American Pocket Library of Useful Knowledge/Cookery

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American Pocket Library of Useful Knowledge by Thomas Curtis Clarke



It may be laid down as a fundamental principle and one that cannot be too constantly kept in mind, that the more compounded any kind of food is, the more difficult it will be of digestion; the more corrupt the juices which are prepared from it, and therefore the more positively injurious to the digestive organs, to the blood, and to the health.


Animal Food has more nutriment than vegetable when estimated by bulk, but far less when compared by weight, the true criterion, as the following chemical analysis correctly shows:

100 lbs.  Wheat contain 85 lbs. nutriment.
100 lbs.Do. Rice contain 90 nutri
100 lbs.Do. Rye contain 80 nutri
100 lbs.Do. Barley contain 83 nutri
100 lbs.Do. Beans contain 89 to 92 nutri
100 lbs.Do. Peas contain 93 nutri
100 lbs.Do. Meat, av. contain 35 nutri
100 lbs.Do. Potatoes contain 25 nutri

Beets, carrots, greens, turnips, &c. contain a much smaller proportion.

By Roasting beef loses 22 per cent. of its weight, mutton 24, lamb 22, goose 19, turkey 20, duck 27, chickens 14.

By Boiling beef loses 15 per cent. of its weight, mutton 10, turkey 16, chicken 13, ham 6.


All meat should be cooked till it is separated from the blood, and the fibres become soft and easy of digestion.

Meat should be eaten sparingly by children, and by those who take but little exercise, and should be entirely abstained from when there is any symptom of excited action or fever.

Boiling is the most economical mode of cooking meat, if the liquid is used as it should be for soup or broth. The slower meat is boiled the more tender it is. Ten pounds should boil or simmer about three hours, in cold weather longer; allowing water enough to cover the meat well. If it is very salt, soak it for half an hour in lukewarm water.

Baking is well for legs, loins, &c., but bad for lean thin pieces which shrivel away.

Roasting is most wasteful, though some pieces seem best adapted for this mode. Wash the meat well, dry with a clean cloth, cover the fat with pieces of white paper tied with thread until half an hour before taking up. Turn often. Pour off the first dripping, which being liquid fat is unhealthy, and make gravy by adding flour and water. Twenty minutes to each pound of meat is the rule for roasting.

Stew Beef, ten pounds in five quarts water, with two or three onions and some cloves, a few carrots cut in quarters, herbs, and such other seasoning as you like. Strain the gravy and add a little flour and butler.

Pork is not a healthy food, though well enough for those who labour hard. It should never be eat unless thoroughly cooked.

Mutton is the healthiest meat that is eaten.

Veal is a delicate meat, but to be easy of digestion must be done tender. The knuckle slewed with herbs for about three hours is an excellent dish.

Young Turkeys may be known by their soft bills and toes. Young geese by fat white breast, yellow feet, and web of the foot thin and lender.

Stuffing or dressing for fowls is made with grated bread crumbs, minced suet or butter, sweet marjorum or thyme, nutmeg or other spice, pepper, salt, and beaten egg. Fine cut or grated ham may be added, and potatoes. A good stuffing is made of potatoes alone with suitable seasoning.

Boiled Turkey.—Stuffing of bread, parsley, lemon peel, oysters, and an onion. Season with salt, pepper, nutmeg, and one egg mixed with a bit of butter; fasten up the skin over the crop, put the turkey in cold water, boil slowly, skim well, and let it simmer for two hours—longer if very large. Chop the liver, &c. for the gravy.

Fowls and chickens may be done the same way, only in less time. Boil till tender. Seasoning should be according to taste.

Fricassee.—Wash and cut the chicken into joints, scald and take off the skin, stew for an hour with a sliced onion, parsley, lemon peel, salt and pepper—or season to suit yourself. Add pint of water and bit of butter, and just before serving up add the yolk of two eggs beaten up with a tea cup of cream, stirring it in gradually.

In drawing poultry be careful not to break the gall.

Chicken Baked in Rice.—Cut into joints, season, lay it in a dish lined with ham or bacon, add minced onion, a pint of water, and fill up with boiled rice, pressed down as much as the dish will hold. Cover with a crust of flour, and bake one hour in a slow oven.

Geese, like pork, should never be brought to the table unless thoroughly cooked.


Soups are positively injurious to weak stomachs, and to Dyspeptics. The experiments of Dr. Beaumont, with gastric juice, prove soups to be the most injurious and indigestible food that is taken into the stomach—the reason being that before the process of digestion can go on the water must be separated from the nourishment, and hence double duty is imposed on the digestive powers. Soups occasionally eaten, and for healthy stomachs may be well enough. For children soups do well, with sufficient bread, rice and vegetables in the liquid.

Save the liquor in which all meats are boiled, except smoked meat, for soup or gravy, as it contains much of the essence of the meat.

Mock Turtle Soup is made of calves head, boiled an hour gently in 4 quarts water well skimmed. Take it out, cut the meat in pieces an inch square. Slice and fry in butter 2 lbs. leg of beef and 2 lbs. of veal—slice 2 onions, and add all to the liquor, with the bones also; then 2 onions, 2 ounces green sage, some parsley, tea-spoon ground allspice, 2 do, black pepper, salt, lemon peel: stew gently for five hours; strain, and when cold take off the fat. Part the liquor and meat from the head, add Madeira or Claret if you choose, mix a spoonful of flour and a cup of butter with a little of the broth, and stir it in. Then stew an hour till meat is tender, when done add tea-spoon Cayenne, the yolks of 12 eggs boiled hard, and 12 force meat balls, if liked.

Calves feet make a good soup in imitation of the above; boiling four in two quarts water; adding such of the other ingredients as you choose.

Vegetable Soup.—12 onions, 6 turnips, 2 celery, 4 carrots, 2 ounces butter; stew gently till soft; then add 4 quarts seasoned gravy soup, made of roast beef bones, stew 4 or 5 hours, and skim.

Rice Soup.—Boil scrag end of neck veal in 4 quarts water, with 1 lb. lean ham, skim well and season, after boiling down one-half strain it, add 1 lb. rice which boil till tender.

Soup for Invalids.—Cut small 1 lb. mutton or beef, stew gently in 2 quarts water, skim well, when reduced to a pint add salt, and take tea cup full at a time.


Apple Pudding.—Put in a deep pan or dish a layer of apples, pared and cut up, then a layer of bread crumbs, then apples again and bread alternately until the dish is full, adding sugar, and interspersing with pieces of butter, and seasoning with spice. Bake about an hour. Good with cream or without.

Rice Pudding.—6 ounces rice boiled in 1 quart milk till tender, stirring it often, add tea-cup sugar, half cup butter, 3 eggs well beat, season and stir till quite smooth. Bake in buttered dish about an hour. Add an egg more and 1 pint milk, if you wish it like custard.

Boil the above if preferred, adding fruit to suit taste, and serve with butter and sugar.

Sweet Potatoe.—Boil and mash them smooth, to 2 cups full add 1 cup sugar, 1 of butter, 5 eggs, 1 nutmeg, lemon rind, and bake with under crust.

Plain Bread Pudding.—Pour quart boiling milk on 4 oz. bread crumbs, cover till cold, then add 3 beat eggs, tea-cup sugar, lemon peel, cinnamon, bake in buttered dish, and serve with sweet sauce.

Custard Pudding.—1 table-spoon flour, 1 pint cream or new milk, 3 eggs, rose water, ounce butter, loaf sugar and nutmeg, and bake in buttered dish half an hour.

Damson Pudding.—Make a batter of 3 eggs, pint milk, 4 large spoons flour, 4 do. sugar, stone a pint of damsons, mix in batter, and boil hour and half.

Plum Pudding.—Chop half pound suet, stone half pound raisins, wash half pound currants, 4 ounces each of bread and flour, 4 eggs well beat, a little cinnamon, mace and nutmeg, spoonful salt, 4 ounces sugar, an ounce each of citron and candied lemon. Beat egg and spices well together, then add milk and other ingredients by degrees, flour a fine linen cloth, pour in the batter, and in tieing allow room to swell. Boil in six quarts water 6 or 7 hours, filling up with hot water as it boils away. Mix an hour or two before cooking.


Bread making is an art, the importance of which is too frequently overlooked or underrated. Heavy, sour, hard bread should never be tolerated, because good bread is more palatable, more healthy, and it should be borne in mind, is really much less expensive. There is great saving in baking bread at home, and this saving is greatest when flour is cheapest.

Good flour and good yeast are requisites, but the goodness of the bread depends much on the kneading: the more the dough is turned and pressed and worked the lighter and better the bread will be.

Proportions.—2 gallons flour, half pint strong fresh yeast, if home-made add more.

The Process.—Make a hole in the flour, in which pour the yeast mixed with half a pint warm water. Stir in the flour round the edge of this liquid with a spoon to form a thin batter. After stirring it well for two minutes, sprinkle a handful of flour over the top of this batter, lay a warm cloth over it, and set it to rise in a warm place. When it rises so as to crack on the top add four spoonfuls fine salt, and begin to form the mass into dough, pouring as much soft, lukewarm water as is necessary to make the flour mix with the batter. When the flour and batter are thoroughly mixed, knead and work the whole till it is light and stiff. Roll into a lump, sprinkle dry flour over it, cover and put in a warm place when in half an hour. It will rise enough for baking.

The quality depends much on the time of putting the dough in the oven. Dough readily runs into three stages of fermentation. It should be put in the oven during the first or saccharine, when if sufficiently baked it will be sweet and wholesome. It afterwards becomes sour and heavy. If put in too soon, it will be light and as tasteless as saw dust.

Good bread is marked by fine pores and a sort of net work of uniform appearance.

Keep bread wrapped in a coarse towel, and where it will not dry up, or in a tight box.

If sour, from being mixed over night, melt a tea-spoon of pearl ash in a little milk-warm water, sprinkle it over the dough, and in half an hour knead it again.

Frozen dough is spoiled.

Indian is a good addition to wheat, and requires more water, or make mush of it and then mix in.

The bitterness of yeast may be remedied by pulling in a little charcoal and then straining it.

Rye and Indian Bread.—Mix 2 quarts of each with 3 pints boiling milk, table-spoon salt, and stir well. Let it stand till lukewarm, then stir in half pint good yeast. Knead to a stiff dough and put to rise near the fire. When the top is cracked over, make into two loaves and bake moderate two and half hours.

Common Yeast.—Boil large handful hops in two quarts water 20 minutes. Strain and pour the liquid into 3 pints flour. Stir in half pint strong yeast. Its strength is increased by 5 tea-spoons brown sugar or 5 large spoons molasses. Cork the bottles loose till next day, and then tight.

If turning sour put tea-spoon pearl ash in each bottle.

Another.—Boil, peel and mash mealy potatoes, which reduce with water or ale thin as common yeast. To every pound add 2 ounces coarse sugar, and when just warm stir in two spoons of yeast. Keep warm till fermentation is over and in 24 hours fit for use. Let sponge eight hours before baking.


Should be used sparingly.

In making cakes dry the flour before a fire, sift and weigh it. Wash and dry currants, stone raisins, pound sugar, roll it fine and sift. Dry spices first, then pound and sift. Pour hot water over almonds to remove the skin, then throw them in cold water. Pare lemon and orange peel, and then pound with a little sugar. Wash butter in cold water. The yolk and white of eggs should be separated and beaten the last thing.

Sponge Cake.—1 lb. pulverized loaf sugar, 9 eggs, 12 ounces flour. Beat eggs half an hour, then beat eggs and sugar together to a foam. Stir in the flour lightly, add a little nutmeg and cinnamon. Bake half an hour in tins buttered and filled only half full. If a single cake, bake an hour. A hot oven, but not so hot as to scorch.

Another.—1 lb. flour, three quarters pound pulverized loaf sugar, 7 eggs, grated peel and juice of a lemon, a table-spoon rose water. Beat all an hour, butter a tin, line it with paper also buttered, sift sugar over top, and bake an hour.

Seed Cake.—1 lb. flour, 12 oz. fine sugar well beat with 7 eggs, 1 oz. pounded caraway seeds, two large spoons sour cream and tea-spoon pearl ash. Bake if one cake an hour, in small tins 15 minutes.

Macaroons.—Beat the white of 8 eggs to froth, add 2 lbs. fine loaf sugar, 1 lb. blanched almonds pounded to paste, with rose water. Beat all to thick paste. Place drops on a buttered tin far enough apart to spread. Bake 10 minutes in a moderate oven.

Rice batter Cakes.—Boil rice soft and thin it with quart milk, add 3 eggs, salt, and sweeten or not as preferred. Bake same as buckwheat cakes or in tins.

Rice Cake.—Beat 8 yolks and 4 whites of eggs, add 6 oz. pounded sugar, and lemon peel grated. Stir in half pound ground rice, and beat all half an hour. Bake in buttered tins 20 minutes.

Sugar Cakes.—Half lb. flour, quarter butter, quarter sifted sugar—mix the flour and sugar, rub in the butter, add yolk of egg beat, table-spoonful of cream. Make paste, roll and cut in small cakes, and bake on floured tin.

Breakfast Cake.—1 quart flour, 4 oz. butter, mix with milk, 3 large spoons yeast, make into biscuits and prick with a fork, and bake in about 20 minutes. If you have sour milk omit yeast and put tea-spoon pearl ash in the milk, which pout in while effervescing.

Tea Cake.—Rub an oz. butter in lb. flour, with a beaten egg and half tea-spoon salt. Wet with warm milk—make it stiff, roll thin, cut with top of tumbler and bake quick.

Light Cake.—Pound and half sugar, half butter, rub in 2 lbs. flour, 1 glass rose water, 8 eggs well beaten, half nutmeg, and bake in cups.

Hard Gingerbread.—Rub half lb. butter in one of flour—rub in half lb. sugar, two table-spoons ginger—spoonful rose water; work it well, roll out, and bake in flat pans about half hour moderate.

Common Gingerbread.—One and half lb. flour, rub in half lb. butter, add pint molasses, tea-spoon pearl ash, and ginger to the taste; roll out thin and bake on buttered tins.

Indian Batter Cakes.—2 quarts milk, 1 quart Indian meal, 1 tea-cup wheat flour, 3 eggs, well beat, the whites separate, tea-spoonful salt. Bake on griddle, same as buckwheat.

Superior Johnny Cake.—Take 1 quart of milk, 3 eggs, 1 tea-spoonful saleratus, 1 tea-cup wheat flour and Indian meal, sufficient to make a batter of the consistency of pancakes. Bake quick, in pans previously buttered, and eat warm, with either butter or milk.

A good Cake.—4 cups each of flour and Indian meal, 1 cup molasses, 2 tea-spoons saleratus, some salt. Make bitter and bake.

Dover Cake.—Half pint milk, half tea-spoon pearl ash, dissolved in little vinegar, 1 lb. flour, sifted, 1 lb. powdered sugar, half lb. butler, 6 eggs, 1 glass rose-water, spice to suit taste. Stir sugar and butter to a cream, and add the spice. Beat eggs light, and stir them into the butter and sugar with the flour. Add the milk, and stir all hard. Butter a large pan, and put in the mixture. Bake two hours or more in a moderate oven. If not thick, an hour or an hour and a half will do. Wrap in a thick cloth, and keep from air, and it will keep good for two weeks.

Ginger Loaf.—A pint Molasses, a pint buttermilk, a tea-spoon saleratus dissolved in it, four eggs, flour till stiff as for pound cake, add ginger and spices.

Jenette Cakes.—Quarter of sugar, quarter of butler, beat to a cream to 2 eggs, tea-spoon saleratus, tea-cup milk, mix in enough flour, roll out thin, cut with a tumbler, bake on buttered tin 15 minutes.

Frost or Icing for Cakes.—Beat the whites of 4 eggs to a stiff foam, add gradually three-quarters of a pound best leaf sugar pounded and sifted, mix juice of half a lemon, or tea-spoon rose-water. Beat the mixture till very light, place the cake near the fire, pour over the icing, and smooth with a knife or back of a spoon.

Breakfast Batter Cakes.—1 pint milk, 3 eggs, large spoonful butler, 2 do. yeast, and flour enough to make stiff batter; let them stand to rise all night where it is not too warm, and bake on a griddle or in tin rings.

Tea Batter Cakes.—Beat 2 eggs, add half pint milk and tea-cup cream, half tea-spoon pearl ash, tea-spoon salt, with nutmeg, cinnamon or rose-water. Add flour till thick and smooth. Bake brown on griddle, or in a buttered pan.

Pan Cakes may be made very good by frying the above batter in hot lard.

Rice Pudding.—1 quart milk, quarter pound rice, 1 ounce sugar, tea-spoon ginger. Swell the rice with water, and bake an hour.


Bakes Mutton Chops.—Cut neck of mutton into chops, season, lay it in a buttered dish, and pour over a batter made of 1 quart milk, 4 eggs, 4 large spoons flour, salt, and bake an hour.

Veal Liver cut thin, rub with flour or Indian, and fry in salt pork far till well done, or broil like a steak.

Beef Liver may be cooked same as the veal.

An Economical Dinner.—Cut 1 lb. sausages in thin pieces, with 4 lbs. chopped potatoes, some onions, and add table-spoon flour mixed in one pint water, season, and stew till tender. A pound and half of mutton, or other meat, may be substituted for sausages.


Pickles.—Use no brass utensils, as the verdigris which the acid corrodes is a powerful poison, and the risk is too great for the object, which is to give the pickles a fine green. Pickles should be kept in stone or glass jars, as the acid eats into and draws out the arsenic and other pernicious particles which are used in the glazing of earthen ware.

Pickle Cucumbers.—Lay them in salt and water strong enough to bear an egg; let them remain a few days, then scald in vinegar to green them, and put them in well covered jars. Or they may remain in the brine, taking them out, soaking them in fresh water, and adding good vinegar a day or two before they are to be eaten. They may be made green by scalding in vinegar with wine or cabbage leaves.

Mangoes.—Cut small holes in the sides of large cucumbers, to extract the seeds, which mix with mustard seeds, horse radish minced fine, add mace, cloves, pepper and salt, mix well, and stuff the large cucumbers or peppers full, and bind up with new thread. Then boil vinegar with pepper, salt, ginger, and mace, and pour it boiling hot over the mangoes 4 successive days, or oftener. Pack away close, tilling up with the spiced vinegar. When melons or peppers are used, instead of holes in the sides, cut out the stem, and put in lime for 8 days, and in strong vinegar for 18 days. A little mustard and sweet oil may be added to the stuffing, and chopped garlic, if liked.


Mince Pies.—This expensive and unhealthy dish is made thus: boil 3 1bs. lean beef tender, and when cold, chop fine; chop 3 lbs. or less clear beef suet, and mix, sprinkling in a table-spoon salt. Chop fine 6 lbs apples, and 4 lbs. raisins, and 2 lbs. currants well washed, add all to the meat, season with a spoonful cinnamon and powdered nutmeg, pounded mace and cloves, and 1 lb. brown sugar, half pound citron, grated orange peel, and thin it with good cider, and mix all well together.

Another.2 lbs. lean beef boiled, 1 lb. suet chopped fine, 3 lbs. apples, 2 lbs. raisins or currants, 1 lb. sugar, season and moisten with new cider or cream. Wake a good paste, and bake an hour.

To have Mince at any time.—Prepare as above, put in earthen pot, pound it down and cover with best molasses, and keep it from freezing.

Beets cut in square pieces, and add vinegar, sugar and spices, makes a delicaie, beautiful pie.

Lemon Pies.—3 good lemons, pare and slice thin, add a tea-cup sugar, a tea-cup molasses, and a tea-cup of water. Sprinkle in a little flour, and bake as a gooseberry pie, which in taste it resembles.


Glass is the best for preserves. Cover tight and keep dry.

Currants may be preserved without sugar, by carefully cutting the fruit from the stalks so as not to wound it when quite dry. Drop the currants in bottles, which stop tight with cork and bury in the garden, neck down.

Cherries and damsons may be preserved in the same way.

Fruit, to preserve, is better not over ripe.

Good sugar is cheaper in the end than poor, for preserves.

Raspberry Jam.—Weigh equal parts of sugar and raspberries. Mash and boil the fruit, then add the sugar; when it boils skim well and let it boil 20 minutes.

Strawberry Jam is made same as the raspberry.

Peach Jam.—Wipe, stone, and boil, adding one-third sugar.

Another.—Peel and stone, mash the peaches over a fire till hot, then rub through a sieve, and add a pound of loaf-sugar to each pound of peach pulp, boil 12 minutes, and skim.

Quinces.—Preserve by paring thin, cut in quarters, and to every five pounds add three pounds sugar, and half pint water. Cover tight, and simmer gently 3 hours. Or they may be preserved whole.

Currant Jelly.—Strain the juice, add pound and quarter sugar to each pint juice. Boil gently, and skim till it is clear.

Raspberry and strawberry jelly is made same as the currant.

Apple Jelly.—4 lbs. apples, pared, chopped, and boiled to juicy pulp, 3 lbs. sugar, boil to a jelly, and flavour with lemon.


Table Beer, cheap and wholesome. 8 bottles water, 1 quart molasses, 1 pint yeast, 1 table-spoon cream tartar, mixed and bottle in 24 hours.

Ginger Beer.—4 dozen bottles may be made of 3 oz. good ginger, 3 lbs. sugar, 1 oz. cream tartar, 2 lemons, 1 gill strong yeast, 3 and a half gallons water. Boil the ginger and sugar 25 minutes, then pour it on the sliced lemon and tartar, mix, and when milk-warm, add the yeast. Let it work 2 or 3 days, and skim it well. Strain it into a cask, bunged tight, and in a couple weeks, draw off and bottle, tieing the cork down. If necessary, add a little more yeast.

Temperance Beverage.—10 gals. water, 15 lbs. lump sugar, whites of 8 eggs, well beat and strained; mix cold; boil and skim well, add half pound ginger, and boil 20 minutes. Pour the liquor on the thin rinds of 7 lemons; when cool, pour in cask with 2 spoons yeast, stir 2 oz. isinglass shavings in 1 quart of the warm fluid, and put all in the cask. Next day stop it up, and in 3 weeks bottle, and in 3 months it will be a delicious and safe drink.

Another.—20 quarts water, 5 lbs. sugar, 5 oz. white ginger, 1 oz. stick liquorice, boil well together, and add, when cold, a little good yeast, barrel for ten days, and then bottle it, putting a lump while sugar in each bottle.

Spruce Beer.—Pour 8 gallons boiling water in a cask containing 8 gallons cold water, then add 16 lbs. molasses, and a strong decoction of the small twigs and leaves of the spruce, or a few table-spoons essence of spruce, mix well, and then add half pint good yeast; keep in temperate place, with the bung-hole open till sufficiently worked, then bottle it, and drink in a day or two.

Another.—1 oz. hops and spoonful ginger to each gal. water, boil, strain, and add 1 pint molasses, and half ounce essence of spruce. When cool, add tea-cup yeast, and let it ferment in a clean tight cask till done, and then bottle. Sprigs of spruce fir may be boiled instead of the essence.

Switchel, a pleasant, wholesome drink, is made of molasses, vinegar and water, mixed in suitable proportions.

Common Beer.—2 gallons water, large handful hops, fresh gathered spruce, or sweet fern, and 1 quart wheat bran; boil 2 or 3 hours, strain and stir in, while hot, 2 cups molasses. When lukewarm, pour in a clean barrel, and add a pint yeast. Shake it well together, and use next day.

Lemonade.—3 lemons and half pound loaf sugar to 1 pint of water, makes a strong lemonade, pleasant, salubrious and refreshing.

Water is the best beverage of the healthy. Bad water is doubtless injurious. It may be improved by filtering, which cools and purifies it.

Filter water by putting a bit of sponge in the hole at the bottom of a common flour pot, or spread a piece of flannel over the bottom of a vessel perforated with one or more holes, then over the flannel spread a layer of fine charcoal, and over this a layer or bed of fine sand, four or five inches thick, through all of which the water will filter clear as chrystal.

Rain Water is the best for drinking, cooking or washing, when it can be had pure. Every house should have a reservoir in which to collect rain water, which always, with, and sometimes without, filtering, will be found an advantage, especially where water is impure and hard.


For Pies, 6 oz. butter, 8 oz. flour, worked well together, with as little water as possible. Roll out thin.

Another.—Quarter pound lard or suet, large table-spoon butter, pound flour and water enough to mix stiff. Roll thin.

For Tarts, 1 oz. sifted loaf sugar, 1 lb. flour, make into stiff paste, with 1 gill boiling cream, 3 oz. butter. Work it well, and roll out thin.

Custard Pudding.—1 pint milk, 3 large spoons flour, 6 eggs, salt, sugar and spice to your taste.

Another.—2 eggs and 3 large spoons sugar beat light, 1 pint milk, and spice to your taste. Bake in cups or in paste.

Cup Cake.—3 cups sugar, 1 butter, 5 flour, 3 eggs, teaspoon pearl ash, all beat together, with spice as you please.

Lemon Ice Cream.—Stir a pound of powdered loaf sugar into a pint of cream, add the grated rind and juice of 5 lemons, or flavour with essence or oil of lemon; mix and beat all gradually into 3 pints of cream. Cover and let it stand an hour, then strain it into the freezer, (a long tin vessel, with a tight lid,) close and stand in the ice tub, which fill with a mixture of equal quantities of coarse salt and ice broken small, that it may lay compact around the freezer. Snow is better than ice. Press down and keep turning till the cream is froze, which will be in 2 hours. Occasionally scrape down the cream. Be careful not to let the salt fall in the cream, and do not freeze so long as to freeze out the flavour.

When cream is deficient, eggs are sometimes beat up with milk, or arrow root is powdered and rubbed smooth in a little cold milk, and added to the cream.

Strawberry Ice Cream.—Hull 2 quarts strawberries, add half pound fine sugar, cover and stand an hour or two, then mash through a sieve till all the juice is pressed out. Stir in sugar enough to make a thick syrup. Then mix by degrees with 2 quarts cream, beating it hard. Freeze as above.

Raspberry, pine-apple, and other fruit ice cream make according to preceding receipt.

Vanilla ice cream made by splitting up half a vanilla bean, boiling it slowly in half pint milk till the flavour is drawn out. Mix it in same as the strawberry, and freeze as directed.