Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography/McIntosh, Lachlan
McINTOSH, Lachlan, soldier, b. near Raits, in Badenoch, Scotland, 17 March, 1725; d. in Savannah, Ga., 20 Feb., 1806. His father, John “Mor” Mclntosh, with 100 Highlanders, came to Georgia in 1736 under Gov. James E. Oglethorpe, and settled in the lower part of the state at the town that is now known as Darien, but which was called by them Inverness. When Oglethorpe invaded Florida in 1740, John Mor followed him, and was taken prisoner by the Spaniards and sent to Spain, where he was confined two years. He died of the results of this imprisonment a few years after his return to this country. Mor originated the protest that was made by the colonists to the board of trustees in England against the introduction of African slaves into Georgia. The “Mor” of his title signified “big.” Lachlan had little early education, and at seventeen years of age became a clerk in a counting-house at Charleston, S. C., and lived in the family of Henry Laurens. After several years he returned to Inverness, became a land-surveyor, and, having received much assistance in the study of mathematics from Oglethorpe, interested himself in civil engineering and military tactics. In September, 1776, he was appointed brigadier-general. In 1777, in a duel, he mortally wounded his political opponent, Button Gwinett, who had used his official authority while governor to persecute McIntosh and several members of his family. McIntosh then accepted a command in the Central army under Gen. Washington, who selected him to command in a campaign against the western Indians in 1778. In a letter to the president of congress, dated 12 May, Washington said: “I part with this gentleman with much reluctance, as I esteem him an officer of great merit and worth. His firm disposition and equal justice, his assiduity and good understanding, point him out as a proper person to go, but I know his services here are and will be materially wanted.” McIntosh marched with a force of 500 men to Fort Pitt, assumed command, and in a short time restored peace on the frontier of Pennsylvania and Virginia. He completed arrangements for an expedition against Detroit in the spring of 1779, but was recalled by Washington, joined Gen. Benjamin Lincoln in Charleston, marched to Augusta in command of the Georgia troops, and then proceeded to Savannah, where he commanded the 1st and 5th South Carolina regiments, and, after driving the British from their outposts, took an active part in the siege. When the city surrendered he retreated to Charleston, was present at its surrender to Sir Henry Clinton, and for a long period was held a prisoner of war. On his return to Georgia he found his property wasted and his household dispersed. He was a member of congress in 1784 and the next year a commissioner to treat with the southern Indians. His later life was passed in comparative poverty and in retirement. — His nephew, John, soldier, b. in McIntosh county, Ga., in 1755; d. there, 12 Nov., 1826, was an officer in the Georgia line in 1775, and as lieutenant-colonel defended the fort at Sunbury, in Liberty county, when it was besieged by Lieut.-Col. Fraser at the head of a considerable body of British troops. At the battle of Brier Creek, 3 March, 1779, he displayed great bravery, only surrendering when further resistance was impossible. At the close of the war he removed to Florida and settled on St. John's river, but was suddenly arrested by a band of Spanish troops and imprisoned in the fortress at St. Augustine on suspicion of having designs against the Spanish government. He was finally sent to the captain-general of Cuba and imprisoned in Morro Castle at Havana. At the end of a year he was released and returned to Georgia, but not until he had aided in destroying a fort on the St. John's river opposite Jacksonville and done the Spanish government other injuries. During the last months of the war of 1812-'14, he served under Jackson at Mobile as major-general of militia. — John's son, James Simmons, soldier, b. in Liberty county, Ga., 19 June, 1787; d. in the city of Mexico, 26 Sept., 1847, entered the U. S. army as lieutenant in 1812, was severely wounded in the affair near Black Rock in 1814, and served throughout the Creek war. He was commissioned captain in 1817, major in 1836, and lieutenant-colonel in 1839. During the Mexican war he participated in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, where he was dangerously wounded, and was subsequently brevetted colonel. He commanded a brigade in the valley of Mexico, and was mortally wounded at the head of his column in the assault on Molino del Rey. — His son, James McQueen, soldier, b. on Tampa bay, Fla., in 1828; d. near Pea Ridge, Ark., 7 Nov., 1862, was graduated at the U. S. military academy in 1849, became captain of the 1st U. S. cavalry in 1857, and, resigning from the army in 1860, was commissioned brigadier-general in the Confederate army, and killed at the battle of Pea Ridge, Ark. — Another son, John Baillie, soldier, b. on Tampa bay, Fla., 6 June, 1829; d. in New Brunswick, N. J., 29 June, 1888, was educated at Lawrenceville, N. J., and Sing Sing, N. Y., entered the navy in 1848, resigned in 1850, and in 1861 entered the U. S. army as 3d lieutenant of cavalry. He became 1st lieutenant in 1862, served in the peninsular campaign, was made colonel of the 3d Pennsylvania volunteers in November, 1862, and commanded a brigade in many important battles, including Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. He was commissioned captain in the 5th cavalry in 1863, engaged in the Wilderness campaign, and the battles around Petersburg, became brigadier-general of volunteers in July, 1864, commanded a cavalry brigade at Winchester, and lost a leg at Opequan. He was brevetted major in the U. S. army for his gallantry at White Oak Swamp, lieutenant-colonel for Gettysburg, colonel for Ashland, brigadier-general for Winchester, major-general of volunteers for distinguished gallantry and good management in the battle of Opequan, Va., and, in 1865, major-general for meritorious service during the war. He was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 42d infantry in 1866, and in 1870 was retired with the rank of brigadier-general.