A Simplified Grammar of the Swedish Language/Part II/Prepositions

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Prepositions. (Förord).

A preposition in Swedish generally precedes directly the noun which it governs; as nu blifver det en stor glädje på gården och i hela huset, 'now there will be great joy on the estate, and in the house.'

Some prepositions may follow the noun or pronoun; as, det kan ske honom förutan, 'that may happen without him;' oss emellan sagdt, älskar jag henne icke, 'between ourselves, I do not care for her;' att gå om, 'to pass by;' systeren gjorde det mig emot, 'my sister did it against my wishes;' ni med, 'you and all.'

Many prepositions govern the genitive in accordance with the Old Northern construction; as, till lands, 'by land;' till bords, 'to (table) dinner.' This older form is also traceable in such expressions as, tillhanda, 'to hand;' i somras, 'last summer;' i sommar 'this summer;' om sommaren, 'in the summer;' i höstas 'last autumn;' i höst, 'this autumn.'

The correct use of the prepositions presents considerable difficulty in Swedish. Thus, for instance, in rendering the English 'of,' a number of different prepositions are needed in accordance with the special nature of the relations or conditions referred to; as, herren i huset 'the master of the house;' släppen på rocken, 'the train of the dress;' skälet till, 'the reason of;' enkaman efter min syster, 'widower of my sister;' tjenaren hos generalen, 'the servant of the general;' full med, 'full of;' af gammal familj, 'of an old family;' en man af snille, 'a man of genius.'

Till still governs a genitive as in Old Swedish; as, till fots, 'on foot;' but the Swedish prepositions generally govern the dative or the accusative.