Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography/Abascal, José Fernando
ABASCAL (ab-as-cal'), Jose Fernando, Spanish soldier, b. in Oviedo, Asturias, in 1743; d. in Madrid in 1821. He entered the army in 1702, and after serving for twenty years was promoted to the rank of colonel, and during the war against the French to that of brigadier-general. In 1796 he went to Cuba, assumed the command as viceroy, and took an active part in the defence of Havana when that city was attacked by an English fleet. Afterward he was commander in New Galicia, and still later viceroy of Peru, his great ability and tact being especially beneficial to those countries. He also defended Buenos Ayres from the English, and at the same time repressed revolts in Lima and in Cuzco ; but being unsuccessful in some operations, he was recalled in 1816. Four years before he had been created Marques de la Concordia, in allusion to his conciliatory policy in Peru, which prevented trouble between the natives and the Spanish residents. See Stevenson's " Twenty Years' Residence in South America " (London, 1825).