Explain the difference between average stock returns and risk-free returns.

Explain how the Sharpe Ratio is used to manage risk.

Describe the significance of US equity risk premiums as a method of comparison with other countries.

Describe how variance and standard deviation are used to measure the variability of individual stocks.

Explain how an investor chooses the best portfolio of stock to hold.

Discuss how diversification is used to mitigate risk in the portfolio.

Describe the relationship between risk and expected return (CAPM).

Explain how the risk-free rate, market risk premium and stock beta are used to calculate expected returns using the capital asset pricing model (CAPM).

Explain how cyclicality of revenues and operating leverage help determine beta.

Describe the dividend discount model (DDM) approach and how is it different than CAPM.

Understand how to calculate the weighted average cost of capital to determine the optimum level of debt and equity to finance an investment.

What derivatives are and how are they used to manage risk.

Distinguish between forward contracts and future contracts.

Compare and contrast the various types of swap contracts.