An Essay towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical Language

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An Essay towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical Language (1668)
by John Wilkins
3900662An Essay towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical Language1668John Wilkins

Monday 13th. of April 1668.

At a Meeting of the Council of the
Royal Society:


Ordered,

That the Discourse presented to the Royall Society, Entituled, An Essay towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical Language, be Printed by the Printer to the Royal Society.
BROUNCKER Presi.

An Essay

Towards a

REAL CHARACTER,

And a

PHILOSOPHICAL

LANGUAGE.


By John Wilkins D.D. Dean of Ripon,
And Fellow of the ROYAL SOCIETY.





LONDON,

Printed for Sa: Gellibrand, and for
JOHN MARTIN Printer to the ROYAL
SOCIETY
, 1668.


Contents (not listed in original)


THE

CONTENTS.


The First Part Containing the Prolegomena.
CHAPTER, I.
I. THE Introduction.II. The Original of Languages.III. The First Mother Tongues.IV. Their several Offsprings. Page; 1
CHAP. II.
I. Concerning the various Changes and Corruptions, to which all vulgar Languages are obnoxious.II. Particularly concerning the Change of the English Tongue.III. Whether any Language formerly in use, be now wholly lost. IV. Concerning the first rise and occasion of New Languages. pag. 6
CHAP. III.
I. The Original of Letters and Writing.II. That all Letters were derived from the Hebrew.III. The use of Letters is less Antient, and the Kinds of them less numerous, than of Languages themselves. IV. Of Notes for secrecy or brevity.V. Of a Real Character.VI. Of Alphabets in General. pag. 10
CHAP. IV.
I. Of the defects in Common Alphabets, as to the true Order of the Letters,II. Their just number,III. Determinate Powers,V. Fitting names,V. Proper Figures,VI. Of the Imperfections belonging to the Words of Languages, as to their Equivocalness, Variety of Synonymous Words, Uncertain Phraseologies, Improper way of Writing. pag. 14
CHAP. V.
I. That neither Letters nor Languages, have been regularly established by the Rules of Art.II. The Natural ground or Principle of the several ways of Communication amongst Men.III. The first thing to be provided for, in the establishing of a Philosophical Character or Language, is a just enumeration of all such Things and Notions, to which Names are to be assigned. pag. 19
The Second Part Containing Universal Philosophy.
CHAPTER. I.
I. THE Scheme of Genus's.II. Concerning the more General Notions of Things, The difficulty of Establishing these aright.III. Of Transcendentals General.IV. Of Transcendentals Mixed.


V. Of Transcendental Relations of Action.VI. Of the several Notions belonging to Grammar, or Logic. Page, 22
CHAP. II.
I. Concerning God.II. Of the several Things and Notions reducible under that Collective Genus of the World. pag 51
CHAP. III.
I. Of Elements and Meteors.II. Of Stones.III. Of Metals. pag.56
CHAP. IV.
I. Of Plants, The difficulty of enumerating and describing these.II. The more general distribution of them.III. Of Herbs considered according to their Leaves.IV. Of Herbs considered according to their Flowers.V. Of Herbs considered according to their Seed Vessels.VI. Of Shrubs.VII. Of Trees. pag.67
CHAP. V.
I. Concerning Animals, The General distribution of them.II. Of Exanguious Animals.III. Of Fishes.IV. Of Birds.V. Of Beasts.VI. A Digression concerning the capacity of Noah's Ark. pag.121
CHAP. VI.
I. Of Parts of Animate Bodies, whether I. Peculiar, or II. General. pag.168
CHAP. VII.
I. Concerning the Predicament of Quantitie.I. Of Magnitude.II. Of Space.III. Of Measure. pag.181
CHAP. VIII.
Concerning the Predicament of Quality, and the several Genus's belonging to it.I. Of Natural Power.II. Of Habit.III. Of Manners.IV. Of Sensible Quality.V. Of Disease; with the various differences and species under each of these.
pag.194
CHAP. IX.
Of the Predicament of Action; The several Genus's under it. viz. I. Spiritual Action.II. Corporeal Action.III. Motion.IV. Operation.
p.225
CHAP. X.
Concerning Relation more private, namely I. Oeconomical, or Family Relation; together with the several kinds of things belonging to those in that capacity, either as II. Possessions, or III. Provisions.
pag.249
CHAP. XI.
Concerning Relation more Publike, whether I. Civil.II. Judiciary.III. Naval.IV. Military.V. Ecclesiastical.
pag.263
CHAP. XII.
I. A General Explication of the design of the fore-going Tables.II. Particular Instances in the six principal Genus's of it.III. Something to be noted concerning Opposites and Synonyma's.IV. An Account of what kind of things ought not to be provided for in such Tables. p.289
The Third Part Containing Philosophical Grammar.
CHAPTER. I.
I. COncerning the several Kinds and Parts of Grammar.II. Of Etymologie, The more general Scheme of Integrals and Particles.III. Of Nouns in General.IV. Of Substantives common, denoting either Things, Actions, or Persons.V. Rules concerning Nouns of Action.VI. Of Substantives Abstracts.VII. Of Adjectives according to the true Philosophical notion of them.VIII. The true notion of a Verb.IX. Of derived Adverbs.X. A general Scheme of the forementioned Derivations. page, 297
CHAP. II.
I. Of Particles in General.II. Of the Copula.III. Of Pronouns more generally.IV. More particularly.V. Of Interjections more generally.VI. More particularly. p.304
CHAP. III.
I. Of Prepositions in general.II. The particular kinds of them enumerated.III. An Explication of the four last Combinations of them, relating to Place or Time. p.309
CHAP. IV.
I. Of Adverbs in General.II. The particular kinds of them.III. Of Conjunctions. p.312
CHAP. V.
I. Of Articles.II. Of Modes.III. Of Tenses.IV. The most distinct way of expressing the differences of Time. p.315
CHAP. VI.
I. Of Transcendental particles, The end and use of them.II. The usual ways for inlarging the sense of Words in instituted Languages.III. The general Heads of Transcendental Particles. p.318
CHAP. VII.
Instances of the great usefullness of these Transcendental Particles, with directions how they are to be applyed.
p.323
CHAP. VIII.
Of the Accidental differences of Words.I. Inflexion.II. Derivations.III. Composition.
p.352
CHAP. IX.
Of the second part of Grammar called Syntax. p.354
CHAP. X.
Of Orthography.I. Concerning Letters. The Authors who have treated of this Subject.II. A brief Table of all such kinds of Simple sound, which can be framed by the mouths of Men.III. A further Explication of this Table, as to the Organs of Speech, and as to the Letters framed by these Organs.
p.357
CHAP. XI.
Of Vowels. p.363
CHAP. XII.
Of Consonants. p.366
CHAP. XIII.
Of Compound Vowels, and Consonants. p.370
CHAP. XIV.
I. Of the Accidents of Letters, I. Their Names. II. Their Order. III. Affinities and Oppositions. IV. Their Figures, with a twofold Instance of a more regular Character for the Letters, The later of which may be styled Natural. V. of Pronunciation. VI. The several Letters dis-used by several Nations. p.347
The Fourth Part Containing a Real Character, and a Philosophical Language.
CHAPTER. I.
The proposal of one kind of Real Character (amongst many other which might be offered) both for all Integrals, whether Genus's, Differences or Species; together with the derivations and Inflexions belonging to them, as likewise for all the several kinds of Particles.
page,385
CHAP. II.
An Instance of this Real Character, in the Lord's Prayer and the Creed.
p.395
CHAP. III.
How this Real Character may be made effable in a distinct Language, and what kind of Letters or Syllables may be conveniently assigned to each Character.
p.414
CHAP. IV.
Instance of this Philosohical Language, both in the Lord's Prayer and the Creed: A comparison of the Language here proposed, with fifty others, as to the facility and Euphonicalness of it.
p.421
CHAP. V.
Directions for the more easy learning of this Character and Language, with a brief Table containing the Radicals, both Integrals and Particles; together with the Character and Language, by which each of them are to be expressed
p.439
CHAP. VI.
The Appendix containing a Comparison betwixt this Natural Philosophical Grammar and that of other Instituted Languages, particularly the Latin, in respect of the multitude of unnecessary Rules and of Anomalisms, concerning the China character: The several Attemps and Proposals made by others, towards and new kind of Character and Language. The advantage in respect of facility, which this Philosophical Language hath above the Latin.
p.441

This work was published before January 1, 1929, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.

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