Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora
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AGREED MEASURES FOR THE CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTICA FAUNA AND FLORA
The Representatives, taking into consideration Article IX of the Antarctic Treaty, and recalling Recommendation I-VIII of the First Consultative Meeting and Recommendation II-II of the Second Consultative Meeting, recommend to their Governments that they approve as soon as possible and implement without delay the annexed "Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora"
The Governments participating in the Third Consultative Meeting under Article IX of the Antarctic Treaty,
DESIRING to implement the principles and purposes of the Antarctic Treaty;
RECOGNISING the scientific importance of the study of Antarctic fauna and flora, their adaptation to their rigorous environment, and their interrelationship with that environment;
CONSIDERING the unique nature of these fauna and flora, their circumpolar range, and particularly their defencelessness and susceptibility to extermination;
DESIRING by further international collaboration within the framework of the Antarctic Treaty to promote and achieve the objectives of protection, scientific study, and rational use of these fauna and flora; and
HAVING PARTICULAR REGARD to the conservation principles developed by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unions;
Hereby consider the Treaty Area as a Special Conservation Area and have agreed on the following measures;
1. These Agreed Measures shall apply to the same area to which the Antarctic Treaty is applicable ( hereinafter referred to as the Treaty Area) namely the Area south of 60 degrees South Latitude, including all ice shelves.
However, nothing in these Agreed Measures shall prejudice or in any way affect the rights, or the exercise of the rights, of any state under international law with regard to the high seas within the Treaty Area, or restrict the implementation of the provisions of the Antarctic Treaty with respect to inspection.
2. The Annexes to these Agreed Measures shall form an integral part thereof, and all references to the Agreed Measures shall be considered to include the Annexes.
For the purposes of these Agreed Measures:
a) "Native mammal" means any member, at any stage of its life cycle, of any species belonging to the Class Mammalia indigenous to the Antarctic or occurring there through natural agencies of dispersal, excepting whales;
b) "native bird" means any member, at any stage of its life cycle (including eggs), of any species of the Class Aves indigenous to the Antarctic or occurring there through natural agencies of dispersal;
c) "native plant" means any kind of vegetation at any stage of its life cycle (including seeds), indigenous to the Antarctic or occurring there through natural agencies of dispersal;
d) "appropriate authority" means any person authorized by a Participating Government to issue permits under these Agreed Measures;
c) "permit" means a formal permission in writing issued by an appropriate authority;
f ) "participating government" means any Government for which these Agreed Measures have become effective in accordance with Article XIII of these Agreed Measures
Each Participating Government shall take appropriate action to carry out these Agreed Measures
The Participating Governments shall prepare and circulate to members of expeditions and stations information to ensure understanding and observance of the provisions of these Agreed Measures, setting forth in particular prohibited activities, and providing lists of specially protected species and specially protected areas.
The provisions of these Agreed Measures shall not apply in cases of extreme emergency involving possible loss of human life or involving the safety of ships or aircraft.
1. Each Participating Government shall prohibit within the Treaty Area the killing, wounding, capturing or molesting of any native mammal or native bird or any attempt at any such act, except in accordance with a permit.
2. Such permits shall be drawn in terms as specific as possible and issued only for the following purposes;
a) to provide indispensable food for men or dogs in the Treaty Area in limited quantities, and in conformity with the purposes and principles of these Agreed Measures;
b) to provide specimens for scientific study or scientific information;
c) to provide specimens for museums, zoological gardens, or other educational or cultural institutions or uses.
3. Permits for Specially Protected Areas shall be issued only in accordance with the provisions of Article VIII.
4. Participating Governments shall limit the issue of such permits so as to ensure as far as possible that:
a) no more native mammals or birds are killed or taken in any year than can normally be replaced by natural reproduction in the following breeding season;
b) the variety of species and the balance of the natural ecological systems existing within the Treaty Area are maintained.
5. The species of native mammals and birds listed in Annex A of these Measures shall be designated "Specially Protected Species", and shall be accorded special protection by Participating Governments.
6. A Participating Government shall not authorize an appropriate authority to issue a permit with respect to a Specially Protected Species except in accordance with paragraph 7 of this Article.
7. A permit may be issued under this Article with respect to a Specially Protected Species, provided that:
a) it is issued for a compelling scientific purpose, and;
b) the actions permitted there under will not jeopardize the existing natural ecological system or the survival of that species.
1. Each Participating Government shall take appropriate measures to minimize harmful interference within the Treaty Area with the normal living conditions of any native mammal or bird, or any attempt at such harmful interference, except as permitted under Article VI.
2. The following acts and activities shall be considered as harmful interference:
a) allowing dogs to run free;
b) flying helicopters or other aircraft in a manner which would unnecessarily disturb bird and seal concentrations, or landing close to such concentrations (ex. within 200 meters);
c) driving vehicles unnecessarily close to concentrations of birds and seals (ex. within 200 meters);
d) use of explosives close to concentrations of birds and seals;
e) discharge of firearms close to bird and seal concentrations (e.g. within 300 meters);
f) any disturbance of bird and seal colonies during the breeding period by persistent attention from persons on foot.
However, the above activities, with the exception of those mentioned in a) and e) may be permitted to the minimum extent necessary for the establishment, supply and operation of stations.
3. Each Participating Government shall take all reasonable steps towards the alleviation of pollution of the waters adjacent to the coast and ice shelves.
1. The areas of outstanding scientific interest listed in Annex B shall be designated "Specially Protected Areas" and shall be accorded special protection by the Participating Governments in order to preserve their unique natural ecological system.
2. In addition to the prohibitions and measures of protection dealt with in other Articles of these Agreed Measures, the Participating Governments shall in Specially Protected Areas further prohibit:
a) the collection of any native plant, except in accordance with a permit;
b) the driving of any vehicle.
3. A permit issued under Article VI shall not have effect within a Specially Protected Area except in accordance with paragraph 4 of the present Article.
4. A permit shall have effect within a Specially Protected Area provided that:
a) it was issued for a compelling scientific purpose which cannot be served elsewhere; and
b) the actions permitted there under will not jeopardize the natural ecological system existing in that Area
1. Each Participating Government shall prohibit the bringing into the Treaty Area of any species of animal or plant not indigenous to that Area, except in accordance with a permit.
2. Permits under paragraph 1 of this Article shall be drawn in terms as specific as possible and shall be issued to allow the importation only of the animals and plants listed in Annex C. When any such animal or plant might cause harmful interference with the natural system if left unsupervised within the Treaty Area, such permits shall require that it be kept under controlled conditions and, after it has served its purpose, it shall be removed from the Treaty Area or destroyed.
3. Nothing in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article shall apply to the importation of food into the Treaty Area so long as animals and plants used for this purpose are kept under controlled conditions.
4. Each Participating Government undertakes to ensure that all reasonable precautions shall be taken to prevent the accidental introduction of parasites and diseases into the Treaty Area. In particular, the precautions listed in Annex D shall be taken.
Each Participating Government undertakes to exert appropriate efforts, consistent with the Charter of the United Nations, to the end that no one engages in any activity in the Treaty Area contrary to the principles or purposes of these Agreed Measures.
Each Participating Government whose expeditions use ships sailing under flags of nationalities other than its own shall, as far as feasible, arrange with the owners of such ships that the crews of these ships observe these Agreed Measures.
1. The Participating Governments may make such arrangements as may be necessary for the discussion of such matters as:
a) the collection and exchange of records (including records of permits) and statistics concerning the numbers of each species of native mammal and bird killed or captured annually in the Treaty Area;
b) the obtaining and exchange of information as to the status of native mammals and birds in the Treaty Area, and the extent to which any species needs protection;
c) the number of native mammals or birds which should be permitted to be harvested for food, scientific study, or other uses in the various regions;
d) the establishment of a common form in which this information shall be submitted by Participating Governments in accordance with paragraph 2 of this Article.
2. Each Participating Government shall inform the other Governments in writing before the end of November of each year of the steps taken and information collected in the preceding period of July 1st to June 30th relating to the implementation of these Agreed Measures. Governments exchanging information under paragraph 5 of Article VII of the Antarctic Treaty may at the same time transmit the information relating to the implementation of these Agreed Measures.
1. After the receipt by the Government designated in Recommendation I-XIV (5) of notification of approval by all Governments whose representatives are entitled to participate in meetings provided for under Article IX of the Antarctic Treaty, these Agreed Measures shall become effective for those Governments.
2. Thereafter any other Contracting Party to the Antarctic Treaty may, in consonance with the purposes of Recommendation III-VII, accept these Agreed Measures by notifying the designated Government of its intention to apply the Agreed Measures and to be bound by them. The Agreed Measures shall become effective with regard to such Governments on the date of receipt of such notification.
3. The designated Government shall inform the Governments referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article of each notification of approval, the effective date of these Agreed Measures and of each notification of acceptance. The designated Government shall also inform any Government which has accepted these Agreed Measures of each subsequent notification of acceptance.
1. These Agreed Measures may be amended at any time by unanimous agreement of the Governments whose Representatives are entitled to participate in meetings under Article IX of the Antarctic Treaty.
2. The Annexes, in particular, may be amended as necessary through diplomatic channels.
3. An amendment proposed through diplomatic channels shall be submitted in writing to the designated Government which shall communicate it to the Governments referred to in paragraph 1. of the present Article for approval; at the same time, it shall be communicated to the other Participating Governments.
4. Any amendment shall become effective on the date on which notifications of approval have been received by the designated Government from all of the Governments referred to in paragraph 1. of this article.
5. The designated Government shall notify those same Governments of the date of receipt of each approval communicated to it and the date on which the amendment will become effective for them.
6. Such amendment shall become effective on that same date for all other Participating Governments, except those which, before the expiry of two months after that date notify the designated Government that they do not accept it.
Annexes to these agreed measures
SPECIALLY PROTECTED SPECIES
SPECIALLY PROTECTED AREAS
IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS
The following animals and plants may be imported into the Treaty Area in accordance with permits issued under Article IX (2) of these Agreed Measures:
- a) sledge dogs;
- b) domestic animals and plants;
- c) laboratory animals and plants.
PRECAUTIONS TO PREVENT ACCIDENTAL INTRODUCTION OF PARASITES AND DISEASES INTO THE TREATY AREA
The following precautions shall be taken:
- 1. Dogs: All dogs imported into the Treaty Area shall be inoculated against the following diseases:
- a) distemper;
- b) contagious canine hepatitis;
- c) rabies
- d) leptospirosis (L. canicola and L. icterohaemorrhagicae).
- Each dog shall be inoculated at least two months before the time of its arrival in the Treaty Area.
- 2. Poultry: Notwithstanding the provisions of Article IX (3) of these Agreed Measures, no living poultry shall be brought into the Treaty Area after July 1st 1966.