An introduction to physiological and systematical botany/Explanation of the plates

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Tab. 1. fig. 1. Anatomy of wood, after Mirbel. See p. 14.f. 2. Embryo of Pinus Cembra, shown in a section of the seed, then separate, and magnified, from Mr. Lambert's work. See p. 98, 287289.f. 3. Seedling plant of the Dombeya, or Norfolk Island Pine, with its 4 cotyledons, and young leafy branches, of the natural size, p. 98.f. 4. A garden bean, Vicia Faba, laid open, showing its 2 cotyledons, p. 96; f the radicle, or young root, p. 94; g the germ or corculum, p. 96. Above is a bean which has made some progress in vegetation, showing the descending root, the ascending plumula, p. 97, and the skin of the seed bursting irregularly, p. 295.

Tab. 2. Roots.f. 5. Fibrous, in Grass, p. 105.f. 6. Creeping, Mint, p. 106.f. 7. Spindle-shaped, Radish, accompanied by its cotyledons and young leaves, p. 107. f. 8. Abrupt, Scabiosa succisa:f. 9 Tuberous, Potatoe, p. 108.f. 10. Oval knobs of some Orchideæ:f. 11. Palmate ones of others:f. 12. Several pairs of knobs in Satyrium albidum: p. 109.f. 13. Solid Bulb in Crocus:f. 14. Tunicate Bulb in Allium:f. 15. Scaly one in Lilium: p. 111.f. 16. Granulated Root of Saxifraga granulata, p. 113.

Tab. 3. Stems and Buds.f. 17. Forked Stem, in Chlora perfoliata, p. 117.f. 18. Scaly, in Orobanche:f. 19. Radicans, or Clinging, in Ivy, p. 118.f. 20. Twining from left to right, in Lonicera;f. 21 : from right to left, in Convolvulus, p. 119.f. 22. Sarmentum, a Runner, in the Strawberry, p. 120.f. 23. Caulis determinatè ramosus, as in the Azalea family, p. 122.f. 24. Three pair of Buds, in Lonicera cærulea, p. 135.f. 25. Bud of the Horse Chesnut, p. 137.

Tab. 4. Leaves.f. 26. Tufted Leaves, p. 146.f. 27. Imbricated:f. 28. Decussated:f. 29. Two-ranked, Yew:f. 30. Unilateral, p. 147. f. 31. Peltate, Nasturtium, p. 149.f. 32. Clasping the stem, p. 150.f. 33. Perfoliate:f. 34. Sheathing:f. 35. Equitant:f. 36. Decurrent, p. 151, and spinous, p. 162.f. 37. Flower-bearing, Ruscus aculeatus, p. 151.

Tab. 5.f. 38. Orbicular, Hedysarum styracifolium, p. 153.f. 39. Roundish, Pyrola:f. 40. Ovate:f. 41. Obovate:f. 42. Elliptical or oval:f. 43. Spatulate, p. 154.f. 44. Wedge-shaped:f. 45. Lanceolate:f. 46. Linear:f. 47. Needle-shaped:f. 48. Triangular, p. 155.f. 49. Quadrangular, (also abrupt, p. 159), Tulip-tree:f. 50. Deltoid:f. 51. Rhomboid:f. 52. Kidney-shaped, p. 156.f. 53. Heart-shaped:f. 54. Crescent-shaped:f. 55. Arrow-shaped:f. 56. Halbert-shaped, (also acute, p. 160),f. 57. Fiddle-shaped, (also obtuse, p. 160), Rumex pulcher, p. 157.f. 58. Runcinate:f. 59. Lyrate:f. 60. Cloven:f. 61. Three-lobed, Anemone Hepatica:f. 62. Sinuated, Oak:f. 63. Deeply divided, Helleborus, p. 158.f. 64. Laciniated:

Tab. 6.f. 65. Palmate:f. 66. Pinnatifid:f. 67. Doubly pinnatifid, p. 159.f. 68. Pectinate:f. 69. Unequal, Begonia:f. 70. Jagged-pointed, p. 160.f. 71. Retuse, Rumex digynus:f. 72. Emarginate:f. 73. Pointed:f. 74. Blunt with a small point, p. 161.f. 75. Sharp-pointed, Ruscus aculeatus:f. 76. Cirrose:f. 77. Spinous, p. 162.f. 78. Fringed:f. 79. Toothed:f. 80. Serrated:f. 81. Crenate, p. 163.

Tab. 7.f. 82. Doubly as well as sharply crenate, approaching to f. 80:f. 83. Jagged:f. 84. Wavy, Menyanthes nymphæoides:f. 85. Plaited, p. 165.f. 86. Undulated:f. 87. Curled, p. 166.f. 88. Veiny:f. 89. Ribbed:f. 90. Three-ribbed, p. 167.f. 91. Three-ribbed at the base:f. 92. Triply-ribbed:f. 93. Cylindrical, Conchium, p. 169.f. 94. Semicylindrical:f. 95. Awl-shaped:f. 96. Doubly tubular, Lobelia Dortmanna:f. 97. Channelled, p. 170.f. 98. Hatchet-shaped, p. 171.f. 99. Three-edged, Mesembryanthemum deltoides:f. 100. Four-edged:

Tab. 8. f. 101. Alienated, Mimosa verticillata, p. 172.[1]f. 102. Hooded, Sarracenia, p. 173.f. 103. Furnished with an appendage, Dionæa muscipula:f. 104. Jointed, Fagara tragodes, p. 175.f. 105. Binate, p. 176.f. 106. Ternate:f. 107. Interruptedly Pinnate, p. 177.f. 108. Pinnate in a lyrate form, p. 178.f. 109. Pinnate in a whorled manner, p. 179.f. 110. Auricled:f. 111. Compound, p. 180.f. 112. Doubly compound, or Twice ternate:f. 113. Thrice compound, or Thrice ternate:f. 114. Pedate, Helleborus, p. 181.

Tab. 9. Appendages.f. 115. Stipulas of Lathyrus latifolius, p. 219; also an abruptly pinnated leaf, ending in a tendril, p. 176.f. 116. Stipulas united to the footstalk, in Rosa, p. 219; also a pinnated

leaf with a terminal leaflet, p. 176.f. 117. Floral leaf of Tilia, p. 222.f. 118. Coloured floral leaves, Lavandula Stoechas: f. 119. Spinous ones, Atractylis cancellata:f. 120. Thorns, Hippophäe rhamnoides, p. 223.f. 121. Prickles, p. 224.f. 122. Tendril, Lathyrus latifolius:f. 123. Glands of the Moss Rose, p. 226.f. 124. Hairs:f. 125. Bristles of Echium pyrenaicum, p. 227.

Tab. 10. Inflorescence,f. 126. Whorl, in Lamium, p. 230.f. 127. Whorled leaves, and axillary flowers, of Hippuris vulgaris, p. 231.f. 128. Cluster, Ribes:f. 129. Spike, Ophrys spiralis:f. 130. Less correct Spike, Veronica spicata, p. 232.f. 131. Spikelet, Bromus, p. 233.f. 132. Corymb:f. 133. Corymbose fascicle, Achillea, p. 234.f. 134. Fascicle, Dianthus Armeria, p. 235.f. 135. Head or Tuft, Trifolium:f. 136. Simple Umbel, Eucalyptus piperita, p. 236.f. 137. Simple Umbel in the natural order of Umbellatæ, Astrantia major, with the Involucrum, a:

Tab. 11.f. 138. Compound Umbel, Laserpitium simplex, with its general Involucrum, a, and partial one, b, p. 246.f. 139. Cyme, Laurustinus, p. 237.f. 140. Panicle, Oat, p. 238.f. 141. Bunch, Common Vine, p. 239.

Calyx. f. 142. Perianthium, or Calyx properly so called, Dianthus deltoides, p. 245.f. 143. Involucrum, so called, in Anemone, p. 247.f. 144. Involucrum or Indusium of Ferns, p. 248.f. 145. One of the same separate, with a capsule and its ring.f. 146. Catkin of the Hasel-nut, p. 249.

Tab. 12. Calyx and Corolla, with Nectary. f. 147. Sheath of the Narcissus; a, the Petals, called by Jussieu, Calyx; b, the Crown or Nectary, see p. 263.f. 148. Husk of Grasses, p. 250.f. 149. Awns.f. 150. Scaly Sheath, Pterogonium Smithii, p. 251.f. 151. Veil of the same, p. 252, 264.f. 152. Jungermannia epiphylla, showing a, the Calyx, p. 252; b, the Veil or Corolla, p. 252, 265; and c, the unopened Capsule.f. 153. Wrapper, Agaricus:f. 154. Radical Wrapper, p. 253.f. 155. Monopetalous Salver-shaped Corolla, p. 256, 257.f. 156. Polypetalous Cruciform Corolla:f. 157. A separate Petal of the same; a, Claw; b, Border:f. 158. Unequal Corolla, Butomus, p. 256.

Tab. 13.f. 159. Bell-shaped Corolla:f. 160. Funnel-shaped:f. 161. Ringent:f. 162. Personate, Antirrhinum reticulatum, p. 257.f. 163. Papilionaceous, Lathyrus;f. 164. Standard of the same;f. 165. One of the Wings;f. 166. Keel;f. 167. Stamens, style, &c:f. 168. Incomplete Corolla, Rittera.f. 169. Peloria, or regular-flowered variety of Antirrhinum Linaria, p. 258.f. 170. Nectary in the Calyx of Tropæolum:f. 171. Nectary of Aquilegia, p. 266.f. 172, 173. The same part in Epimedium:f. 174. Pair of Nectaries in Aconitum, p. 267. f. 175. Fringed Nectaries in Parnassia, p. 268.

Tab. 14. Stamens, Pistils and Fruit,f. 176. A Stamen: a, filament; b, anther, p. 270, 271.f. 177. Pistil: a, germen; b, style; c, stigma, p. 273.f. 178. Capsule of an annual Mesembryanthemum, open and shut, p. 277.f. 179. Transverse section of the capsule of Datura, p. 278, showing the partitions and columellæ.f. 180. Siliqua, or Pod:f. 181. Silicula, or Pouch, p. 280.f. 182. Legume, p. 281.f. 183. Stone-fruit, p. 282.f. 184. Apple:f. 185. Berry:f. 186. Compound Berry, p. 283.f. 187. Berry of Passiflora suberosa, p. 284.f. 188. Cone, Larch, p. 286.f. 189. Capsule of a Moss, Splachnum, with its fleshy base, or apophysis, a, and fringe, b, p. 489, 491.

Tab. 15.f. 190. Barren flower of a Moss, much magnified, after Hedwig:f. 191. Stamens, with the Pollen coming forth, and the jointed filaments, p. 489.f. 192. Fertile flower of a Moss, consisting of numerous pistils, only one of which in general comes to perfection. They are also accompanied by jointed filaments:f. 193. A germinating seed of Gymnostomum pyriforme, from Hedwig likewise, showing its expanding embryo:f. 194. The same more advanced:f. 195. The same much further advanced, and become a young plant, showing its leaves and branched cotyledons, p. 290.f. 196. Young plant of Funaria hygrometrica, exhibiting the same parts, p. 489.f. 197. Powdery wart of a Lichen, presumed to be its barren flower:f. 198. Perpendicular section, magnified, of the shield or fruit of a Lichen, showing the seeds imbedded in its disk, p. 495.f. 199. Section of the seed of a Date, Phœnix dactylifera, from Gærtner, the bulk of which is a hard Albumen, p. 291, having a lateral cell in which is lodged the horizontal embryo, a, p. 288.f. 200. Section of the Vitellus in Zamia, from the same author, with its embryo a, with which it is, like a cotyledon, closely connected, p. 292.f. 201. Rough coats of the seeds in Cynoglossum, p. 298.f. 202. Arillus of a Carex, p. 299.f. 203. Seed of Afzelia, with its cup-shaped Arillus, p. 296.f. 204. Pappus, or Seed-down, of Tragopogon, p. 300.f. 205. Tail of the seed in Dryas:f. 206. Beaked fruit of Scandix, with its seeds separating from their base, p. 301.f. 207. Winged seed of Embothrium, p. 302.f. 208. Section of the conical Receptacle of the Daisy, with its calyx:f. 209, Cellular Receptacle of Onopordum, p. 305.f. 210, Ligulate floret with both stamens and pistil, in a Dandelion, p. 308.f. 211. Ligulate floret with only a pistil, in the radius of a Daisy, p. 307.f. 212. Tubular floret from the disk of the same, having stamens and a fertile pistil, p. 308.f. 213. Capsule of a Moss with a double fringe, the lid shown apart, p. 488.f. 214. A portion of the same fringe magnified, p. 491.

  1. I have found by recent experiment, since p. 173 was printed, that the first leaf of Lathyrus Nissolia is like the rest, not pinnated, but simple and sessile.