Atharva-Veda Samhita/Book XVIII/Hymn 2

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2. ⌊Funeral verses.⌋

[Atharvan.—ṣaṣṭi. yamadevatyam mantroktabakudevatyaṁ ca (4, 34. āgneyyāu; 5. jātavedasī; 29. pitryā). trāiṣṭubham: 1-3, 6, 14-18, 20, 22, 23, 25, 30, 34, 36, 46, 48, 50-52, 56. anuṣṭubh; [4,] 7, 9, 13. jagatī; 5, 26, 49, 57. bhurij; 19. 3-p. ārṣī gāyatrī; 24. 3-p. samaviṣamā ”rṣī gāyatrī; 37. virāḍ jagatī; 38-44. ārṣī gāyatrī (40, 42-44. bhurij); 45. kakummaty anuṣṭubh.]

⌊Of the eight "measuring-verses," 38-45, the first (vs. 38) is a true gāyatrī; the next six (39-44) are mere repetitions of vs. 38, with an ūha in the first pāda which sometimes spoils the meter; and the last (vs. 45) agrees in its last two pādas with the rest, but has a prior half which is true prose.⌋

⌊Of this hymn, only vs. 13 a, b and vs. 17 are found in Pāipp., in books xix. and xx. respectively. The ritual uses by Vāit. are naturally very meagre: namely, we find vss. 19-20 used once, and that in the puruṣamedha. On the contrary, all but about 18 of the 60 vss. are cited by Kāuç. (see under the verses). Bloomfield's Index may be corrected on page 410 by the insertion of vss. 1-3 (see under vs. 1). Verses 1-3 and 49 constitute, with verses from hymns 1 and 3, parts of an important ritual sequence of 11 verses, as noted under 1. 49. And verses 4-18, the anuṣṭhānīs, constitute (with the exception of vs. 10) another such sequence.⌋

⌊The provenience of the material of this hymn.—Whereas nearly all of the preceding hymn (all but 4 or 5 out of 61 verses) is found also in the RV., of this hymn, on the other hand, but little more than a third part (hardly 25 vss. out of 60) is RV. material. As elsewhere noted, the hymn begins with 3 vss. which form part of a ritual sequence (of 11 vss.) continuous with the last verses of the preceding hymn.

Part I., verses 1-13.—These are two groups of verses from RV. x. 14 (to wit: our vss. 1-3, which sub-group we may call I. a, and which equals RV. x. 14. 13, 15, 14: and our vss. 11-13, which sub-group we may call I. b, and which equals RV. x. 14. 10, 11, 12), between which are interposed the first 5 vss. of RV. x. 16, our vss. 4-5 and 7-8 and 10, which sub-group we may call I. c.—Again, between the second and third verses of I. c (our vss. 5 and 7) is interposed the single verse, RV. x. 14. 16 (our 6); and between the fourth and fifth verses of I. c (our vss. 8 and 10) is interposed a single verse (our 9) which appears to be a parallel to our 8, but is not found in other texts to my knowledge, though its prior half resembles that of xiii. 1. 9.

Part II., verses 14-18.—The Yama-verses of RV. x. 154, in the order 1, 4, 2, 3, 5.

The "measuring-verses," 38-45, form a sequence by themselves, and do not recur elsewhere, so far as I know. Compare Caland's Todtengebräuche, p. 145.

For the rest, RV. verses occur only sporadically:

our 19 = RV. i. 22. 15 our 54 = RV. x. 17. 3
our 33 = RV. x. 17. 2 our 55 = RV. x. 17. 4
our 35 ab = RV. x. 15. 14 ab our 58 = RV. x. 16. 7
our 35 cd = RV. x. 15. 13 cd our 59 cd = RV. x. 18. 9 cd
our 50 cd = RV. x. 18. 11 cd our 60 ab = RV. x. 18. 9 ab

It may be added that a considerable part of the material of the hymn is naturally found in the pitṛmedhaprapāṭhaka (vi.) of the TA.: that is to say, all the RV. verses of Part I. or all of it save our vs. 9; and 3 verses of Part II., our 14, 17, 16 = RV. verses 1, 3, 2; and, besides, our vs. 25 and about 8 of the last 11 verses. Of the verses last mentioned, vs. 25 and vss. 56 and 57 seem to be peculiar to AV. and TA.—Finally, several fragments (9 ab, 26 ab, 49 ab) recur elsewhere in the AV.; and 33 is properly inseparable from 1. 53.—The TA. readings correspond more nearly with those of RV. than with those of AV.—Verse 51 is a variation of 50: compare the relation of 1. 57 and 56.⌋

Translated: by Weber, Sb. 1895, pages 842-866; Griffith, ii. 227;—verses 9 and 20-59, by Ludwig, pages 482-484 (for vss. 32-33, see p. 332); a considerable number also by Muir, v. 293-296, 304; and the RV. verses, of course, by the RV. translators.—For an analysis of the hymn with reference to its contents, see Weber, p. 843.

1. For Yama the soma purifies itself; for Yama is made the oblation; to Yama goes the sacrifice, messengered by Agni, made satisfactory.

The verse corresponds to RV. x. 14. 13, which, however, in a reads sómaṁ sunuta, and in b juhutā (for kriyate). TA. (vi. 5. 1) agrees with RV. in both points, but has gachatu in c. The comm. reads at the end alaṁkṛtas.

⌊Verses 1, 2, and 3 of this hymn are used (Kāuç. 81. 36) in one continuous sequence with the last four of the preceding hymn (iti saṁhitāḥ sapta!), to accompany the oblations to Yama in the cremation ceremony: for details, see my note to xviii. 1. 49.⌋

2. Offer ye to Yama what is most honeyed, and stand forth; this homage to the former-born, the former, the path-making seers.

This verse and the next correspond to RV. x. 14. 15 and 14, save that RV. makes our 2 b and 3 b change places* and they become respectively its 14 b and 15 b, the double inversion thus leaving our 2 b and 3 b in the same relative position in both texts. TA. (in vi. 5. l) agrees throughout with RV., both in this verse and the next. Our 2 b agrees also with RV. i. 15. 9 b. But RV. in both places has, like TA., juhóta for our juhótā.

*⌊The case is interesting as showing how easily the component elements of many of these verses may be shuffled about without detriment to what we may, out of politeness to the Rishis, call the "sequence of thought." The result of the transpositions is best shown by parallel columns, thus:

RV. x. 14. 14 ab.

yamā́ya ghṛtávad dhavír
juhóta prá ca tiṣṭhata.

RV. x. 14. 15 ab.

yamā́ya mádhumattamaṁ
rā́jñe havyáṁ juhotana.

AV. xviii. 2. 3 ab.

yamā́ya ghṛtávat páyo
rā́jñe havír juhotana.

AV. xviii. 2. 2 ab.

yamā́ya mádhumattamaṁ
juhótā prá ca tiṣṭhata.

Roth has beautifully illustrated the matter by shuffling together verses from Schiller's Riddles ("Von Perlen baut sich eine Brücke" and "Es steht ein gross' geräumig Haus"): see ZDMG. xxxvii. 109.—Cf. notes to xviii. 2. 35; 3. 47.⌋

3. Unto Yama the king offer ye an oblation, milk rich in ghee; he furnishes (ā-yam) to us among the living a long life-time, for living on.

The verse is RV. x. 14. 14 (found also in TA. vi. 5. 1), except that b is 15 b: ⌊see note to the preceding verse⌋. ⌊TA. agrees with RV.⌋ For páyas in a, RV. reads havís; for havís in b, havyám; and in c, d, it has devéṣv ā́ yamad dīr-. SPP. reads in c-d yamed dīr- ⌊so also Caland, Todtengebräuche, note 243⌋, which is certainly better than yame dīr-: half his authorities give the former; but of our mss. only Op. has yamet, while D. has yamat, like RV. ⌊TA. and the comm.⌋. ⌊The case is strikingly like that of mānaye tathā, mānayet tathā, at xv. 10. 2.⌋—The Prāt. (ii. 76) distinctly requires ā́yuṣ prá to be read in d, but of our mss. only O.s.m. (in margin) gives it; nearly half of SPP's saṁhitā-mss., however, have it, and it ought to be received as the true AV. text, though both editions read ā́yuḥ. These three verses make no appearance in Kāuç. ⌊This last statement now appears to be wrong: see note to vs. 1.⌋

⌊Considering the exaggerated nicety of the theory of the Hindus respecting consonant groups (cf. Whitney, AV. Prāt., p. 584-90), and in particular their doctrine of the varṇakrama ("At the end of a word, a consonant is pronounced double," padānte vyañjanaṁ dviḥ, Prāt. iii. 26), it is strange that the mss. sometimes fail to come up even to the simple requirements of orthography as set by grammar and sense. On the other hand, it can hardly be said that the mss. in the cases of these shortcomings are a less truthful representation of the actual connected utterance of the text than would be for instance the graphical representation of the English some more by the words some ore.—I have thought it worth while to assemble a few notable cases where the one of two needed double letters is omitted. Thus besides yame[d] dīrghám and mānaye[t] táthā, just mentioned, we have: at xviii. 3. 3, jīvā́m [m]ṛtébhyas (a most striking example: there is abundant ms. authority for the false ṛtébhyas, which is yet shown beyond all peradventure to be a blunder by the mṛtā́ya jīvā́m of TA.); at xviii. 4. 40, juṣantām

4. Do not, O Agni, burn him up; do not be hot upon (abhi-çuc) him; do not warp (kṣip) his skin, nor his body; when thou shalt make him done, O Jātavedas, then send him forward unto the Fathers.

This verse and the next are RV. x. 16. 1 and 2, but RV. makes our 4 c and 5 a change places (cf. note to our vs. 2). RV., however, reads çocas for çūçucas in a, and at the end pitṛ́bhyas ⌊as in our 5 b⌋ for pitṝ́ṅr úpa. In d, SPP. reads, with RV., áthe ”m enam, alleging for his reading three out of eight authorities, as against two or three that have imám. The comm. appears to read īm. Of our mss., all save O.Op.R. give áthe ’mám enam (and O. is corrected once to this, but the correction struck out again), as our edition reads; this is so bad a corruption that the authority for the other should be regarded as sufficient. TA. (in vi. 1. 4) agrees with RV. except in having karávas in its c ⌊our 5 a⌋. The text of the comm. agrees with RV. and TA. in having pitṛbhyas for pitṝṅr upa, while the comm. quotes pitṛbhyas and then adds and explains upa ⌊constructively a blend-reading⌋. Our Bp. appears to give in a çuçucaḥ, as it ⌊apparently⌋ ought to do according to Prāt. iv. 86, though the example is not quoted in the comment on that rule; but the other pada-mss. ⌊and SPP.⌋ have çūçucaḥ. The Anukr. is questionable in its reading as to the verse, whether tristubh or jagatt: the RV. version is pure tristubh; the AV. one is mixed (12 + 11: 11 + 12). Kāuç. (81. 33) prescribes this verse to be used, with 2. 36; 3. 71, and ii. 34. 5, when the youngest son lights the funeral pile, some of the schol. declaring vss. 4-7 to be intended instead ⌊cf. the comm., page 8620⌋; then, in 81. 44, vss. 4-9 and 11-18 are called anuṣṭhānīs, and are to be repeated by the anuṣṭhātṛ during the cremation. ⌊Root kṣip properly means 'warp' in its obsolete sense 'cast or throw.' If, as I think, W. is right in rendering the causative here by 'warp' = 'twist out of shape, contort,' the cases present an interesting semantic parallel. BR. render by 'platzen machen.' Different is the sense of ava-kṣip at 4. 12: see my note.⌋

5. When thou shalt make him done, O Jātavedas, then commit him to the Fathers; when he shall go to that other life (ásunīti), then shall he become a controller (? vaçanī́) of the gods.

The verse is RV. x. 16. 2, but RV. makes our 5 a and 4 c change places: see note to vs. 4. RV. has yadā́ ⌊for our yadó = yadā́ u⌋ at beginning of c, and áthā at beginning of d. TA. (in vi. 1. 4) agrees throughout with RV. save in accenting karási in a. Both, of course, read áthe ”m enam in b; but this time the AV. mss. are as good as unanimous in the corruption of īm to imám, and both the published texts are compelled to read it; the Anukr., too, seems to ratify it, by calling the verse bhurij; the comm. has instead idam, and one or two of SPP's authorities follow it. The comm. explains asunīti by asūn prāṇān nayati lokāntaram, and hence prāṇāpahartrī devatā; and devānām by svakīyānām indriyāṇām; while vaçanīs is (cakṣurādīndriyāṇāṁ) sūryādidevatāprāpakaḥ! ⌊Weber deems the idea of getting the gods under your control to be an indication of lateness or possibly of Buddhistic influence: Sb. 1895, p. 845, and 1897, p. 597.⌋

6. With the trikadrukas it purifies itself; six wide ones, verily one great one; triṣṭúbh, gāyatrī́, the meters: all those [are] set in Yama.

RV. x. 14. 16, the corresponding verse, has in a patati, and at the end ā́hitā; TA, (in vi. 5. 3) agrees with it, but transposes triṣṭúbh and gāyatrī́ in c. The sense of the verse is wholly obscure. According to our comm., the trikadrukas are the jyotiṣṭoma, goṣṭoma, and āyuṣṭoma; the "six wide ones" (f.) are heaven and earth and day and night and waters and herbs; "the great one" (n.) is taken ⌊alternatively⌋ as applying to Yama (m.): mahāntāṁ yamam uddiçyāi ’va pravartante! The commentator's ignorance is as great as our own; only he has no mind to acknowledge it. ⌊Hillebrandt cites passages akin with this, Ved. Mythol. i. 500.⌋

7. Go thou to the sun with thine eye, to the wind with thy soul (ātmán); go both to heaven and to earth with [their] due shares (? dhárman); or go to the waters, if there it is acceptable (hitá) to thee; in the herbs stand firm with thy bodies.

In the corresponding RV. verse (x. 16. 3) is read in a cákṣur gachatu and ātmā́; in b, dyā́m and dhármaṇā; TA. (vi. 1. 4: cf. 9. 2) has the same, but also inserts te in a after sū́ryam, and accents gácha, Brāhmaṇa-wise, in b—as does also SPP. in his text, with a minority of his authorities (and our Op.): there is the same reason (but no authority) for gácha in a also, but none in c, where, nevertheless, our Op. and R.s.m. have gácha. The verse lacks a syllable of being a full jagatī. ⌊Cf. the note to this vs. in my Reader, p. 379.⌋

8. The goat is the share of the heat (tápas); heat thou that; that let thine ardor (çocís) heat, that thy flame (arcís); what propitious bodies (tanū́) are thine, O Jātavedas, with them carry him to the world of the well-doing.

The RV. version of this verse has (x. 16. 4) tápasā in a; in this case, as seldom, the AV. reading is better. TA. (in vi. 1 . 4) also gives tápasā, and it ends differently: vahe ’máṁ sukṛ́tāṁ yátra lokā́ḥ; ⌊and it reads ajó ’bhāgás, which is explained by its comm. as bhāgarahitaḥ⌋. The comm. also has tapasā. Kāuç. (81. 29) directs the verse, with 2. 22 (some mss. say, with 2. 57), to be repeated while "binding a goat on the south," the anustaraṇī (as which, nevertheless, the goat is here meant) having been already laid, as a cow, on the body to be burned. ⌊But see Weber's treatment of the vs., Sb. 1895, p. 847.⌋

9. What ardors (çocí), swiftnesses (ráṅhi) are thine, O Jātavedas, with which thou fillest the sky, the atmosphere, let them collect (sam-ṛ) after the goat as he goes; then with other most propitious ones make him propitious.

With the first half-verse is to be compared xiii. 1. 9 a, b. SPP. reads in d çṛtám for çivám, with the decided majority of his authorities; of our mss., only O.Op.R.K. have çṛtám. The comm. has çṛtam; and further, in b, prīṇāsi, rendering it by either pūrayasi or tarpayasi. He takes raṅháyas as an adj., = vegavatyas, which is not unacceptable. The verse is no proper jagatī, either in movement or in number of syllables (12 + 12: 11 + 14 = 49). ⌊The comm. has çivatarābhiḥ in d.⌋

10. Release again, O Agni, to the Fathers him who goes (car) offered to thee, with svadhā́; clothing himself in life (ā́yus), let him go unto [his] posterity (? çéṣas); let him be united with a body, very splendid.

The corresponding verse in RV. (x. 16. 5) reads at end of b svadhā́bhis, in c vetu for yātu, and at end jātavedaḥ (for suvárcāḥ); TA. (in vi. 4. 2) also has svadhā́bhis and jātavedas, but in c gives úpa yātu çéṣam. ⌊The last pāda, d, recurs below at 3. 58.⌋ The third pāda is of doubtful meaning, but perhaps relates to the return of the deceased, after due installation among the Manes, to receive the ancestral offerings. The comm. explains çéṣas ⌊which he takes as çeṣa-s, masc.⌋ simply as apatyanāman. ⌊Kāuç. 81. 44 excepts this verse from the sequence of 14 anuṣṭhānī versts (4-18): see under vs. 4.⌋ In Kāuç. (82. 28) the verse is used in the ceremonies of the third day after cremation, in connection with sprinkling and collecting the bones. The Anukr. takes no notice of the deficiency of a syllable in d. ⌊As to çeṣas, see my note on this vs., Reader, p. 379-380: W's interpretation seems to me much better than either of those there noted.⌋

11. Run thou past the two four-eyed, brindled dogs of Saramā, by a happy (sādhú) road; then go unto the beneficent Fathers, who revel in common revelry with Yama.

The corresponding verse in RV. is x. 14. 10. RV. puts sārameyāú before çvā́nāu: ⌊and with this order (but not with that of AV.), the resolution to çuā́nāu is effective in giving a normal rhythm⌋. RV. reads in c áthā for ádhā, and úpa for ápi; TA. (in vi. 3. 1) has ápī ’hi, but agrees otherwise with RV. The comm. gives instead ape ’hi; and it explains this difficult reading by either taking apa as used in the sense of upa, or else understanding it to mean "go away [from the dogs]"! The Anukr. pays no attention to the redundant syllable in b, ⌊unless it assumes a deficiency in a to balance it⌋. The verse (according to the comm., vss. 11-13) is used (Kāuç. 81. 22) when the two kidneys of the accompanying sacrificed animal are (by way of a "sop to Cerberus") put into the hands of the dead man on the funeral pile. Then verses 11-18 are (Kāuç. 80. 35) mentioned and used with the hariṇīs (see under 1. 61); and by the schol. ⌊see note to Kāuç. 82. 31⌋ and the comm. they are reckoned themselves as hariṇīs. The comm. further prescribes them as accompanying the transfer of the dead body to the place of cremation.

12. What two defending dogs thou hast, O Yama, four-eyed, sitting by the road, men-watching, with them, O king, do thou surround him; assign to him well-being and freedom from disease.

The verse is RV. x. 14. 11, which in b reads pathirákṣī nṛcákṣasāu, and for c tābhyām enam pári dehi rājan (our dhehi is a corruption), and in d inserts ca after svastí. TA. (in vi. 3. 1) agrees with RV. except in having -cákṣasā, and in placing rājan and enam in c as does AV. The comm. makes a compound of yamarakṣitārāu in a; and it declares pari dhehi in c to = paridehi.

13. Broad-nosed, feeding on lives (? asutṛ́p), copper-colored, Yama's two messengers go about after men (jána); let them give us back here today excellent life (ásu), to see the sun.

The corresponding verse in RV. (x. 14. 12) differs only by combining in a -tṛ́pā ud- (p. -tṛ́pāu: ud-). TA. has the verse in vi. 3. 2: it reads in a -pāv ulumbalāú ⌊which seems to answer phonetically to a form beginning uḍum- and is glossed by prabhūtabalayuktāu, as if ulum-* were = urum-?⌋; in b, instead of jánāṅ, it reads ‘váçāṅ ⌊i.e. aváçān: glossed by asvādhīnān prāṇinaḥ and in d, for dātām, it has dattāv ⌊accentless, and glossed by prayacchatām!⌋. Ppp. has the first half-verse, in book xix., reading udumbarāu and caratāu. *⌊For the confusion between the sounds of and and d and l, see Kuhn's Pāli-gram., p. 37, and cf. below, at 3. 1, -pāláyantī, -pād-.⌋

14. Soma purifies itself for some; some wait upon (upa-ās) ghee; for whom honey runs forward (?), unto them do thou go.

The 'go' in these verses is gachatāt, imperative of remoter or after action. The translation implies restoration in c of the RV. (x. 154. 1) reading pradhā́vati, of which our pradhā́v (p. pra॰dhāú) ádhi seems only a blundering and unintelligible corruption. Some of our mss. (and one of SPP's) accent pradhā́vadhi. The comm. agrees with RV., and SPP. is not to be blamed for adopting, though against all the authorities save the comm., pradhā́vati in his text. TA. (which has our vss. 14, 17, and 16 following immediately after our 11-13, little as the two sets appear to have to do with each other) reads (in vi. 3. 2) with RV. ⌊See p. xcii.⌋

15. They who of old were won by right, born of right, increasers of right—to the seers rich in fervor (tápas-), born of fervor, O Yama, do thou go.

The corresponding RV. verse (x. 154. 4) reads in a, b pū́rva ṛtasā́pa ṛtā́vānaḥ in c pitṝ́n, in d tā́ṅç cid evá (as in our vss. 14, 16, 17). The comm. explains yama here to mean yamavan niyata, or yamena nīyamāna preta, which is probably not far from correct; it is the deceased person who is addressed.

16. They who by fervor are unassailable, who by fervor have gone to heaven (svàr), who made fervor their greatness, unto them do thou go.

The corresponding RV. verse (x. 154. 2) has no variant; in TA. (vi. 3. 2), however, we find gatā́s for yayús in b, and mahát for máhas in c: this latter reading the comm. appears to have in mind when he explains mahas as signifying mahat.

17. They who fight in the contests (pradhána), who are self-sacrificing (tanūtyáj) heroes, or who give thousand-fold sacrificial gifts, unto them do thou go.

The corresponding RV. verse (x. 154. 3) has no variant; TA. (in vi. 3. 2) has tanuty in b. Ppp. has the verse, in book xx., and reads for c, tās tvaṁ sahasradakṣiṇāḥ, and in d gachatām.

18. Poets (kaví) of a thousand lays (-nīthá), who guard the sun—to the seers rich in fervor, born of fervor, O Yama, do thou go.

The verse is RV. x. 154. 5, without variant. The comm. adds this time to its explanation of yama (cf. under vs. 15) niyata çakaṭe baddha vā.

19. Be pleasant to him, O earth, a thornless resting-place; furnish him broad refuge.

RV. has a corresponding verse (i. 22. 15), but reads for a syonā́ pṛthivi bhava; and in c it reads nas for asmāi, and sapráthas for -thās ⌊see my Noun-Inflection, p. 560⌋; VS. (xxxv. 21) has nearly the same, but inserts nas after pṛthivi, and ends with -thās, like our text; MB. (ii. 2. 7) agrees with VS. except in having -thas, like RV.; it also adds a fourth pāda. ⌊MP. ii. 15. 2 agrees with RV. save that it combines naç çárma and ends with -thās. Cf. the pratīka in MGS. i. 10. 5, and the Index, p. 158.⌋ The comm. explains anṛkṣarā by anādhikā. In Kāuç. (80. 3) this verse (according to the comm., vss. 19-21) is to be used when the man threatened with death is laid on the floor on darbha-grass; and again (80. 38), when the dead body is taken down from the cart at the funeral pile; and once more (82. 33), when the jar containing the bones is deposited in (or on) the earth. In Vāit. 37. 25, vss. 19 and 20 accompany the knocking-down of the animal-victim in the puruṣamedha sacrifice.

20. In the unoppressive wide space (loká) of earth be thou deposited; what svadhā́s thou didst make when living, be they dripping with honey for thee.

Most of the pada-texts (except our Op. and one of SPP's) read svadhā́ instead of svadhā́ḥ in c. ⌊SPP. gives as pada-reading svadhā́ḥ, and so the comm. interprets.⌋ At end of c, the authorities are bothered by a confusion of jī́van and jīvám. The pada-mss. read jīván (two of SPP's ⌊P. and P.2, which are unaccented in this book⌋ have jīvan): the saṁhitā-mss. have either jīváṅs t- (most of our mss.), or else jīváṁ t- (our O. and most of SPP's authorities), or else jīvā́n t- (one or two of SPP's). SPP. reads in his text jī́van t-, and says "the emendation is mine," not noticing that we had made it (the necessity of it being perfectly obvious) before him. The comm., too, has jīvan. The comm., with four or two of SPP's mss., makes the common blunder of reading at the end -çcyutaḥ. In Kāuç. (82. 21) the second half-verse is quoted in full to accompany the pouring a pot-offering into the fire on the second day after cremation (here, too, only one ms. reads jīvaṅs t-, and most of the rest jīvaṁ t-).

21. I call thy mind hither with mind; come unto these houses, enjoying [them]; unite thyself with the Fathers, with Yama; let pleasant, helpful (? çagmá) winds blow thee unto [them].

Excepting K., all our mss. read imā́m (or imā́ṁ) in b; SPP. records the reading as given only by two of his pada-mss. ⌊Pāda c is RV. x. 14. 8 a.⌋ The comm. glosses çagmās with sukhakarās. The Anukr. does not heed the redundant syllable in b.

22. Let the water-carrying, water-floating Maruts carry thee up, making [thee] cool by the goat, let them sprinkle [thee] with rain, splash!

Some of the authorities (our O.Op.R.D., and near half of SPP's, with the comm.) have in b udaplútas. For the use of the verse by Kāuç., see under vs. 8 above. ⌊Cf. the use of bā́l in i. 3. 1.⌋

23. I have called up life-time unto life-time, unto ability (krátu), unto dexterity, unto life; let thy mind go to its own ⌊pl.⌋; then run unto the Fathers.

The majority of our mss. (except Bs.s.m.R.Op.K. ⌊which have svā́n⌋; T. has svāṁn), and two of SPP's, read svā́m at beginning of c, as does also the comm., which supplies tanum for it to qualify. SPP. gives in c-d máno ádhā, and claims that all his authorities without exception read thus; our Bs. has ‘dhā, and if any of the other saṁhitā-mss. ⌊except O., which has máno ádhā⌋ do not agree with this, I have failed to note it.

24. Let nothing whatever of thy mind, nor of thy life (ásu), nor of thy members, nor of thy sap, nor of thy body, be left here.

The translation implies emendation of mánas to mánasas, as called for by the connection and by the meter. The Anukr. scans the verse as 6 + 8: 10 = 24. Bs.E. have tanvā̀ḥ in c. This verse, with 26 below, is used by Kāuç. (82. 29) in connection with gathering up the bones after cremation; with the same, and further with 3. 25-37, in connection (85. 26) with their interment. ⌊For its general purport, see Weber, Sb. 1894, p. 775, note 2.⌋

25. Let not the tree oppress thee, nor the great divine earth; having found a place (loká) among the Fathers, thrive (edh) thou among those whose king is Yama.

Only about half the mss. have at the end the true reading yamárājasu (which both editions give, as was proper); some of our saṁhitā-nss. (P.M.T.) accent yamarā́jasu, and most of the pada-mss. have correspondingly, as two independent words, yama: rā́ja॰su (namely Bp.D.Kp., and two of SPP's); one (I.) has yamárā́j-. One or two (including our O.) give bādhiṣṭhe in a. TA. (in vi. 7. 2) has two corresponding verses: mā́ tvā vṛkṣāú sám bādhiṣṭām mā́ mātā́ pṛthivi tvám: pitṝ́n hy átra gácchāsy édhāsaṁ yamarā́jye, and mā́ tvā vṛkṣāú sám bādhethām mā́ mātā́ pṛthivī́ mahī́: vāivasvatáṁ hí gácchāsi yamarā́jye ví rājasi: both are partly corrupt. According to Kāuç. (82. 32), the verse accompanies the deposit of the collected bone-relics "at the root of a tree." ⌊Baunack, ZDMG. l. 281, 284, understands vánaspáti at RV. v. 78. 5 and AV. xviii. 3. 70, as meaning, like vṛkṣá here, a tree used after the manner of a coffin. Curiously enough, peṭikā (Sāyaṇa's gloss for vanaspati) usually means κόφινος.⌋ ⌊For consistency, the Berlin ed. should read vittvāí-.⌋

26. What limb of thine is put over at a distance, and what expiration [or] breath has gone forth upon the wind (?), let the associated (sánīḍa) Fathers, assembling, make that enter thee again, bit (ghāsá) from bit.

With the first half-verse is to be compared vii. 53. 3 a, b. All the saṁhitā-mss. in b accent vā́te, save one of SPP's, sec. manu; and all our pada-mss. divide vā́: te, as if, after all, they thought vā: te intended. SPP's pada-mss. also divide vā́: te (only one of them is accented); he adopts vā te, on the authority of the one altered ms. ⌊[and the comm.⌋. To me vā́te seems rather the preferable reading, though there is not much to choose between the two. Our O. and two or three of SPP's authorities give páretāḥ ⌊plural: but no pada-ms. has to correspond⌋. Several of our mss., and the decided majority of SPP's authorities (except the pada-authorities: which, as he fails to report them, presumably have -ḍāḥ) read sánīḍād gh-; but of our pada-mss., all but one ⌊Op.s.m.⌋ give sá॰nīḍāḥ, and this SPP. adopts in his text, as do we. The comm. has sanīlās; in b, he reads ye...paretāḥ. The use of the verse with vs. 24 in Kāuç. was stated under vs. 24.

27. The living have excluded this man from their houses; carry ye him out, forth from this village; death was the kindly messenger of Yama; he made his life-breaths (ásu) go to the Fathers.

The verse is used in Kāuç. (80. 18) with an oblation to the fires, when preparing the body of the deceased for cremation. ⌊Note that the "messengers" or "men" of death or of Yama play a rôle in the Buddhist literature: see An̄guttara Nikāya, iii. 4 (35: p. 138), Devadūta Vagga; Jātaka, i., p. 13824, and scholion; Journal of the Pāli Text Society, 1885, p. 62.⌋

28. What barbarians (dásyu), having entered among the Fathers, having faces of acquaintances, go about, eating what is not sacrificed, who bear parāpúr [and] nipúr—Agni shall blast (dham) them forth from this sacrifice.

Similar verses are found in VS. (ii. 30), (ÇÇS. (iv. 4. 2), AÇS. (ii. 6. 2), MB. (ii. 3. 4), and Āp. (three varying versions at i. 8. 7). Āp. has in its first version for a, b apa yantv asurāḥ pitṛrūpā ye rūpāṇi pratimucyā ”caranti, a close analogue to our first half-verse; the rest ⌊including of Āp. only the second version⌋ have, without variant, yé rūpā́ṇi pratimuñcámānā ásurāḥ sántaḥ svadháyā cáranti, which is not quite so near. ⌊The third version in Āp. is ye jñātīnām pratirūpāḥ pitṝn māyayā ’surāḥ praviṣṭāḥ.⌋ In c all the texts ⌊including the three versions in Āp.⌋ agree with ours. For d, all the texts ⌊including the first two versions in Āp.⌋ have agníṣ ṭā́ṅ lokā́t prá ṇudāty (AÇS. -dātv, MB. -datv) asmā́t; ⌊while the third version in Āp. reads agne tān asmāt praṇudasva lokāt⌋. The comm. to VS. explains parāpúras as sthūladehān and nipúras as sūkṣmadehān, which is, of course, the purest nonsense; that to MB. divides parā puro ni puro ye bharanti, and connects the prepositions with the verb, rendering the first puras by "our enemies' houses" and the second by "our kindred's houses"—quite as bad. Our comm., finally, explains parāpúras (through parā pṛṇanti) as piṇḍadātāraḥ putrāḥ, and nipúras (through nipṛṇanti ⌊cf. his remark about ni-pṛ reported at the end of note to vs. 30⌋) as pāutrāḥ—if possible, worse than either of the others. All we can see clearly is that the native exegetes are quite as much in the dark as we with regard to the value of these obscure words. Except O.R., all our mss. have the false accent dasyávas in a; of SPP's, only two do so. Of the mss. in our hands at the time of printing of the text, only I. accented jñātimukhās at all (two of SPP's also leave it accentless), and we accordingly emended to jñātímukhās, according to the usual rule for such a compound; but I.O.Op.R.K., with the majority of SPP's authorities, read jñātimukhā́s, which SPP. has therefore properly adopted in his edition. By Kāuç. (87. 30) the verse is prescribed to be repeated while a lighted brand is carried three times about and then flung away.

29. Let there enter together (sam-viç) here our own Fathers, doing what is pleasant, lengthening [our] life-time; may we be able to reach them with oblation, living long for numerous autumns.

The translation implies in a the pada-reading svā́ḥ: naḥ, which SPP. gives by emendation, all the pada-mss. save Bp. (which has svā́: naḥ) having svā́naḥ; again, it implies in b pra॰tirántaḥ, while all read pra॰tiránte ⌊or -ate⌋; here also SPP. emends to -ntaḥ. The comm. reads -nte, and glosses it by pravardhayantu! ⌊A similar uncertainty (as between the Vulgate and Ppp.) concerning the understanding of the combination pratiranta āyuḥ was noted by me under xiv. 2. 36.⌋ The verse is used, according to Kāuç. (83. 29), next after the use of 1. 52, in arranging the bones for burial; and it is repeated, like the latter, in the piṇḍapitṛyajña (87. 28); sam-viç, as here applied, perhaps has its secondary sense of 'turn in, lie down.' The comm. reads dakṣamāṇās in c, explaining it by vardhamānās. The Anukr. does not notice the redundant syllable in c ⌊or perhaps assumes a deficiency in d to balance it. The word nakṣ- demands an accusative: so that both meter and syntax combine to cast suspicion on tebhyas⌋.

30. What milch-cow I set down (ni-pṛ) for thee, and what rice-dish for thee in milk (kṣīrá)—with that mayest thou be the supporter of the person (jána) who is there (átra) without a living.

That is, 'without the means of sustaining life.' Our Bp.E. read ajīvanas, unaccented; the normal accent would be ajīvanás. The comm. remarks that ni-pṛ is used distinctively of a gift for the Fathers (pitrye dāne vartate).

31. Pass forward [over a stream] rich in horses, which is very propitious, or, further on, an ṛkṣā́ka, more new; he who slew thee, be he one to be killed; let him not find any other portion.

The first half-verse is extremely obscure, and its translation only mechanical; we may conjecture that its text is corrupt. Such a combination as -vā: ṛkṣ- (so all the pada-texts read) into -vā rkṣ- is contrary to grammatical rule, unauthorized by the Prāt., and unsupported, so far as I know, by any second case. Part of our saṁhitā-mss. (P.M.E.I.) have -vā ṛkṣ-, but that is equally abnormal; SPP. makes no mention of any such reading among his authorities. "Stream" is supplied to açvāvatīm because Kāuç. (82. 10) prescribes the verse to be used, in the ceremonies of the first day after cremation, on crossing a stream, and prá tara naturally suggests it. Āçvāvatīm is unquestionably the AV. text; it is quoted as an example of long ā in such a position under Prāt. iii. 17. One may conjecture as a plausible emendation áçmanvatīm prá tarayā suçévām (cf. for áçmanvatī xii. 2. 26, 27; and our comm. reads here taraya for tara yā́). Then ṛkṣā́ka might possibly be a region or road ⌊beyond the river⌋ 'infested by bears' (ṛ́kṣa: so the comm.); the word ṛkṣā́ka is ignored by both Pet. Lexx. ⌊save in so far as this vs. is cited by the Major Lex. under ṛkṣī́kā⌋. ⌊Weber takes it as 'the milky way': Festgruss an Roth, p. 138.⌋ But it is of little use to speculate in such a case. SPP. reads in c vadhyas, with (as he reports) all his authorities save two; we also have both va- and ba- among our mss., but I cannot specify all that favor the one reading or the other. The lacking syllable in b, not noticed by the Anukr., helps in its degree to indicate corruption of text.

32. Yama beyond, below Vivasvant—beyond that do I see nothing whatever; into Yama has entered my sacrifice; Vivasvant stretched after the worlds (bhū́).

SPP. accents páras in a, and vívasvān in a and d, though the majority of his authorities have parás, and, in a, vivásvān; of our mss., only Op. has páras and in a vívasvān; but O.Op.R.T.K. have vívasvān in d. The Anukr. takes no notice of the metrical irregularities (10 + 12: 11 + 11 = 44).

33. They hid away the immortal one (f.) from mortals; having made one of like color, they gave her to Vivasvant; what that was carried also the two Açvins; and Saraṇyū deserted two twins.

Whether 'two pairs of twins' is meant is not altogether certain; but that would be strictly dvé mithuné; ⌊but see BR. v. 777, line 3⌋. The verb abharat does not mean 'bore,' in the sense of 'gave birth to,' though it might mean 'carried [in her womb],' and so might have a nearly equivalent value; our comm. renders it by samabharat or udapādayat. The third pāda means 'that substitute, whatever it really was,' though the usual version "when that was" (for yát tád ā́sīt) is not altogether impossible. The verse is RV. x. 17. 2, which differs only by reading in b kṛtvī́ and adadus (for which our -dhus is a common corruption). It is properly inseparable from 1. 53 above; ⌊for bibliographical references, see under that vs.⌋. Kāuç. and Vāit. pass it unused, as they did 1. 53. ⌊The comm., with one or two of SPP's mss., reads amṛtān in a.⌋

34. They that are buried, and they that are scattered (vap) away, they that are burned and they that are set up (úddhita)—all those Fathers, O Agni, bring thou to eat the oblation.

Āp. (in i. 8. 7) has a verse analogous with this; the divisions there are ⌊ye garbhe mamrus,parāstās, uddhatās, and nikhātās. The comm. explains paroptās by dūradeçe kāṣṭhavat parityaktāḥ; but uddhitās by saṁskārottarakālam ūrdhamdeçe pitṛloke sthitāḥ! it evidently refers to exposure on something elevated, such as is practised by many peoples. The pada-text reads úddhitāḥ, undivided, by Prāt. iv. 63. The verse (according to Kāuç. 87. 22) is used, with 3. 47, 48 and 4. 41, in the piṇḍapitṛyajña ceremony, to accompany the setting up of one of two lighted sticks (cf. under 1. 56) and piling fuel around it.

35. They who, burned with fire, [and] who, not burned with fire, revel on svadhā́ in the midst of heaven—them thou knowest, if thine, O Jātavedas; let them enjoy with svadhā́ the sacrifice, the svádhiti.

The verse corresponds to RV. x. 15. 14 a, b and 13 c, d (and to VS. xix. 60 a, b and 67 c, d). In the first half, AV. and RV. agree (two of our mss., O.R., combine yé ‘nag-); VS. has -ṣvāttās both times for -dagdhās. For c, RV. and VS. read tváṁ vettha yáti té jāt- 'thou knowest how many they are,' and of this our text is doubtless a corruption. Nearly half the mss. have te (both editions, with the remaining mss., including our O.R.T.K., ); the translation implies te. HGS. (ii. 11. 1) has agne tān vettha yadi te jātavedaḥ. For d, RV. and VS. have svadhā́bhir yajñáṁ súkṛtaṁ juṣasva; and here again our text seems only a corruption; svádhitim (p. svá॰dhitim) must be meant as nomen actionis to svadhā́, I think, = 'the giving of svadhā́'—a false formation. The comm. reads svadhāyās and svadhitam, explaining the latter as svadhā saṁjātā yasya. According to the comm., this verse and the preceding are used in the piṇḍapitṛyajña "on laying two pieces of fuel."

36. Burn (tap) thou propitiously (çám); do not burn overmuch; O Agni, do not burn the body; be thy vehemence (çúṣma) in the woods; on the earth be what is thy violence (háras).

Two of our mss. (R.s.m.Op.), and one of SPP's reciters, leave tapas at end of b unaccented; and this is, of course, more correct. For the application of the verse according to Kāuç., see under 2. 4, with which it is closely akin in sense. ⌊The comm. reads tanvas in b.⌋

37. I give this release to him who hath thus come and hath become mine here—thus replies the knowing Yama—let this one approach (upa-sthā) my wealth here.

The translation implies that rāyá before úpa in d means rāyás (accus. pl.), and not rāyé as understood by the pada-text; the comm. understands rāyas. Also, that céd in b admits of being taken as ca íd ⌊the pada-text always reads ca: ít, even when the meaning is 'if'⌋ with individual meaning, and not as the compound particle, = 'if.' ⌊There is a gap in the commentary just after the explanation of etat: but the commentator's text of the AV.⌋ reads yát for yás at beginning of b. For the Kāuç. use of the verse with 1. 55, see under the latter. This verse also accompanies (with 3. 73: Kāuç. 85. 24) the deposition of the bones in the hole in the ceremony of interment.

38. This measure do we measure, so that one may not measure further; in a hundred autumns, not before.

That is, that there be no more such measuring for any of us till his hundred years of life are full. The comm. understands yáthā ná mā́sātāiGram. § 893 a⌋ as yathā mā ⌊= māmnā ”sātāi, nā ”sīta, na prāpnuyāt! Kāuç. uses the verse twice (85. 3, 12—unless in the ce ’mām of sūtra three is disguised the beginning of vs. 39 or 41) in connection with the elaborate measuring out of the place of interment of the bone-relics. ⌊See Caland, Todtengebräuche, p. 145 and note 534.⌋

39. This measure do we measure forth, so that etc. etc.

40. This measure do we measure off, so that etc. etc.

41. This measure do we measure apart, so that etc. etc.

42. This measure do we measure out, so that etc. etc.

43. This measure do we measure up, so that etc. etc.

44. This measure do we measure together, so that etc. etc.

The comm. regards all these paryāya-variations of vs. 38 as to be used with it where it is prescribed; the Kāuç. says nothing of this. The comm. also gives artificial and absurd interpretations of the altered prepositions at the beginnings of the verses. ⌊Some of the alterations spoil the meter (p. 830, ¶4).⌋

45. I have measured the measure, I have gone to heaven (svàr); may I be long-lived; so that etc. etc.

⌊The prior half of the verse appears to be prose.⌋ The Anukr. scans 8 + 6: 8 + 8 = 30 syllables. This verse (according to the comm., vss. 45-47) follows the process of measurement (Kāuç. 85. 17).

46. Breath, expiration, through-breathing (vyāná), life-time, an eye to see the sun: by a road not beset with enemies (-pára) go thou to the Fathers whose king is Yama.

The comm. explains: mukhanāsikābhyām bahir niḥsaran vāyuḥ prāṇaḥ: antargacchann apānaḥ; madhyasthaḥ sann açitapītādikaṁ vividham āniti kṛtsnadehaṁ vyāpayatī ’ti vyānaḥ. It foolishly understands yamárājñas in d as gen. sing.: (the road) "of king Yama." The Pet. Lexx. render áparipara by 'not roundabout,' as if the final para were somehow also a pari; the comm. understands the word nearly as above translated; ⌊and the translation is supported by VS. iv. 34⌋. The Prāt. (iv. 39 c) notes the division vi॰ānáḥ pada-text, while prāṇá and apāná are always undivided.

47. They that departed unmarried [but] assiduous, abandoning hatreds, having no progeny—they, going up to heaven (div), have found a place (loká), ⌊they,⌋ shining (? dī́dhyāna) upon the back of the firmament.

The comm. commits the absurdity of glossing agru by agragāmin, and çaçamāná ('assiduous': i.e. having faithfully performed their religious duties) by çaṅsamāna or else (from root çaç 'leap') plutagamanaçīla! It seems hardly possible to avoid taking dīdhyāna in d as meant for dīdyāna; the comm. renders by dīpyamāna. The mss. vary between agrávas and ágravas, none of ours that were collated before publication having the latter, which is the true accent ⌊correct the Berlin ed.⌋, and is adopted by SPP. on the authority of a majority of his authorities (with which our O.Op.R.T. agree).

48. Watery is the lowest heaven (dív), full of stars (? pīlu-) is called the midmost; the third is called the fore-heaven (pradív), in which the Fathers sit.

Rather than leave pīlu- in b untranslated, we set in our version the comm's worthless etymological guess (pālayantī ’ti pīlavaḥ: grahanakṣatrādayaḥ). SPP. has at the beginning the better accent udanvátī, as read by half his autliorities (and by our O.Op.R. among those collated after publication). Our Bp.D. accent also pīlumatī́; O. reads pītúmatī, doubtless an accidental blunder, yet suggesting the emendation pitumátī 'rich in nourishment.' For the use of the verse prescribed by Kāuç., see under 1. 61; the comm. says simply that with this verse and another one (iti dvābhyām) the body is raised in order to being laid on the cart or litter (for transportation to the funeral pile); a schol. (note to Kāuç. 82. 31) uses it also in connection with the interment of the bone-relics.

49. They that are our father's fathers, that are [his] grandfathers, that entered the wide atmosphere, they that dwell upon earth and heaven (dív)—to those Fathers would we pay worship with homage.

The first half-verse is found again below as 3. 59 a, b. The verse is used (Kāuç. 81. 37) ⌊as the last one of eleven verses (see my note to xviii. 1. 49) which accompany the oblations offered to Yama and poured upon the corpse (comm., vol. iv., p. 11517: he says iti dvābhyām) in the cremation ceremony after the fire is lighted⌋.

50. This time, verily, not further (áparam), seest thou the sun in the heaven (dív); as a mother her son with her hem (síc), do thou cover him, O earth.

The last half-verse is RV. x. 18. 11 c, d, without variant (TA., in vi. 7. 1, has at the end bhūmi vṛṇu), and is also found below as 3. 50 c, d. Kāuç. (86. 10) applies the verse, with 3.49 and 4. 66, in raising a pile over the interred bones; according to the comm. ⌊vol. iv., p. 115⌋, the pile is of an uneven number of sticks (çalākā) or bricks, and vss. 50-52 are to be used. ⌊Over "hem" W. interlines "skirt." "Border of the garment" says our comm., celāñcalena.⌋ ⌊As to this beautiful verse, see Weber, Sb. 1895, p. 861, and cf. the epilogue to the Içā Upanishad, especially vss. 15, 16.⌋

51. This time, verily; not further; in old age another further than this; as a wife her husband with her garment, do thou cover him, O earth (bhū́mi).

The first half-verse is very obscure, and the second pāda perhaps corrupt. The comm. takes jarási with the first pāda, and explains that "what food etc. has been enjoyed in old age, this verily, left over, not anything else [further], is to be enjoyed"; and then "than this place of interment, any other place is not found for him"; all of which is simply silly. The Anukr. pays no attention to the redundant syllable (unless we pronounce patim ‘va) in c.

52. I cover thee excellently with the garment of mother earth; what is excellent among the living, that with me; svadhā́ among the Fathers, that with thee.

The comm. does not scruple to take bhadráyā as used for bhadrāyās, and qualifying pṛthivyā́s. ⌊He treats tán máyi etc. as at xi. 7. 5, 12, 14: cf. note to xi. 7. 12. Weber thinks this vs. is spoken by the heir of the dead man.⌋

53. O Agni-and-Soma, makers of roads, ye have distributed (vi-dhā) to the gods a pleasant treasure [and] world; send ye unto [us] Pūshan, who shall carry by goat-traveled roads him that goes thither.

The translation implies emendation at the end of gachatam to gáchantam, which seems necessary in order to make sense; the corruption to the former may have been made because it better suits the meter.—⌊The translation also implies the reading préṣyatam, which is given in the Berlin text and is supported by⌋ our Op. (prá: iṣyatam), by SPP's ⌊Cp. (prá: īṣyatam) and by his⌋ Dc. secunda manu: all the rest read préṣyantam (p. prá: iṣ- or prá: īṣ-), which SPP. accordingly adopts in his saṁhitā-text; ⌊but in his pada-text he prints prá: ī́ṣyantam, and he mentions the accent in his note⌋. The comm. glosses preṣyantam with pragacchantam in his usual loose and easy way.—Nearly all our mss. also have ajoyā́nāis (p. ajaḥ॰y-) in d; we followed Bs. in giving ajay- (which the translation implies). ⌊Weber also accepts the reading ajay- and interprets it as 'traveled by man's unborn (a-ja) or immortal part, i.e. his spirit': Festgruss an Roth, p. 138 and note 5.⌋ On the authority of a single ms., SPP. accepts as his reading añjoyā́nāis; ⌊as to this matter, see my note marked with a * in the next paragraph⌋. The reading añjoyā́nāis had already been conjectured by the Pet. Lexx.; ⌊so BR. v. 959, with the meaning 'leading straight to the goal': cf. OB. i. 18 b⌋. The reading añjay- is given by two or three of SPP's mss.; among them is that of the comm., who explains by añjasā, ārjavena yānti...ebhiḥ. The "goat-traveled" roads, of course, are those to which Pūṣan's team of goats are wonted.—Two of SPP's authorities give dadhatus in b; the comm. reads dadhatus in one of two alternative explanations, and -thus in the other.—Possibly before lokám is to be taken as belonging to this word alone: 'ye have assigned to the gods a pleasant treasure.' ⌊I do not see what W. means by the last sentence.⌋—For the use of the verse by Kāuç. etc., see under 1. 61 and 2. 48; the comm. includes with it vss. 54 and 55. It exceeds a proper triṣṭubh by two syllables.

* ⌊In reading añjoyā́nāis, SPP. is supported in fact by three or four of his mss. (B.C.R.Dc.p.m.) and presumably also by at least three of his pada-mss., since he reports nothing to the contrary. Moreover, he thinks that further support is given him by the reading añjāy- of two of his authorities (Dc. sec. manu, and the reciter V.), which reading, as he says, may represent an ill-corrected reading añjoy-; and perhaps the ajāuy- of the reciter K. points in the same direction, to añjoy-. As between the readings añjoy- and ajay-, even Whitney's mss. point decidedly to añjoy-.—Leaving the mss. of this passage out of account, however, the word añjoyā́na is well supported by its exact synonym añjasā́yana, p. añjasā॰áyana, used four times of the paths (srutí) by which one goes to the heavenly world (TS. vii. 2. 12; 3. 53; 4. 13: also AB. iv. 17, here as the exact opposite of a 'roundabout road' mah¯ápathaḥ paryāṇaḥ), and also by the doubtless precisely equivalent añjasī́nām (srutím) of the Rigveda (x. 32. 7).—This last phrase Sāyaṇa explains alternatively by ṛjum akuṭilam mārgam; cf. his similar explanation of pathó devatrā́ ’ñjase ’va yā́nān at x. 73. 7; cf. also añjasāyano, used in the Dīgha Nikāya, xiii. 4 ff., as a synonym of uju-maggo: all of which is in most perfect accord with the above-mentioned ārjavena etc. of our comm., whose testimony therefore is decidedly in favor of the reading añjoyā́nāis.—If añjoy- is the true reading and ajay- the corrupt one, the corruption is a very natural one, considering that Pūṣan's team (see RV. vi. 55. 6, 4; 57. 3; x. 26. 8; and the occurrences of ajā́çva) consists of goats.⌋

54. Let Pūshan, knowing, urge thee forth from here—he, the shepherd of creation (bhúvana) who loses no cattle; may he commit thee to those Fathers, [and] Agni to the beneficent gods.

The RV. has a corresponding verse (x. 17. 3), without variant. TA. (in vi. 1. i) has in c dadāt (as has our comm.), and at the end suvidátrebhyas. The mss. are somewhat equally divided in c-d between -bhyo ‘gnír and -bhyo agnír; our text adopts the latter; SPP., better, the former, with RV. and TA.

55. May life-time, having all life-time, protect thee about; let Pūshan protect thee in front on the forward road; where sit the well-doers, whither they have gone, there let god Savitar set thee.

RV., in the corresponding verse (x. 17. 4), reads pāsati in a, and té yayús at end of c ⌊thus rectifying the meter in both places⌋; and TA. (in vi. 1. 2) agrees with it both times; the comm. also has pāsati. The verse is metrically irregular (10 + 11: 12 + 11 = 44); ⌊but perfectly good in its RV. form (11 + 11: 12 + 11)⌋.

56. I yoke for thee these two conveyers ⌊váhni⌋, to convey (vah) thee to the other life; with them to Yama's seat and to the assemblies go thou down (áva).

Ava, in d, is so strange that we can only regard it as a corruption for ápi, which TA. reads in the corresponding verse (in vi. 1. 1). TA. also has the better reading -nīthāya in b ⌊so both editions⌋, as has also the comm., though its explanation seems rather to imply -nītāya. TA. further has the bad accent vahnī́ in a, and gives in c yā́bhyām, and in d (for sámitīs) sukṛ́tām. The comm. has sam iti, talking sam as joint prefix with ava, and iti as anena prakāreṇa; our Bp.E. read sámitī ca; possibly the comm's error is akin with this. According to Kāuç. (80. 34), the verse is used when two draft-oxen, or two men, are harnessed to draw the body to the funeral pile.

57. This garment hath now come first to thee; remove (apa-ūh) that one which thou didst wear here before; knowing, do thou follow along with what is offered and bestowed, where it is given thee variously among them of various connection (? víbandhu).

TK. (in vi. 1. 1) has a corresponding verse, but with sundry variants: at the beginning, idáṁ (which is better) tvā vástram; in c, d, ánu sám paçya dákṣiṇāṁ yáthā te. Te dattám is perhaps better 'given by thee'—thy former deeds of religion and charity, now to be enjoyed in their fruit; and víbandhu 'to those not thine own connections.' The Pet. Lexx. explain víbandhuṣu as 'destitute of connections or relatives.' The comm., with its customary regardlessness of accent, understands the word as two words, vi bandhuṣu, and connects vi (= viçeṣeṇa) with dattam. According to Kāuç. 80. 17, the verse is used, with 4. 31, in connection with dressing the body for cremation; in 81. 29, some of the mss. substitute it for vs. 22 above. Some of the schol. (note to Kāuç. 80. 52) use it and 4. 31 when the body is laid on the funeral pile. The verse, as a triṣṭubh, is rather svarāj than bhurij (11 + 12: 11 + 12 = 46).

58. Wrap about thee of kine a protection from the fire; cover thyself up with grease and fatness, lest the bold one, exulting with violence (háras), shake thee strongly (dadṛ́ḥ) about, intending to consume thee.

The corresponding RV. verse is x. 16. 7; in b it transposes médasā and pī́vasā, and in d it has vidhakṣyán paryan̄kháyāte, which is decidedly better. TA. (in vi. 1. 4) reads dádhad vidhakṣyán paryan̄kháyātāi. Our vidhakṣán, though read by both editions, is only another example of the not infrequent careless omission of y after a or ç; only one of our mss. (Op.) reads -kṣyán, but five of SPP's authorities give -kṣyan (as against six with -kṣan), and it is much to be wondered at that he has not adopted it in his text; the comm. seems to read -kṣan, but explains as if -kṣyan (viçeṣeṇa dagdhum icchan). At the end we ought to read parin̄kháyātāi, and SPP. gives that, with the majority of his mss., the rest having, with our text, párīn̄khay-; of our mss., only two of the later collated ones (O.Op.) have the proper accent; Bp. has pári॰īn̄khayātāi, which is absurd*; the comm. treats pari as an independent word (as if the reading were párī ”n̄kháyātāi). The comm. glosses dadhṛ́k by pragalbhas; ⌊cf. my Noun-Inflection, JAOS. x. 498⌋. By Kāuç. (81. 25) the verse is taught to be used when the dead man's face is covered with the omentum of the anustaraṇī cow (hence 'of kine') on the pile; the omentum is to be pierced with seven holes. *⌊Cf. the impossible pada-reading ví॰bhāti at xiii. 3. 17, and the other similar ones cited in the note to that verse.⌋

59. Taking the staff from the hand of the deceased man (gatā́su), together with hearing, splendor, strength—thou just there, here may we, rich in heroes, conquer all scorners [and] evil plotters.

60. Taking the bow from the hand of the dead man, together with authority (kṣatrá), splendor, strength—take thou hold upon much prosperous good; come thou hitherward unto the world of the living.

The two verses together correspond to RV. x. 18. 9, our 60 a, b most nearly to 9 a, b, and our 59 c, d to 9 c, d. But RV. has for its b asmé kṣatrā́ya várcase bálāya, and in its d spṛ́dhas for mṛ́dhas. TA. (in vi. 1. 3) has three verses, with a-b respectively as follows: suvárṇaṁ hástād ādádānā mṛtásya çriyāí bráhmaṇe téjase bálāya; dhánur hástād ādádānā mṛtásya çriyāí kṣatrā́yāú ’jase bálāya; and máṇiṁ hástād ādádānā mṛtásya çriyāí viçé púṣṭyāi bálāya; their common second half agrees with RV. except in having suçévās for suvī́rās; they are addressed to Brahman, Kshatriya and Vāiçya respectively, as our two are addressed to Brahman and Kshatriya, and that of RV. to Kshatriya only. 'Hearing' in our 59 b has a special meaning, the hearing or inspired reception of the sacred word ⌊cf. i. 1. 2, and note⌋. Kāuç. 80. 48, 49 explains the two verses as uttered while staff or bow is taken from the dead hand, as the body lies on the pile ready for cremation; and 80. 50 implies a third verse addressed to a Vāiçya, on taking from him a goad (aṣṭrām). Our 60 c, d is evidently addressed to the person (the son) who removes the article. The comm. reads in 59 c (with TA.) suçevās.

⌊Here ends the second anuvāka, with 1 hymn and 60 verses. The quoted Anukr. says ṣaṣṭiç ca: cf. page 814, ¶5.⌋

⌊Here ends also the thirty-third prapāṭhaka.⌋