Junior. To be sure not. I have been studying Chinese for over ten years, but I am still as far as ever from seeing my way in it. Then if I can’t master Manju and learn to translate, I shall have broken down at both ends of the line.
So I am come to-day, sir, in the first place, to pay my respects to you, and, in the next, to ask a favour of you. I find it not so easy to open the subject, however.
Senior. What’s your difficulty? pray say what you have got to say. If it’s anything that I can do for you, do you suppose that, with the relations existing between us, I shall try to back out?
Junior. What I have to ask, then, is this: that you will so far take an interest in me as to put yourself to a little trouble on my account; I will tell you how. Find time, if you can, to compose a few phrases in Manchu for me to study, and if I manage to succeed at all, I shall regard it entirely as your work.
Sir, I shall never forget your kindness, and shall not fail to repay it handsomely.
Senior. What are you talking about? you are one of us, are you not? My only fear would have been that you were not anxious to learn; but, since you are willing, I shall be only too glad to contribute to your success.
Talk of handsome return, indeed! people as intimate as you and I are should never use such language to one another.
Junior. Well, sir, if that’s the way of it, I am sure I feel extremely obliged. I have only to make you my best bow, and I shall say no more.
II. Senior. Why, when did you find, time to learn all the Manchu you know sir? Your pronunciation is good and you speak quite intelligibly.
Junior. Oh, sir, you are too complimentary. My Manchu does not amount to anything. There’s a friend of mine who really does talk well;
He is thoroughly at home in the language—intelligible, fluent, and speaks without a particle of Chinese accent, he is quite proficient. Then, besides, he has such a stock of words and phrases. Now, that is what one may call a good scholar, if you please
Senior. How does he compare with you?
Junior. Me! I should never venture to compare myself with him; I am as far from being his match
as the heavens are from the earth.
Senior. What is the reason of that?
Junior. Oh, he has been much longer at it, and knows a great deal more. Then he is very studious; he has been committing to memory steadily ever since he began, without stopping; the book is never out of his hand. I should have trouble enough to come up to him.
Senior. Nay, my young friend, I think you are making a slight mistake. Don’t you remember what the proverb says: “If you are constant, you will penetrate a rock”? What he knows he knows only because he has learnt it; it has not come to him by intuition. And are we in any way otherwise constituted? not at all!
Well, then, no matter how exact or practised a speaker he may be, all we have to do is to make up our mind and apply ourselves to the language; and if we don’t quite reach the point he has attained, we shall not be very far behind him, I suspect.
III. Senior. As to becoming a translator of Manchu, you are a Chinese scholar, and you can have no difficulty in learning to translate. All you need is an exclusive devotion of your mind to the one subject. Don’t let anything interfere with your studies, and let these be progressive; and in two or three years,
as a matter of course, you will be well on your way. If you glow for one day and are cold for ten days in your study, you may read for 20 years, but it will come to nothing.
IV. Junior. Will you do me the favour to look over these translations, sir, and make a few corrections?
Senior. Oh, come, you really have made very great progress; every sentence runs as it should; every word is clear; I have not a fault to find. If you go up for your examination, success is in your own hands.
V. Senior. Have you returned yourself as a candidate at these examinations that are coming off now?
Junior. I should be glad enough to stand,
but I am afraid that, being a B. A., I am not qualified.
Senior. What? when any bannerman can go up, do you mean to say that a man of your attainments would not be allowed to? Nonsense! why, even the boys from public schools may stand;
and if so, how should a B. A. not be qualified? my younger brother is now working as hard as he can at Manchu for the little time that remains before he has to go up. Don’t you throw away the opportunity. Add your name to the list at once.
VI. Senior. Well, I hear that you have made such way in Manchu, that you are beginning to speak it quite correctly.
Junior. Nonsense! I understand it, certainly, when I hear it spoken, but it will be sometime yet before I can speak it myself. It is not only that I can’t go right through with a piece of conversation of any length like other people, but I can’t even string half a dozen sentences together.
Then there is another odd thing I do: whenever I am going to begin, without being the least able to say why, I become so alarmed about mistakes that I dare not go on without hesitating; now, so long as this continues to be the case, how am I to make a speaker? Indeed, so far from considering myself one, I quite despair.
of ever learning to speak. I say to myself that if with all my studying I have not got farther than this, I shall certainly never be a proficient.
Senior. This is all mere want of practice. Listen to me. Whenever you meet a man, no matter who, (that can talk Manchu), at him at once, and talk away with him.
You must go and take lessons of competent professors of the language as well, you know; and if you have any friends who are good Manchu scholars, you should be for ever talking to them. Read some Manchu every day, and talk incessantly, until the habit of speaking comes quite naturally to the mouth. If you follow this rule in a year or two at the farthest
you will speak it without effort; so now don’t despair any more.
VII. Junior. Where are you from, sir, may I ask?
Senior. I have been to visit a relation of mine who lives down yonder. Won’t you step in and sit down on your way, sir?
Junior. Do you reside in this neighbourhood, sir?
Senior. Yes, I moved into this house not long ago.
Junior. Oh! indeed, sir; then we are not so very far from each other. If I had been aware that you lived here, I should have called before. Go on, sir, pray (I’ll follow you, if you please).
Senior. What, in my own house? Now, please take the upper seat.
Junior. Thank you, I am very well where I am.
Senior. But if you sit where you are sitting, what place am I to take?
Junior. I have got a seat, thank you; and a seat with a back to it.
Senior. Here! bring a light!
Junior. Not for me, thank you, sir, I can’t smoke; I have a sore mouth.
Senior. Well, then, bring some tea.
Junior. Drink first, then, pray. Oh, isn’t it hot.
Senior. If it is too hot, let it be taken away for a while, that it may get cooler. I am very sorry. Boy, go and see what there is in the kitchen,
and bring quickly whatever is ready.
Junior. No, indeed, sir; do not put yourself to so much trouble. I have still got to go somewhere else.
Senior. But it’s only whatever is ready; nothing is being prepared for you. Do try to eat a little, then you may go.
Junior. Not just now, thank you, sir; but now that I have found out where you live, I’ll come another time
and spend the day with you.
VIII. Senior. I observe you pass this way every day, sir, what place is it that you go to?
Junior. I go to my studies.
Senior. To read Manchu, isn’t it?
Junior. It is.
Senior. What are you reading in Manchu?
Junior. Oh, no new books, only every day talk
and the “Important explanation of Manchu speech.”
Senior. Are they teaching you to write Manchu round hand yet?
Junior. The days are too short at present to leave any time for writing; but presently, when they begin to lengthen, we shall be taught to write and translate, too.
Senior. Well, sir, I have been wanting to study Manchu myself
and I have looked, I assure you, everywhere (for a school) and left no place unexamined; but in our neighbourhood, I am sorry to say, there is no school for Manchu.
I was thinking that the one you go to would do for me well enough, and that one of these days I might commence my attendance. Will you be so good as to say a word for me to the master beforehand?
Junior. Ah! I see you think that it is a regular professor that teaches us; but that
is not the case. Our instructor is one of the elders of our clan and his pupils are all our own near cousins; any other that may attend are relations by marriage; there is not an outsider among them. But the fact is that our elder is too busy to give regular lessons; for, besides teaching us, he has to go to the yamên every day. It is only because we entreat him day and night
that he feels obliged to find time to play the tutor. Were the case otherwise, you desire to study Manchu is a thing commandable in itself, and as for the trouble of speaking in your behalf, I should not have thought it any trouble at all.
IX. Senior. That gentleman is our old neighbour, you know; the lad we have seen grow up here.
He has not been away from us very long, and now one hears that he is doing very well; that he has got an appointment. I only half believed the report when I first heard it, until on inquiring of friends I find it really is the case. It shows the truth of the proverb “If a man but resolve, the thing he wants to do is done”; and of the other proverb “No man is too young to make a resolution.”
Junior. That is all very well, sir; still, his father’s infinite virtues must have enabled him to beget a son of such promise; a young man so kind and good, so fond of his studies; in foot and horse archery, in every manly exercise beyond his years accomplished; spending any spare time
at home, and there always at his studies; never moving one step in the direction of a dissolute life.
Then he is so careful and attentive in the discharge of his public duties; and when he is able to obtain information about something, he remains perfectly spotless. It is quite a case in which one may observe that ᠌“The house where virtue accumulates (from generation to generation) will not fail to have more than an ordinary share of happiness.”
X. Junior. Keep on your horse, sir, pray! I went out of your sight.
Now, why should you go through the form of dismounting when you are so tired?
Senior. Not dismount, indeed! If I had not seen you, well and good; but when I did see you ever so far off, you would not have had me pass you on horseback, would you?
Junior. Well, sir, won’t you step in and sit down?
Senior. Oh, yes, I’ll step in and sit down a moment, it is so long since we met.
But, dear me! what a show of trees and flowers you have, and what a stock of goldfish! and your rockery, so ingeniously concieved; every tier of it has a character of its own! and what a tidy library! everything in it looks
so convenient, it is quite the place for reading men like us.
Junior. It is nice enough, no doubt; the misfortune is that I have no friend to study with, and studying all alone is tame work.
Senior. Well, there needn’t be much difficulty on that score. I’ll be your fellow-student, provided that I don’t bother you; what say you?
Junior. Bore, indeed! It will be a real blessing if you will. I never asked you
to come, because I feared you would refuse; but if you really are coming I shall be the most fortunate of men.
INDEX of AFFIXES and TERMS.
(The number in brackets indicates the verbal affix as explained on page 9).
For Manchu Literature see my Essay on Manchu Literature in Journal of China Branch of R. A. S., Shanghai, vol. xxiv (1890) p. 1-45.
The following are the principal European works for the study of Manchu:—
J. Klaproth, Chrestomathie mandchou or recueil de textes mandchou. Paris 1828. 8vo, 273 pp.
H. C. von der Gabelentz, Elémens de la grammaire mandchoue. Altenbourg, 1832. 8vo, 156 pp.
Additional remarks on the Manchu verb in “Beiträge zur mandschuischen Conjugationslehre, Zeitschr. der D. M. Ges. xviii, p. 202-219.
—Sse-schu, Schu-king, Schi-king in mandschuischer Uebersetzung mit einem mandschu-deuschem Wörterbuch. Leipzig, 1864. 2 vols. 8vo.
Vol. I containing the romanized Manchu text of the four books (四書), the Shuking and Shiking, 304 pp.
Vol. II containing the dictionary, 231 pp.
T. T. Meadows, Translations from the Manchu language with the original text. Canton, 1849. 8vo.
A. Wylie, T'sing-wen-k'i-ung, a Chinese grammar of the Manchu Tartar language with introductory notes on Manchu literature. Shanghai, 1855. 8vo, II, lxxx, 310 pp.
F. Kaulen, Linguae mandschuricae institutiones quas conscripsit indicibus ornavit chrestomathia et vocabulario auxit. Ratisbonae, 1856. 8vo., 152 pp.
W. Wassilyeff, Manchu Chrestomathy. St. Petersburg, 1863. 8vo, 228 pp.
L. Adam, Grammaire de la langue mandchou. Paris, 1873. 8vo, 137 pp.
Sakharoff, Complete Manchu-Russian Lexicon. St. Petersburg, 1875. Imp. 8vo, xxx, 1,636 pp.
G. von der Gabelentz, Thai-kih-thu. Tafel des Urprinzips, chinesisch mit mandschuisher und deutscher Uebersetzung. Dresden, 1876. 8vo.
W. Grube, T'ung-schu des Ceu-tsi, chinesisch und mandschuisch mit Uebersetzung und Commentar. Wien, 1880. 8vo.
E. Teza, Mangiurica, note raccolte. Pisa.
G. Hoffmann, Grammatica mancese compendiata dall’ opera zinese Zing wen ki mung. Turin, 1883. 8vo, 36pp.
L. Nocentini, Il santo editto di Kanghi e l’amplificazione di Yung-ceng. Versione mancese. Firenze, 1883.
C. de Harlez, Manuel de la langue mandchoue. Grammaire, anthologie et lexique. Paris, 1884. 8vo., 232 pp
For older works see Manual of Chinese Bibliography by myself and my brother. Shanghai, 1876, p. 300-305.
- The name of the Emperor 舜 shun is given in Manchu as šūn.
- The y in these 3 Chinese syllables represents the vowel transcribed by Wade with ŭ as in tzŭ and ssŭ, with ih as in chih and shih.
- This alphabet was adopted by the Uigurs from a Syriac or Mandaic source, thence adapted to the Mongolian language and in 1599 slightly altered to suit the pronunciation of Manchu. Unfortunately 3 vowels were left unrepresented: ö, ü, y. By comparing the Tungusic dialects these vowels can be partly restored.
- I follow J. Grunzel, Die Vocalharmonie der Altaischen Sprachen, Sitz. Ber. der Kais. Ak. der Wiss. Wien, 1888, which is based on Radloff's eminent work: Phonetik der Nördlichen Türksprachen. Leipzig, 1883.
- Whenever hereafter any of these affixes is referred to, its number as here given will be quoted in brackets.
- See Essay on Manchu Literature, page 10. [清話指要 qīng huà zhǐyào]
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