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TALKS OF A TOURIST
OREGON AND WASHINGTON.
MRS. FRANCES FULLER VICTOR.
J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY.
Copyright 1891, by Frances Fuller Victor
Printed by J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia.
Whoever reads my book will discover that the author is no hasty observer. In fact, I have been up and down the coast a good deal, and have studied it from many points of view, from Mexico to British Columbia. I have, during different periods of residence in the East, had occasion to notice and to regret the want of knowledge of this northwest corner of the United States, and some years ago published "All over Oregon and Washington," which is now not only out of print, but out of date, owing to the immense strides in improvement made by these two commonwealths since the era of railroads.It was frequently suggested to me to revise and republish that book, but upon devoting a summer of travel to the acquisition of new facts, I found that practically a new book would have to be written. This is here presented. If readers of the former detect some familiar passages, they are those I found necessary to preserve, because I did not see how they could be omitted without injustice to my subject. To the majority I have little doubt that the whole will be what I have meant it to be,—instructive.
A Talk about Discovery
A Synopsis of Early History
About the Mouth of the Columbia
A Talk about Astoria and Vicinity
Notes on the Columbia River
Some General Talk about Climate
A Talk about the Wallamet and its Chief Town
Other Towns of the Wallamet Valley
Further Remarks on West Oregon
What I saw in Southern Oregon
About Oregon's Inland Empire
A Chat about Oregon Mountains
Geological Formation of Oregon and Washington
What I learned about the Mineralogy of Oregon
A Glimpse of the Mines of East Oregon
A Talk about the Forests of the Northwest
About the Botany of the Northwest
Something about Game and Wild Sports
From Portland to Olympia
From Olympia to Gray's Harbor
Shoalwater Bay or Willapa Harbor
The City of Destiny
The Queen City and its Dependencies
About the Key City and Vicinity
The San Juan Archipelago and City of the Sea
Fairhaven and Bellingham Bay
Glimpses of the Inland Empire
What about Spokane?
About Geology and Mineralogy in Washington
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
TALKS OF A TOURIST ABOUT OREGON AND WASHINGTON.
A TALK ABOUT DISCOVERY.
From the year 1513, when Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean at Panama, the navigators of Spain, and of every rival naval power which arose for the following two hundred and seventy-nine years, were searching for some strait, or river, which would furnish water communication between the two great oceans that border the American continent. The Strait of Magellan, discovered soon after the Pacific, afforded a way by which vessels could enter this ocean from the western side of the Atlantic; but it was far to the south, crooked and dangerous. After the discovery by the English buccaneer, Drake, of the passage around Cape Horn, the search was continued with redoubled interest. Not only the Spanish and Portuguese entered into it, but the English, who had found the great inland sea of Hudson's Bay penetrating the continent towards the west, endeavored, by offering prizes, to stimulate the zeal of navigators in looking for the Northwest Passage.A rumor continued to circulate through the world, vague, mystical, and romantic, of half discoveries by one and another power; and tales, wilder than anything but pure fiction, were soberly listened to by crowned heads,—all of which went to confirm the belief in the hoped-for straits, which one pretender to discovery even went so far as to name, and give latitude and longitude. The Straits of Anian he called them; and so, all the world was looking for Fretum Anian.
All this agitation could not go for nothing. By dint of sailing up and down the west coast of the continent some actual discoveries of importance were made, and other hints of things not yet discovered were received. There even appeared upon the Spanish charts the name of a river somewhere between the fortieth and fiftieth parallels,—the San Roque,—supposed to be a large stream, possibly the long-sought channel of communication with the Atlantic; but no account of having entered it was ever given. Then vague mention began to be made of the "River of the West," whose latitude and longitude nobody knew.
Just before the War of the Revolution, a colonial captain, one Jonathan Carver, being inspired with a desire to know more of the interior of the continent, travelled as far west as the head-waters of the Mississippi. While on this tour, he heard, from the Indians with whom he conversed, some mention of other Indians to the west, who told tales of a range of mountains called Stony Mountains, and of a great river rising in them, and flowing westward to the sea, which theyOregon, or Origan.
After the War of the Revolution, Great Britain resumed her voyages of discovery. A fleet was fitted out to survey the northwest coast of America, which it was thought might be claimed by her on account of the voyage to it by Captain Cook, some years previous. The surveys conducted by Captain Vancouver were elaborate and scientific. He, too, like those who had gone before him, was looking for the "River of the West," or the Northwest Passage.
But that obtuseness of perception which sometimes overtakes the most sharp-sighted overtook Captain Vancouver when his vessel passed the legendary river; for it was broad daylight and clear weather, so that he saw the headlands, and still he declared that there was no river there,—only a sort of bay.
Fortunately, a sharper eye than his had scanned the same opening not long before: the eye of one of that proverbially sharp nation, the Yankee. Captain Robert Gray, sailing a vessel in the employ of a firm of Boston traders, in taking a look at the inlet, and noticing the color of the water, did think there was a river there, and so told the English captain when his vessel was spoken. Finding that his impressions were treated with superior scepticism, the Yankee captain turned back to take another look. This second observation was conclusive. He sailed in on the 11th of May, 1792.
From the log-book of the "Columbia," Captain Gray's ship, we take the following extracts: At four o'clock, on the morning of the 11th, "beheld our desired port, bearing east-southeast, distant six leagues. At eight a.m., being a little to the windward of the entrance of the harbor, bore away, and ran in east-northeast, between the breakers, having from five to seven fathoms of water. When we were over the bar, we found this to be a large river of fresh water, up which we steered. Many canoes came alongside. At one p.m. came to, with the small bower, in ten fathoms; black and white sand. The entrance between the bars bore west-southwest, distant ten miles; the north side of the river, distant a half mile from the ship; the south side of the same, two and a half miles distant; a village on the north side of the river, west by north, distant three-quarters of a mile. Vast numbers of the natives came alongside: people employed pumping the salt water out of our water-casks, in order to fill with fresh, while the ship floated in. So ends."
No, not so ends, O modest Captain Gray, of the ship "Columbia!" The end is not yet, nor will be until all the vast territory, rich with every production of the earth, which is drained by the waters of the new-found river shall have yielded up its illimitable wealth to distant generations.
The "Columbia's" log-book certainly does not betray any great elation of mind in her officers on reaching the "desired port." Everything is recorded calmly and simply,—quite in the way of business. Only from chance expressions, and the determination to make the "desired port," does it appear that Gray's heart was set on discovering the San Roque of the Spanish navigators,—the "River of the West" of the rest of mankind. No explorer he, talking grandly of "minute inspections" and of "unalterable opinions!" Only an adventurous and, withal, a prudent trader, looking out for the main chance, and, perhaps, emulous of a little glory.
Ho doubt his stout heart quaked a little with excitement as he ran in for the "opening." We could pardon him if it shrank somewhat at sight of the hungry breakers; but it must have been a poor and pulseless affair of a heart that did not give a throb of exultation as his good ship, dashing the foam from her prow, sailed between the white lines of surf safely—through the proper channel, thank God!—out upon the broad bosom of the most magnificent of rivers.
We trust the morning was fine, and that Captain Gray had a perfect view of the noble scenery surrounding him: of a golden sunrise from a horizon fretted by the peaks of lofty hills, bearing thick unbroken forests of giant trees; of low shores embowered in flowering shrubbery; of numerous mountain spurs putting out into the wide bay, extending miles east and west, and north and south, forming numerous other bays and coves, where boats might lie in safety from any storm outside; of other streams dividing the mountains into ridges, and pouring their tributary waters into the great river, through narrow gaps that half revealed and half concealed the fertile valleys nestled away from inquisitive eyes; and that, as he tried in vain to look beyond the dark ridge of Tongue Point, around whose foot flowed the broad, deep current whose origin was still a mystery, he realized by a prophetic sense the importance of that morning's transaction. No other reward had he in his lifetime, and we trust he had that.
From the ship's log-book, we learn that he did not leave the river for ten days, during which time the men were employed calking the pinnace, paying the ship's side with tar, painting the same, and doing such carpenter-work as was needed to put the vessel in repair after her long voyage out from Boston. All this time "vast numbers" of natives were alongside continually, and the captain must have driven a thriving trade in furs, salmon, and the like. On the 14th he sailed up the river about fifteen miles, getting aground just above Tongue Point, where he mistook the channel among the many islands; but the ship "coming off without any assistance," he dropped down to a better anchoring-place.
On the 15th, in the afternoon, Captain Gray and Mr. Hoskins, the first officer, "went on shore in the jolly-boat, to take a short view of the country." On the 16th the ship returned to her first position off the Chinook village, and was again surrounded by the canoes of that people. The Chinook village remains to-day, but its people are no longer numerous.
Captain Gray was thinking of getting to sea again by the 18th; but on standing down the river towards the bar, the wind came light and fluttering, and again the anchor was dropped. He must now decide upon a name for this great stream, which from its volume he knew must come from the heart of the continent. The log of the 19th says, "Fresh and clear weather. Early a number of canoes came alongside: seamen and tradesmen employed in their various departments. Captain Gray gave the river the name of Columbia's River; and the north side of the entrance, Cape Hancock; that on the south side, Point Adams."
On the 20th of May the ship lifted anchor, made sail, and stood down the river, coming, as the following extract will show, near being wrecked: "At two the wind left us, we being on the bar with a very strong tide, which set on the breakers. It was now not possible to get out without a breeze to shoot her across the tide; so we were obliged to bring up in three and a half fathoms, the tide running five knots. At three-quarters past two a fresh wind came in from seaward; we immediately came to sail and beat over the bar, having from five to seven fathoms water in the channel. At five p.m. we were out, clear of all the bars, and in twenty fathoms water."
Captain Gray proceeded from Columbia's River to Nootka Sound, a favorite harbor for trading vessels, but in dispute at that time between Spain and Great Britain. Here he reported his discovery to the Spanish comandante, Quadra, and gave him a copy of his charts. In the controversy which afterwards happened between Great Britain and the United States concerning the title to the Oregon territory, the value of this precaution became apparent: for in that controversy the comandante's evidence destroyed the pretensions of Vancouver's lieutenant, Broughton, who, on having heard of Gray's discovery, returned to the Columbia River, and made a survey of it up as far as the mouth of the Wallamet, founding upon this survey the claim of Great Britain to a discovery-title. The subterfuge was resorted to of denying that the Columbia was a river below Tongue Point: it was claimed that it was an inlet or sound. Were it not a fact patent to every one that a river must extend as far as the force of its current is felt, the pretence would still be perfectly transparent, since Gray must have passed Tongue Point, and been in what Broughton claimed to be the actual river before he grounded. Years afterwards, the log-book of the obscure Yankee trader, and the evidence of Comandante Quadra, overbore all strained pretences, and manifest destiny made Oregon and its great river a portion of the American republic.
Captain Robert Gray was the first man to carry the flag of the United States around the world, having, in the spring of 1792, just returned from a voyage from Nootka to Canton, and from Canton to Boston, by way of the Cape of Good Hope. He continued to command a trading vessel up to the time of his death, in 1809. Gray's Harbor, on the coast of Washington Territory, was discovered and named by him, the name remaining as a memorial. Ought he not to have some other?In October, 1792, Vancouver having finished the survey of Puget Sound, in which the Spanish fleet was also engaged, Broughton was despatched to the Columbia River with the "Chatham," which grounded just inside Cape Hancock; was got off and anchored in a small bay on the north side of the river, known as Baker's Bay. In this cove he found, to his surprise, another vessel, the brig "Jenny," from Bristol, England, commanded by Captain Baker, from whom he had parted in Nootka Sound. The cove was thence named Baker's Bay. From this time the Columbia continued to be visited by trading vessels up to the war of 1812, which interrupted this sort of traffic for the time.
A SYNOPSIS OP EARLY HISTORY.
In the commencement of the present century, when we paid for our teas and silks with sealskins, cocoanut oil, and sandalwood, not to mention turtle and abalone shells, the United States were bounded by the British provinces on the north, by the Spanish possessions, called Florida, on the south, and by the French possessions, called Louisiana, on the west. Our seacoast extended only from the northern boundary of Maine to the southern boundary of Georgia; and the Mississippi River represented our western water-front, although the settlements in that part of our territory were chiefly French. Beyond the Mississippi was an expanse of country whose extent was undreamed of, as its geographical configuration was unknown. The explorations of the British fur companies in the north had revealed the existence of high mountains and great rivers in that direction; while the little knowledge obtained of the sources of the Missouri, the Columbia, and the Colorado, together with the immense volumes of these rivers, at so great an apparent distance from their springs, was sufficient to stimulate public inquiry and scientific research. How long such inquiry would have been deferred, but for a fortunate turn in the public affairs of the United States, can only be conjectured.
Our young republic had barely established her independence, and shaken off the lingering grasp of Great Britain from the forts and towns bordering on the Great Lakes,—had only just begun to feel the young giant's blood in her veins, and to trust her own strength when measured with that of an older and adroit foe,—when the nineteenth century dawned, in which so much has already been accomplished, though its ninth decade is but just completed.
The first event of importance marking this period, and bearing upon the history of Oregon, was the purchase from France of the Louisiana territory. This was a vast area of country, drained by the waters of the Mississippi, and originally settled by the French from Canada, especially in its more northern parts. Notwithstanding the Spaniards had discovered the Lower Mississippi, and claimed a great extent of country under the general name of Florida, King Louis XIV. of France, in consideration of the fact that the region of the Mississippi remained unoccupied by Spain, while it was gradually being settled by his own people, thought proper to grant to Antoine Crozat, in 1712, the exclusive trade of the whole of Southern Louisiana, the country included in this grant extending "from the seashore to the Illinois, together with the Rivers St. Philip (the Missouri) and the St. Jerome (the Ohio), with all the countries, territories, lakes in the land, and rivers emptying directly or indirectly into that part of the River St. Louis" (the Mississippi). Spain not being able to offer any successful opposition to this extensive land-grant of territories to which she laid claim by the right of discovery, Crozat remained in possession of Louisiana, under the general government of New France, until 1717, when, not finding the principality such a mine of wealth as he expected it to be, and having suffered a great private grief which took away the love of power, he relinquished his title, and Louisiana reverted to the crown. The Illinois country was afterward added to the original Louisiana territory, and the whole once more granted to Law's Mississippi Company, which company held it until 1732, when, the bubble of speculation being hopelessly flattened, Louisiana once more reverted to the French crown, and remained a French province until 1769.
In the mean time, however, certain negotiations were being carried forward which were to decide the future boundaries of the United States. In 1762, on the 3d of November, a convention was held at Paris, to settle the preliminaries of peace between France and Spain on the one part, and England and Portugal on the other, in which convention it was agreed that France should cede to Spain "all the country known under the name of Louisiana, as also New Orleans and the island on which that city is situated." On the 23d of the same month this cession was formally concluded, giving to Spain, with the consent of Great Britain and Portugal, all the country drained by the Mississippi and its tributaries, except a small portion north of the Illinois country, which was never mentioned in the boundaries of Louisiana.
In less than three months after the cession of Louisiana to Spain a treaty was concluded in Paris between the same high contracting parties, by which Great Britain obtained from France Canada, and from Spain Florida, and that portion of Louisiana east of a line drawn along the middle of the Mississippi, "from its source to the River Iberville, and thence along the middle of the Iberville, and the Lakes Maurepas and Pontchartrain, to the sea."
This treaty defined the limits of the territories belonging to Great Britain, and set aside any former grants of English kings, made when the extent of the continent was not even surmised. Thus, at the close of the Revolutionary War, when the United States became heirs of all the British possessions south of Canada, their western boundary, as before mentioned, was the Mississippi, as far south as the River Iberville and Lake Pontchartrain,—New Orleans and the mouths of the Mississippi belonging to Spain.
Florida, during the time it was in the hands of Great Britain, had been divided into two provinces, separated by the Appalachicola River, and settled chiefly by emigrants from the south of Europe, to whose numbers, also, a few Carolinians were added. This colony of foreigners was used, in connection with the savage natives of Florida, with great effect against the southern colonies during the War of Independence. However, while they were directing their energies against Georgia, the Spaniards of Louisiana seized the opportunity for making incursions into these nondescript British provinces, and captured their chief towns, thereby rendering them worthless to Great Britain; and in 1783 Florida was retroceded to Spain, in whose hands it was in the beginning of the nineteenth century, then forming the southern boundary of the United States.
In all these transactions the limits of neither Florida nor Louisiana had ever been distinctly defined; the southern boundaries of the latter infringing upon the western boundaries of the former territory. In 1800, when Spain retroceded Louisiana to France, it was described in the treaty as being the "same in extent that it now is in the hands of Spain, and that it had been when France possessed it,"—that is, embracing the whole territory drained by the Mississippi and its tributaries, "directly or indirectly."
In 1803, April 30, this vast extent of country was ceded to the United States by France, "with all its rights and appurtenances, as fully, and in the same manner, as they had been acquired by the French republic," by the retrocession of Spain. By this transfer on the part of France the Spanish government seemed at first disposed to be offended, and to offer obstacles to the settlement of the Americans in their newly-acquired territory. Doubtless, this feeling arose from the unsettled condition of the boundary questions, and a fear that the United States would, as they did, demand the surrender of the whole of the original territory of Louisiana, called for by the treaty. Spain then undertook to prove that the pretensions of France to any territories west of the Mississippi could not be supported, and that the French settlements were only tolerated by Spain for the sake of peace. Such a discrepancy between the views of the two nations forbade negotiation at that time, and the matter rested, not to be revived until 1817. In the mean time, however, the United States, in 1811, feeling the necessity of holding the principal posts in the disputed territory against all other powers, took possession of the country west of the Perdido River, which was understood to be the western limit of Florida. But a British expedition having fitted out from Pensacola during the second war with Great Britain, the United States sent General Jackson to capture it, which he did in 1814, and again in 1818, as also the Fort of St. Mark. These repeated demonstrations of the spirit of the United States led to further and more successful negotiations with Spain, which power finally ceded to the American government the whole of the territory claimed to belong to Florida, February 22, 1819, the boundaries being settled as follows:
"Article 3. The boundary-line between the two countries west of the Mississippi shall begin on the Gulf of Mexico, at the mouth of the River Sabine, in the sea, continuing north, along the western bank of that river, to the 23d degree of latitude; thence, by a line due north, to the degree of latitude where it strikes the Rio Roxo of Natchitoches, or Red River; then, following the course of the Rio Roxo westward, to the degree of longitude 100 west from London and 23 from Washington; then, crossing said Red River, and running thence, by a line due north, to the River Arkansas; thence, following the course of the southern bank of the Arkansas, to its source in latitude 42 north; and thence, by that parallel of latitude, to the South Sea."
Other particulars are added in the article quoted, the meaning of which is the same as the foregoing: intended to fix the western boundary of the United States, as regarded the Spanish possessions, and the eastern and northern boundaries of the Spanish possessions, as regarded the United States.
Spain had never withdrawn her pretensions to the northwest coast; but, being unable to colonize this distant territory, and still less able to hold it by garrisons in forts, she tacitly relinquished her claim to the United States, by making the forty-second parallel the northern limit of her possessions on the Pacific. The United States were then at liberty to take possession of that which Spain relinquished in their favor; in fact, had the same right to this remote territory that they had to the Florida and Louisiana territories, which were obtained by treaty from nations claiming them by the right of discovery.
But the claims of the United States to the so-called Oregon territory had even better foundations than this, if it be considered that Spain had actually abandoned her possessions in the northwest; for, in that case, the Oregon territory was theirs by the right of discovery and actual occupation, as well as by contiguity, by treaty, etc. At the time that Gray discovered and named Columbia's River, important as the discovery was, it awakened but little thought in the American mind; because, as yet, we had not acquired Louisiana, stretching to the Rocky Mountains, nor even secured the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, which was much more of an object, at that time, than the coast of the Pacific. However, when Louisiana became ours, the national mind awoke to the splendid possibilities of the nation's future. It was not for naught that a company of Boston merchants had opened a trade between China and the northwest coast; albeit, their captains gathered up trinkets of all sorts to add to their stock in trade, should furs fall short of the market. Not in vain had the prying Boston traders peered into all inlets, bays, and rivers on the northwest coast. When it came to discovery-rights, they had more claims than any people, the original discoverers excepted; and when Captain Vancouver's journal was published, it only convinced them that they should be fools not to profit by what it was so evidently fair they should profit by, though they did not quite see the way clear to the occupancy of the country which Columbia's River was believed to drain, nor of the islands and bays which their trading ships had explored. If Spain chose to hold possession of these coasts, they would not interfere; but if Great Britain attempted to override both Spain and America, in laying claim to the Pacific side of the continent, something might be done by way of preventing this attempt.
Such must have been the thought, half indulged, half repressed, in the American mind previous to the acquisition of the great Louisiana territory. After that acquisition it became more decided. The fact that Gray had discovered the great river of the west, which for a century had been sought after, the increasing evidences of the incapacity of Spain to hold this far-off coast against intruders, the feeling that Great Britain had no right to the countries she had so pompously taken possession of in the face of their actual discoverers,—all these reasons, joined to the probable fact that the Louisiana territory bordered upon that drained by the great western river, which an American was first to enter and explore, at length shaped the policy of a few leading minds among American statesmen.
It was even contended by some that, as the western boundary of Louisiana had never been fixed, and, indeed, was entirely unknown,—since the Missouri and its tributaries had never been explored,—the limits of the newly-acquired territory might be considered as extending to the Pacific; and if one were to consult the old French maps for confirmation of such an opinion, he would find New France, to which Louisiana belonged, extending from ocean to ocean. Yet, a perfectly candid mind would ignore the authority of maps drawn from rumor and imagination, and wish to found an opinion upon facts. It was to secure such facts and to carry out, as far as possible, the lately-formed policy of leading statesmen, that President Jefferson, even before the transfer of Louisiana was completed, addressed a confidential message to Congress, urging that means should be immediately taken to explore the sources of the Missouri and the Platte, and to ascertain whether the Columbia, the Oregon, the Colorado, or any other river, offered a direct and practicable water-communication across the continent, for purposes of commerce. The suggestions of the President being approved, commissions were issued to Captains Merriwether Lewis and William Clarke to perform this service. Captain Lewis made immediate preparations, and, by the time that the news of the ratification of the treaty had been received, was ready to commence his journey to the unknown West.
It was already summer when this news was received, and, although the party were ready to advance into the Indian country, it was too late to accomplish much of their journey before winter; besides which, some delay occurring in the surrender of the country west of the Mississippi, the party were not able to cross that river until December, in consequence of which detention, the ascent of the Missouri could not be undertaken before the middle of May of the following year. The exploring party consisted of but forty-four men,—an insignificant force to send into an Indian country,—yet, perhaps, all the safer for its insignificance. They had to make the ascent against the current of the Mad River in boats, three of which sufficed to accommodate this adventurous expedition. By the end of October they had arrived in the Mandan country, near the forty-eighth degree of latitude, or sixteen hundred miles from the Mississippi, where they made their winter camp. As every school-library is furnished with the printed journal of Lewis and Clarke, it is unnecessary to dwell upon the incidents of their memorable journey across the continent. It is only with its results that we have to deal in this sketch.
One of its results was developed at this early period, or during their stay at the Mandan village: which was, to alarm the Northwest Fur Company, and, through them, the English government, as to the designs of the Americans concerning the northern coast of the Pacific. It has been before stated that the Northwest Company had been compelled reluctantly to resign the posts along the Great Lakes, belonging to the United States, after the Revolutionary War. They still continued to hunt and trap, and had established their trading-posts in all that country lying about the head-waters of the Mississippi; and their employees were scattered throughout the region east of the Missouri, and west of the Lakes, even having penetrated, on one occasion, to the foot of the Rocky Mountains.
It happened that, while Lewis and Clarke were at the Mandan villages, the fact of their visit, and the object of it, which had been explained to the Indians, were communicated to some members of the Northwest Company, who had a post about three days' journey from there. So much alarmed was Mr. Chaboillez, who resided at this post, that he wrote immediately to another partner, Mr. D. W. Harmon, a native of New England, and, upon receiving a visit from him, urged Mr. Harmon to set out in the following spring upon the same route pursued by Lewis and Clarke, accompanied by Indian guides, doubtless with the intention of arriving at the head-waters of the Missouri, in advance of the American expedition; but in this praiseworthy strife for precedence they were in this instance defeated,—Mr. Harmon proceeding no further than the Mandan villages, while Lewis and Clarke prosecuted their undertaking with diligence, leaving the Mandan country on the 7th of April, 1805, and arriving at the Great Falls of the Missouri on the 13th of June. The reader need not be reminded of the difficulties attending such a journey as the one undertaken by our exploring party, when, the course of navigation being interrupted, boats had to be abandoned, toilsome portages made, new boats constructed, and all the novel hardships of the wilderness endured. Such tests of courage have been encountered by thousands since that time, in the settlement of the Pacific Coast; but that fact does not lessen the glory which attaches to the fame of the great pioneers commissioned to discover the hidden sources of America's greatest rivers. Those faithful services secured to us inestimable blessings, in extended territories, salubrious climates, and exhaustless wealth of natural resources.
Lewis and Clarke, having re-embarked in canoes hollowed out of logs, arrived at the Gate of the Mountains on the 19th of July, in the very neighborhood where thousands of men are today probing the earth for her concealed treasures of gold and silver. Proceeding on to the several forks of the Missouri—the Jefferson, the Madison, and the Gallatin—and finding themselves in the midst of the mountains, the two captains left a portion of their men to explore the largest of these, while they, with the remainder of the party, pushed on through the mountains until they came to streams flowing towards the west. At this intimation that their labors were about to be crowned with success, they rejoined their party at the head of the Jefferson Fork, and prepared for the rugged work of crossing that majestic range, now become so familiar. Concealing their goods and canoes in caches, after the fashion of all knowing mountaineers, and being furnished with horses and guides by the Shoshones, or Snake Indians, whose later hostility to the whites makes us wonder at their early friendship for Lewis and Clarke, the party commenced the passage of the Rocky Mountains on the 30th of August. Severe was their toil, and great were the sufferings they endured from hunger and cold; but, at length, their trials passed, they arrived at a stream on which their Indian guides allowed them to embark. This was the Clearwater River, the banks of which have since become historic ground.
The party were glad again to be able to resume water navigation, and hastened to build their canoes, and place their horses in charge of the Chopunish, or Nez Perce tribe of Indians, whose extraordinary fidelity to the treaty formed at that time with Lewis and Clarke is one of the wonders of history. On the 7th of October they began to descend the Clearwater, and three days later entered upon that great branch of the Columbia whose springs they had, indeed, tasted in the mountains, but upon whose bosom no party of civilized men had ever before embarked.
Men are apt to dwell with enthusiasm, upon the pride of a conqueror; but, certainly, there must be that in the exultation of a discoverer, which is far more pure, elevated, and happifying. To have succeeded, by patient research and energetic toil, in securing that which others secure by blood and devastation only, is justly a subject of self-congratulation, as it is also deserving of praise. The choicest wine, from the costliest chalice, could hardly have been so sweet to the taste of our hardy exploring party as the ice-cold draught of living water dipped from the mountain reservoirs whose streams "flowed towards the west." With equal pride must they have launched their frail canoes on that river which now bears the name of the chief of the expedition. As they descended to the junction with the northern branch, and found themselves at last fairly embarked on the main Columbia, when they beheld the beauty and magnitude of this King of Rivers, and remembered that their errand, so successfully carried out, was to find a "highway for commerce," their toils and privations must have appeared to them rather in the light of pleasures than of griefs. As the first party of white men to pass through the magnificent mountain-gap where the great river breaks through the Cascade Range, and to meet the tides of the Pacific just on the westward side, the party of Lewis and Clarke have won, and ever must retain, an honorable renown.
The voyage from this point to the mouth of the Columbia was soon accomplished. On the 15th of November the expedition landed at Cape Hancock, commonly called "Disappointment," on the north side of the river, having travelled a distance of more than four thousand miles from the Mississippi River. The rainy season, which usually sets in about the 18th of November, had already commenced, so that our explorers had some difficulty in finding a suitable winter camping-ground. At first they tried the peninsula north of Cape Hancock, but were driven from their ground by the floods. Then they resorted to the south side of the river, somewhat farther back from the ocean, building a log fort on a small stream which is still called "Lewis and Clarke River." There they contrived to pass the winter without actual starvation, though they were often threatened with it, from the difficulty of obtaining food at this season of the year. Game was scarce, except in the coast mountains, which are very rugged and thickly wooded; while fishing could not be carried on successfully except with other boats than their slight canoes, which were entirely unfit for the winter winds and waves of the lower Columbia. The Indians among whom they wintered called themselves "Clatsops," and were sufficiently friendly, but had no food to spare, save at the very highest prices. The Chinooks, on the north side of the Columbia, the same people Captain Gray had traded with thirteen years before, were equally exorbitant in their prices, and exercised a monopoly of the necessaries of life quite equal to that of the most practised extortionists.
Nothing could be effected in the way of explorations of the country during the winter of 1805-6, on account of the rains, which were constant and excessive; and the party, however unwillingly, remained at Fort Clatsop until the middle of March, going no farther away than to Cape Lookout, about fifty miles down the coast. As soon as the rainy season had closed, Lewis and Clarke re-embarked their men, and returned up the river, surveying the shores on their voyage. On this passage they discovered the Cowlitz River, the principal tributary emptying into the Columbia from the north side anywhere west of the Cascades. The Wallamet River was also discovered, but remained unexplored, from the anxiety of the expedition to return to the United States.
By the middle of April the party had abandoned their canoes at the gap in the Cascade Mountains, where the river forms dangerous rapids; and, purchasing Indian horses, continued the journey on horseback to the Nez Perces country, where these faithful allies met them on their return, not with friendship only, but with the animals confided to their care the preceding autumn,—an example of Indian integrity worthy of mention, and, as it proved, indicative of a character shown in the events of succeeding years.
After crossing the Rocky Mountains to Clarke's River, the two leaders of the expedition separated,—Captain Lewis going northward, down the Clarke River, and Captain Clarke proceeding towards its source. On the 12th of August the two captains met at the mouth of the Yellowstone, having explored that river, as well as the Clarke, and traversed a great extent of country then unknown to white men, but where white men to-day are suffering the flushes and the rigors of that most infectious and fatal complaint—the gold-fever—in the territory of Montana.
At about the mouth of the Maria River, Captain Lewis had an encounter with the Blackfeet, the most savage and dreaded of the mountain tribes. In this conflict one of the Indians was killed, which caused the others to desist at that time; yet, no doubt, many a white man's scalp has been taken in revenge, according to savage custom, and the wonder still remains that the party escaped alive out of the country.
After re-uniting their forces—their mission being accomplished—the expedition once more embarked on the Missouri River, and arrived at St. Louis September 23d, having travelled in less than three years, by canoe and saddle, carrying their own supplies, more than nine thousand miles.
Of the results of the expedition of Lewis and Clarke, it may be said that it was the first great act, wisely conceived and well executed, which secured the Oregon territory to the United States. It was the beginning, too, of a struggle for possession between this country and Great Britain, dating from the meeting of the Northwest Company's men with the men of the American expedition at the Mandan villages. Happily all these struggles for precedence are matters of past history now; and to-day both English and American citizens seek and find homes on Oregon soil, where, according to a wise act of Congress, one may be had for the taking.
The first attempt that was made to form a settlement on the Columbia River was by the Winship brothers, in 1810. On the 7th of July, 1809, there sailed from Boston two ships,—the "O'Cain," Captain Jonathan Winship, and the "Albatross," Captain Nathan Winship. The "O'Cain" proceeded direct to California, to trade out a cargo of goods with the padres of the Missions and their converts; and the "Albatross" sailed for the Sandwich Islands, with twenty-five persons on board. At the Islands she provisioned, and took on board twenty-five more men. leaving port for the Columbia March 25, 1810.
Arriving in the river early in the spring. Captain Winship cruised along up, for ten days, finally selecting a site on the south side, about forty miles from its mouth and opposite the place now known as "Oak Point," though its name is borrowed from Captain Winship's place. Here he commenced founding an establishment, and for a time everything progressed satisfactorily. A tract of ground, being cleared, was planted with vegetables; a building was erected; and, while the river banks were gay with the blossoming shrubbery of early summer, our captain and his fifty workmen rejoiced in the promise of a speedy consummation of their plans of colonization. Their hopes, however, were soon overthrown by an unlooked-for occurrence; and the daring pioneers, who feared the face of neither man nor beast in all that wilderness, found themselves confronted with an adversary against which it was useless to contend. The snows had melted in the mountains a thousand miles eastward, and the summer flood came down upon their new plantation, washing the seeds out of the earth and covering the floors of their houses two feet deep with water, demonstrating conclusively the unfitness of the site selected for their settlement.
Without doubt, this company of adventurers were by turns wroth and sorrowful. Their seeds were lost; their residences made uninhabitable, even had they desired to remain, which they did not. Captain Winship at once re-embarked his men, and sailed for California to consult with his brother. Here he was met by the intelligence of the formation of the Pacific Fur Company, with John Jacob Astor at its head, and the intention of this company to occupy the Columbia River. Competition with so powerful an association was not to be thought of, and the brothers Winship abandoned their enterprise. As men of large ideas and fearless action, they should be remembered in connection with the history of the Columbia River.
In March of the following year, that portion of Mr. Astor's expedition which was to come by sea did arrive on the Columbia—not, however, without the loss of eight men on the bar, through the impatience and overbearing temper of the commander of the "Tonquin," Captain Thorne. Subsequently, the Indians of the Straits of Fuca destroyed the "Tonquin," massacring all her officers and crew, twenty-three in number. The land expedition suffered incredible hardships: supply vessels failed to arrive; war with Great Britain broke out, preventing Mr. Astor from carrying out his plans; the Canadian partners took advantage of the situation to betray Mr. Astor's interests; and, after two years of hope deferred, the establishment at Astoria was sold out to a British company, and the enterprise abandoned, the place having been "captured" by the British.
After the close of the war of 1812, Astoria was restored to the United States, and Mr. Astor would have renewed his enterprise, notwithstanding his heavy losses, had Congress guaranteed him protection and lent its aid; but the government pursued a cautious policy at this time, and the Oregon territory remained in the hands of the British fur-traders exclusively for the twenty years following, notwithstanding a treaty of joint occupation.
To follow the chain of events, and record the incidents, of a long struggle between Great Britain and the United States to substantiate a claim to Oregon, is the work of the historian. Enough for us that we know which claim prevailed; and let us proceed to the more congenial contemplation of the physical features which the country presents, touching lightly now and then upon its history, as tourists may.
ABOUT THE MOUTH OF THE COLUMBIA.
Where the Columbia meets the sea, in an almost continuous line of surf, is some distance outside the capes; but from the one to the other of these—that is, from Cape Hancock to Point Adams—is seven miles. Should the sea be calm on making the entrance, nothing more than a long, white line will indicate the bar. If the wind be fresh, the surf will dash up handsomely; and if it be stormy, great walls of foam will rear themselves threateningly on either side, and your breath will be abated while the quivering ship, with a most "uneasy motion," plunges into the thick of it, dashes through the white-crested tumult, and emerges triumphantly upon the smooth bosom of the river.
The north channel, which is now little used, comes in pretty close under a handsome promontory. This promontory is the Cape Hancock of Captain Cray and the United States government, and the Cape Disappointment of the English navigators and of common usage, since the long residence in the country of the Hudson's Bay Company.
Inside the base of the cape, we find ourselves in a pretty little harbor, called Baker's Bay from its discoverer, with an island or two in it, and surrounded by sloping shores, originally densely covered with a growth of spruce, fir, and hemlock, with many varieties of lesser trees and shrubs. Along the strip of low land, crescent-shaped and edged with a sandy beach, are the recently abandoned quarters of the garrison of Fort Canby, for the cape was fortified during the civil war—when our government had some distrust of the friendliness of the English and French powers, and some fears of Confederate cruisers—with several powerful batteries.
There is also a light-house at the point of the cape, in which a first-class Fresnel light is kept, tended by the resident of a modest mansion under the shelter of the hill, and we are tempted to take the path winding around and about up to the top of the promontory. What fine trees! What a luxuriant undergrowth!
Sauntering, pulling ferns and wild vines, exclaiming at the shadows, the coolness, the magnificence of the forests, we come at last to the summit, and emerge into open ground. Here all is military precision and neatness: gravelled walks, grassy slopes and terraces, whitened walls. When we have done with the contemplation of guns and earthworks, we turn eagerly to gaze at the sea; to watch the restless surf dashing itself against the bar; to catch that wonderful monotone—"ever, forever."
The fascination of looking and listening would keep me long spellbound; but our escort, who understands the symptoms, politely compels us "to move on," and directly—very opportunely—we are confronted with the light-house keeper, who offers to show us his tower and light. Clambering up and up, at last we stand within the great lantern, with its intense reflections, and hear all about the life of its keeper,—how he scours and polishes by day, and tends the burning oil by night. When we ask him if the storm-winds do not threaten his tower, he shakes his head and smiles, and says it is an eerie place up there when the sou'westers are blowing. But, somehow, he likes it; he would not like to leave his place for another. Then we climb a little higher, going out upon the iron balcony, where the keeper stands to do his outside polishing of the glass. The view is grand; but what charms us most is a miniature landscape reflected in one of the facets of the lantern. It is a complete copy of the northwestern shore of the cape, a hundred times more perfect and beautiful than a painter could make it, with the features of a score of rods concentrated into a picture of a dozen inches in diameter, with the real life, and motion, and atmosphere of nature in it. While you gaze enchanted, the surf creeps up the sandy beach, the sea-birds circle about the rocks, the giant firs move gently in the breeze, shadows flit over the sea, a cloud moves in the sky; in short, it is the loveliest picture your eyes ever rested on.
When we ask the light-keeper, "What do you do when the thick fogs hang over the coast?" he shows us a great bell, which, when the machinery is wound up, tolls, tolls, tolls, solemnly in the darkness, to warn vessels off the coast. "But," he says, "it is not large enough, and cannot be heard any great distance. Vessels usually keep out to sea in a fog, and ring their own bells to warn off other vessels."
Then he shows us, at our request, Peacock Spit, where the United States vessel of that name was wrecked, in 1841; and the South Spit, nearly two miles outside the cape, where the " Shark," another United States vessel, was lost in 1846. The bones of many a gallant sailor and many a noble ship are laid on the sands, not half a dozen miles from the spot where we now stand and look at a tranquil ocean. Nor was it in storms that these shipping disasters happened. It was the treacherous calm that met them on the bar, when the current or the tide carried them upon the sands, where they lay helpless until the flood-tide met the current, and the ship was broken up in the breakers. Pilotage and steam have done away with shipwrecks on the bar.
We are glad to think that it is so. Having exhausted local topics for conversation, we descend the winding stairs, which remind us of those in the "Spider and the Fly," so hard are they to "come down again." How still and warm it is down under the shelter of the earth-works! Descending by the military road, we come out near the life-boat house,—for there is a life-saving station here,—and, being invited, go in to look at it. We find it well furnished for its duties, which evidently have been well performed, for here are the names of half a dozen vessels of different sorts which have been rendered service in their hour of peril.
There is annually great loss of life among the fishermen at the mouth of the Columbia, and it is here principally that the life-saving station is most useful. The number of men rescued during some seasons has reached half a hundred. The fishermen have recognized this service by presenting the captain of the crew with a powerful glass, and the men wear medals of which they are very proud. Having inspected the well-kept boats, ropes, and buoys, we take a look at the fishing-tackle, with which the light-house keeper goes out to troll for salmon. Glorious sport! The great, delicious fellows, to be caught by a fly! But we, humans, need not sermonize about being taken by small bait.
Baker's Bay is not without its little history; albeit, it is nothing romantic. In 1850 a company conceived the plan of building up a city, under shelter of the cape, and expended a hundred thousand dollars, more or less, before they became aware of the fruitlessness of their undertaking. By mistake, portions of their improvements were placed on the Government Reserve, to which, of course, they could have no title. Yet this error, although a hinderance, was not the real cause of the company's failure, which was founded in the ineligibility of the situation for a town of importance. The buildings went to decay, and the site was finally overgrown with a young forest of alders, spruce, and hemlock. But after many years the title to the land was confirmed to the early speculator, and the town of Ilwaco, a summer resort, has grown up on the site of obsolete "Pacific City."
There is a fine beach-drive of twenty miles from the cape up to the entrance of Shoal water Bay, and several seaside resorts are scattered along it. From Ilwaco to Sea-Land is sixteen miles, this distance being traversed by the Ilwaco and Shoal water Bay Railroad, which has several stations, namely, Stout's, Centreville, Tinker's, Loomis, Ocean Park, and Sea-Land, the present terminus. The cottages of summer residents are scattered along for two miles from Ilwaco, after which the road runs past waving fields of grass and grain, and thrifty vegetable gardens. For a part of the distance the ocean is in full view, its long rollers seeming to attack the beach with a purpose to demolish it, receding and renewing the onslaught perpetually. The scene is rendered more wild by the dense growth of dwarf timber covering the low land stretching back to an arm of Shoalwater Bay lying to the east. Many fresh-water lakes or lagoons dot this long peninsula, which, with its black, rich soil, would make profitable cranberry fields.
At Ocean Park there is a grove of gnarled spruce-trees through which streets have been cleared from the railroad to the beach, making beautiful vistas through which one may catch glimpses of the sparkling sea. The trees which brave the heavy northwest wind of summer, and the terrible strength of the winter's southwest storms, lean inland, and have a stunted appearance very different from the straight, tall timber of the river bottoms and mountains.
Sea-Land is situated in a spruce forest, on the inner shore of the peninsula, fronting Shoalwater Bay, the clearing being of very recent date. It has a wharf and warehouse extending half a mile into the bay. Several small steamers ply on these waters, carrying passengers to and from towns on the mainland side, whence railroads in the near future will convey them to Gray's Harbor, or into the interior of Washington.
To a sportsman with sufficient hardihood to invade the rugged and heavily-timbered mountains on the east side of Shoalwater Bay, bear, elk, and deer offer temptations. Bear are numerous, and keep fat on the wild fruit of this region, —whortleberries, sallal, and salmonberries. They also invade the apple-orchards of the settlers, and have to be trapped for their presumption.Returning as we came, we take the "General Canby" at Ilwaco to cross the Columbia. Such is its expanse that, although its course brings us off Chinook Point, we have but an indistinct view of it. Not as it was eighty years ago, as Franchere and Irving and Cox wrote about it,—a populous Indian village,—the dwellings of the white invader overshadow the ancient wigwams. Even its burial-ground, memelose illihee, which freely translated means "spirit country," is profaned. Alas! nothing of one race is sacred to another; least of all is there anything in common between the white and the red man.
A TALK ABOUT ASTORIA AND VICINITY.
The situation of Astoria, in point of beauty, is certainly a very fine one. The neck of land occupied by the town is made a peninsula by Young's Bay on one side and the Columbia River on the other, and points to the northwest. A small cove makes in at the east side of the neck, just back of which the ground rises much more gently and smoothly than it does a little farther towards the sea. The whole point was originally covered with heavy timber, which came quite down to high-water mark; and whatever there is unlovely in the present aspect of Astoria arises from the roughness always attendant upon the clearing up of timbered lands.
Standing facing the sea or the river, the view is one of unsurpassed beauty. Towards the sea, the low, green point on which Fort Stevens stands—the Cape Frondosa (leafy cape) of the Spanish navigators—and the high one of Cape Hancock, topped by the light-house tower, mark the entrance to the river. Above them is a blue sky; between them a blue river celebrating eternally its union with the sea by the roar of its breakers, whose white crests are often distinctly visible. There is a sail or two in the offing, and a pilot-boat going out to bring them over the bar; perhaps the vessel is from "far Cathay," with the silks and spices of the Ind. While we gaze, there is seen against the horizon the black smoke of a steamer. On she comes over the bar, breathing asthmatically and beating the waters with her great wheels in a steady rhythm, until at last the boom of her gun gives notice to the custom-house officials of her arrival, and all the town hastens to the wharf to learn of her cargo and her passengers, and to question what sort of a voyage she has had.
Towards night, when the sun is setting behind the light-house cape, and gilding sky and sea beyond the bar, there suddenly appear upon the river hundreds of fishing-boats, whose white sails dot its blue surface as summer clouds a June sky. They are going out to their night's fishing with drag-nets.
Opposite us, and distant four miles, is the northern shore,—a line of rounded highlands, covered with trees, with a narrow, low, and level strip of land between them and the beach. The village of Chinook is a little to the northwest; another village, Knappton, a little to the northeast. Following the opposite shore-line with the eye, as far to the east as the view extends, a considerable indentation in the shore marks Gray's Bay, where the discoverer of the river went ashore with his mate, to "view the country."
On the Astoria side the shore curves beautifully in a northeast direction, quite to Tongue Point, four miles up the river. This point is one of the handsomest projections on the Columbia. Connected with the main-land by a low, narrow isthmus, it rises gradually to the height of fifty or sixty feet, and is crowned with a splendid growth of trees. Between Tongue Point and Astoria was erected the first custom-house in Oregon; the building and wharf have gone to decay, and "Upper Astoria" has become united to the main town by a line of fish canning establishments.
Following down the curving shore, I inquire for the site of the Astor establishment of 1811 and the cove where the "Dolly" was launched. A few years ago, I am told, the foundations of Fort George, as the place was named by the English successors to Astor, could have been traced, but they are now built over, and the cove in front is also concealed from view by a wilderness of wharves.
In 1849, a company or two of United States soldiers being temporarily quartered in the old "Shark" house, a squared-log mansion built to shelter the crew of the United States schooner wrecked on the bar in 1846, the canoes of eight hundred native warriors of the Chinooks covered the water in Astor Bay, curious, as savages always are, to watch the acts and note the customs of civilized men. Not a canoe is now in sight. The white race are to the red as sun to snow: as silently and surely the red men disappear, dissipated by the beams of civilization. Among those who came to gaze at the overpowering white race on that occasion was an old Chinook chief, named Waluska, the number of whose years was one hundred. His picture, which some one gave me, shows a shrewd character. So, no doubt, looked Com-com-ly, the chief whom Washington Irving describes in his "Astoria," and whose contemporary this venerable savage must have been. His then sightless eyes, in his early manhood beheld the entrance into the river of that vessel whose name it bears. Between that time and the day of his death he saw the Columbia River tribes, which once numbered thirty thousand souls, decimated again and again, until they scarcely counted up one-tenth of that number. Only a few years ago, I am told, there might have been found, on a pretty, level piece of land around Smith's Point west of Astoria, away from the shingly beach, and where on the edge of the forest thickets of wild roses, white spiraea, woodbine, and mock-orange made a charming solitude, an Indian lodge, the residence of the native Clatsop. Exteriorly, the Clatsop residence could not be praised for its beauty, being made of cedar planks, set upright and fastened to a square or oblong frame of poles, and roofed with cedar bark. Outside were numberless dogs, and some pretty girls of ten and twelve years of age, with glorious great, black, smiling eyes. Inside might be seen three squaws of various ages, braiding baskets and tending a baby of tender age, with two "warriors" sitting on their haunches and doing nothing; and salmon everywhere,—on the fire, on the walls, overhead, dripping grease, and smelling villanously, salmon,—nothing but salmon. A conversation with the mother of the little stranger, in jargon, related to the fair complexion of the tillicum. One of the warriors, presumed to be its papa, laughed and declared it all was as it should be. Such are the benefits of civilization to the savage!
I went in search of this aboriginal family and fell in with a different sort of savage,—an Irishman, on a little patch of ground which he cultivates after a fashion of his own, at the same time doing his housekeeping in preference to being bothered with a woman." He is cooking his afternoon meal, which consists of soup made from boiling a ham-bone, with thistles for greens, and a cup of spruce tea. Think of this, unlucky men, bothered with women, who, but for them, might yourselves be subsisting on thistles and spruce tea!
Young's Bay, which forms the southwest boundary of Smith's Point, is a deep inlet of the Columbia, and receives the waters of Young's River, Lewis and Clarke's River, and the Skipanon, all which flow from the south; Young's River, however, having two considerable branches coming in from the east. The peninsula formed by Young's Bay and the ocean is a sandy plain, roughened with many hummocks, cut up by tide-sloughs, lakes, and marshy hollows, and timbered near the sea with scrubby pines. It has two rivers rising in the Coast Range,—one, Lewis and Clarke's, emptying into Young' Bay, and one, the Neahcanacum, flowing into the ocean. I stood upon the spot beside the former where the brave explorers Lewis and Clarke wintered in 1805-6, subsisting themselves and their company on elk-meat obtained on this peninsula. There they listened to Indian tales of the Yankee traders who had been in the river in past times, and even learned their names and the names of their vessels, so well had they been remembered by the natives. The Neahcanacum is a beautiful mountain stream, overhung with trees, rapid and cold enough for trout-fishing, and deep enough for boating. Very singularly, it runs parallel to the ocean and very near it, and is one of the most charming features of the summer resort known as Clatsop Beach. There is good hunting in the coast mountains bordering on Clatsop Plains to the south, and this sea-bathing place has for many years been the recreation-ground of Portlanders in the dry months of July, August, and September, a distinction now shared by similar resorts on the beach north of the Columbia. Steamers leave Portland late in the evening, arriving at Astoria in the morning, throughout the week; and on Saturdays leave the city early enough to reach their destination the same evening and give business men a Sunday with their families at the sea-side, to which they are conveyed by boat and train from Astoria.
From Young's Bay there is a view of Saddle Mountain, the highest of its twin peaks, Neah-car-ny, being the subject of a tradition preserved among the Indians of a vessel once cast ashore near the mouth of their river, the crew of which were saved, together with their private property, and a box which they carried ashore and buried on Mount Neah-car-ny, with much care, leaving two swords placed on it in the form of a cross.
Another version is that one of their own number was slain, and his bones laid on top of the box when it was buried. This, were it true, would more effectually keep away the Indians than all the swords in Spain.
The story sounds very well, and is firmly believed by the Indians, who cannot be induced to go near the spot, because their ancestors were told by those who buried the box, that, should they ever go near it, they would provoke the wrath of the Great Spirit. The tale corresponds with that told by the Indians of the upper Columbia, who say that some shipwrecked men, one of whom was called Soto, lived two or three years with their tribe, and then left them to try to reach the Spanish countries overland. It is probable enough that a Spanish galleon may have gone ashore near the mouth of the Columbia, and it agrees with the character of the early explorers of that nation that they should undertake to reach Mexico by land. That they never did, we feel sure, and give a sigh to their memory.
If the tourist is so fortunate as to secure an old Astorian for a guide, he may, if he chooses, call up manifold "spirits from the vasty deep." One of the stories of wreck a century or so ago relates to our almond-eyed neighbors at the antipodes. The story-teller will most likely take from his pocket, where he must have placed it for this purpose, a thin cake of beeswax, well sanded over, which he avers was a portion of the cargo of a Japanese junk, cast ashore near the Columbia in some time out of mind. When we have wondered over this, to us, singular evidence of wrecking, he produces another, in the form of a waxen tube. At this we are more stultified than before, and then are told that this was a large wax candle, such as the Japanese priest, as well as the Eoman, uses to burn before altars. The wick is entirely rotted out, leaving the candle a hollow cylinder of wax.
By this self-evident explanation we are convinced. Certain it is that for years, whenever there has been an unusually violent storm, portions of this waxen cargo are washed ashore, ground full of sand. As beeswax is a common commodity in Japan, we see no reason to doubt that this, which the sea gives up from time to time, originally came from there. The supposition is the more natural, as the mouth of the Columbia is exactly opposite the northern extremity of that Island Empire, and a junk, once disabled, would naturally drift this way. The thing has been known to occur in later years; and that other wrecks, probably Spanish, have happened on this coast, is evidenced by the light-haired and freckle-faced natives of some portions of it farther north, discovered by the earliest traders.
Fort Stevens, on the north shore of the Clatsop Peninsula, is a military post occupying a low, sandy plain, just inside the projection of Point Adams. It is one of the strongest and best-armed on the Pacific coast. Its shape is a nonagon, surrounded by a ditch, thirty feet wide. This ditch is again surrounded by earthworks, intended to protect the wall of the fort, from which rise the earthworks supporting the ordnance. Viewed from the outside, nothing is seen but the gently-inclined banks of earth, smoothly sodded. The officers' quarters, outside the fort, are very pleasant; and, although there is nothing attractive in the location of the fort, or in its surroundings, it is an interesting place in which to spend an hour. The view from the embankment is extensive, commanding the entrance to the river, the fortifications of Cape Hancock, opposite, and the handsome highlands of the north side, as well as of a portion of Young's Bay. The troops quartered here have been temporarily withdrawn to accommodate the officers and men connected with the engineer department of the United States Army, who are at work upon a jetty built by the government to improve the south channel of the Columbia, which extends from Fort Stevens four miles out towards deep water, and will probably be still further extended, the improvement in the channel being manifest. This work was commenced in 1885, before which the channels over the bar were capricious in location and variable in depth, the water on the bar being from nineteen to twenty-one feet, and the channels from one to three in number. The effect of the jetty has been to build up Clatsop spit, and concentrate the waters on the middle sands, which have been removed, leaving from eighteen to twenty-five feet of water in their place. Between three and four square miles of ground in front of Fort Stevens have been built up, where formerly it was being eaten away by the impingement of the current upon the shore-line.
Tansy Point, on the northeast corner of the Clatsop Peninsula, and adjoining the military reservation, has recently been laid off in town lots, and named New Astoria. This brings to mind the project of some adventurers of 1839, one of whom was J. T. Farnham, author of the "History of Oregon Territory," and another, Medorum Crawford, of Salem, in this State, to build a city to be a second New York, on this identical point. We build cities with wonderful rapidity in these days, with every force made available. But wdiat courage and wbat imagination must these young fellows have had, who crossed the continent by hook and by crook" to found a New York at the mouth of the Columbia! Few of them ever saw their destination.
Another recent town enterprise is East Astoria, laid out above Tongue Point, at the mouth of John Day River, an affluent of the Columbia. As a suburb of Astoria it will in time be settled up, but as an independent site it has no apparent advantages. A local railway line has been projected which is to connect New Astoria with old Astoria by following around the shore of Young's Bay to Smith's Point, which is also now laid off in city lots. A similar connection will probably be made with the eastern addition. Astoria, although the oldest American settlement on the Pacific coast, has been very slow of development. The situation for a commercial entrepót, although in some respects a fine one, had its drawbacks, being cut off from the interior by the densely-timbered mountains of the Coast Range, and having apparently few resources outside of salmon canning, which business is of comparatively recent date. If you had asked an Astorian in 1870 what constituted the importance of his town, present or future, he would have told you that it had a commodious harbor, with depth of water enough to accommodate vessels of the deepest draft, with good anchorage, and shelter from southwest (winter) storms. He would have pointed to the forts at the mouth of the river, which made business; to the custom-house, which brought business; to the pilotage of all incoming and outgoing vessels; to a certain amount of lumber manufactured here, and cement manufactured at Knappton, by workmen who spent their wages in Astoria, and so on.
If you had inquired what back country it had to support it, he would have pointed to Clatsop, and the valley of the Nehalem, south of it; and have told you that it is but seventy miles into the great valley of Western Oregon, and that a railroad is to be built into it from Astoria, through the coast mountains. He would mention, besides, that there are numerous small valleys of streams running into the Columbia within twenty miles, which are of the best of rich bottom-lands, and only need opening up. This was the Astorian's view of his town, and nothing to the contrary could be seen. That there were in the neighborhood of Astoria many elements of wealth, both mineral and agricultural, which only required time and capital to develop, could not be doubted, even then. The same conditions remain, but the resources then modestly claimed have been considerably developed.
To fishing, more than to any other, or all other, business, Astoria owes its prosperity from 1870 to the present time. The first fishery established on the Lower Columbia since 1834, when Wyeth failed, was in 1862, by Captain John West, of Westport, some distance above Astoria; the first cannery in 1867, by Hapgood and Hume, on the north side of the river, also above Astoria. A fishery proper is understood to mean a barrelling establishment, while a cannery is one where fish are preserved in cans, either fresh or spiced, and pickled. Often they are combined.
The fishing season begins in May, and ends in August. The manner of taking salmon in the Columbia is usually by driftnets, from twenty to a hundred fathoms long. The boats used by the fishermen are similar to the Whitehall boat. According to laws of their own, the men engaged in taking the fish, where the drift is large, allow each boat a stated time to go back and forth along the drift to hook up the salmon. The meshes of the nets are just of a size to catch the fish by the gills, when attempting to pass through; and their misfortune is betrayed to the watchful eye of the fisherman by the bobbing of the corks on the surface of the river.
When brought to the fishery, they are piled up on long tables which project out over the water. Here stand Chinamen, two at each table, armed with long, sharp knives, who, with great celerity and skill, disembowel and behead the fresh arrivals, pushing the offal over the brink into the river at the same time. After cleaning, the fish are thrown into brine vats, where they remain from one to two days to undergo the necessary shrinkage, which is nearly one-half. They are then taken out, washed thoroughly, and packed down in barrels, with the proper quantity of salt. That they may keep perfectly well, it is necessary to heap them up in the barrels, and force them down with a screw-press.
The canning process, which was kept secret for one or two seasons, is a much more elaborate one, requiring a large outlay, many hands, and much skill and precision, for its success. Such was the profit derived from this business that canneries multiplied rapidly until 1880, when it reached its height, since which time there has been a decrease in the output, owing to over-fishing. The legislature has come to the protection of salmon with a law confining fishing to a period from the first of April to the first of August. A hatchery is also in operation on the Clackamas River, a branch of the Wallamet, where spawn is cared for and developed, the young fish being placed in the river at a proper stage of growth. With these precautions, it is hoped to save this industry from further loss, and even to excel its former yield.
There are nineteen canneries at Astoria, in which are invested two million dollars, and almost as many more which are tributary to it, the capital operating them being furnished by Astoria. Shipments are made direct to foreign countries, as well as to domestic ports. In 1889 one cargo of salmon which was cleared for Liverpool was valued at three hundred and fourteen thousand three hundred and three dollars, the largest cargo, with one exception, ever cleared direct, by sail, for a foreign port from 4he Pacific coast. Astoria is the greatest salmon-fishing station in the world, the canneries using between four hundred thousand and five hundred thousand salmon annually, and Astoria sends out larger cargoes by sailing-vessels than San Francisco of fish and wheat.
There is no part of the Pacific coast so well adapted to fishcuring as Oregon and Washington. The climate, either north or south of their latitude, is either too moist or too dry. Wood for barrels is close at hand; and, not yet utilized, close at hand, too, is the best salt in the world for curing meats of any kind. Seeing to what an immense business salmon-fishing is growing, one cannot help wishing that Nathaniel Wyeth, who tried so hard, in 1832, to establish a fishery on the Columbia, and failed through a combination of causes, could see his dream fulfilled, of making the Columbia famous for its fisheries and its lumber trade. But he, like most enthusiasts, was born too soon to behold the realization of the truths he felt convinced of.
There are several species of salmon and salmon-trout which are found in the Columbia. Of these, three species of the silvery spring salmon, known to naturalists as Salmo quinnat , 8. gairdneri , and S. paucidens , are those used for commercial purposes, and known as the “ square-tailed” and “ white salmon,”—the third species being considered as smaller individuals of the same kinds, though really distinct in kind.
When they enter the river, near its mouth, they may be caught by hook and bait. The Indians use small herring for bait, sinking it with a stone, and trolling, by paddling silently and occasionally jerking the line. Near the mouth of the Columbia they can be taken with the fly; but, as salmon do not feed, on their annual journey up the river to spawn, it is useless to offer them bait. They can only be caught at a dis¬ tance from the ocean by nets and seines, or by spearing. The natives usually take them by using scoop-nets, which they dip into the water, at random, near the falls and rapids, where large numbers of salmon collect to jump the falls. As these falls are all at a considerable distance from the sea, by the time they arrive at them the fish are more or less emaciated, from fasting and the exertion of stemming currents and climbing rapids, and, consequently, not in so good a condition as when caught near the sea. Hence the superior quality of Chinook salmon.
The numbers of all kinds of salmon which ascend the Columbia annually is something wonderful. They seem to be seeking quiet and safe places in which to deposit their spawn, and thousands of them never stop until they reach the greatfalls of the Snake River, more than six hundred miles from the Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/55 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/56 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/57 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/58 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/59 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/60 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/61 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/62 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/63 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/64 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/65 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/66 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/67 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/68 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/71 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/72 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/73 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/74 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/75 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/76 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/77 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/78 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/79 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/80 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/81 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/82 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/83 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/84 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/85 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/86 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/87 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/88 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/89 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/90 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/91 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/92 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/93 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/94 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/95 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/96 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/97 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/98 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/101 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/102 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/103 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/104 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/105 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/106 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/107 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/108 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/109 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/110 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/111 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/112 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/113 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/114 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/117 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/118 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/119 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/120 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/121 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/122 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/123 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/124 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/125 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/126 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/127 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/128 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/129 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/130 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/131 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/132 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/135 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/136 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/137 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/138 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/139 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/140 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/143 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/144 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/145 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/146 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/147 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/148 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/149 from the south, the railroad on one side, and teeming gardens and attractive houses on the other. A handsome bridge spans it in the centre of the town. Roseburg, like Drain, is to have a railroad to the sea.
Proceeding south through a charming country to the Myrtle Creek Hills, the scenery at this place strongly suggests Harper's Ferry, without its costly improvements. Soon we enter the canon of Cow Creek, a wild and wonderful pass, rendered historic in the winter of 1889–90 by the blockade of the Southern Pacific Railroad, which lasted for more than a month. This remarkable obstruction to travel was occasioned by a combination of causes, but primarily by the construction of the road itself through the canon, and the cutting away the foundation, so to speak, of the steep hill-side where it occurred.Cow Creek is a pure mountain stream, from fifty to a hundred feet in width, not very deep at its usual stage, but very crooked, the rugged points around which it makes its sharp turns necessitating frequent tunnels. As the canon is narrow, the road had to be cut along the mountain-side at a height sufficient to Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/151 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/152 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/153 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/154 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/155 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/156 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/157 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/158 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/161 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/162 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/163 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/164 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/165 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/166 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/167 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/168 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/169 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/170 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/171 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/172 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/173 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/174 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/175 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/176 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/177 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/178 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/179 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/180 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/181 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/182 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/183 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/184 From this point to Snake Fiver two similar ridges are crossed in a similar manner, the ascent and descent being made through narrow and crooked canons entirely shutting out the view, which is seen only on top of the divides; but from each of these there
is the same grand spectacle of boundless wheat-fields rolling off into billowy hills in all directions. The railroad strikes the Snake Fiver at Riparia, in the Palouse country. There the traveller is transferred to a steamboat for Lewiston, where he is landed after a twelve hours' struggle with the rapid current of the reptilian river. The distance is eighty miles; and when you come down it you make the voyage in four hours.The scenery along the Snake is the same as along the Columbia above Celilo,—a strong, swift river between bare hills or columnar cliffs of basalt,—the difference being that every here and there along the Snake there are narrow shelves of warm Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/186 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/189 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/190 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/191 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/192 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/193 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/194 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/195 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/196 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/197 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/198 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/201 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/202 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/203 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/204 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/205 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/206 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/207 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/208 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/209 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/210 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/211 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/212 basaltic rock conceals from sight the record we have referred to, except where by the action of water the pages of the book have been cut through from cover to cover—from ocean-bed to overlying basalt.
For a distance of sixty miles east of Dalles this last overflow may be traced, growing thinner and thinner, until it becomes a mere capping on the hills. Underneath it all is sedimentary, except the interruptions, several in number, of the older outflows of lava. It is owing to the large extent to which volcanic ash enters into the composition of the earth and soil of this portion of Oregon and Washington that both earth and water are so often strongly alkaline. It forms a soil inexhaustible in fertility, and particularly adapted to the growth of cereals; but, owing to its elevation, and to the depth of the stream below the surface, together with a dry climate, is difficult of adaptation to the uses of the agriculturist.
Mr. J. Wessen, in an article published some years since in the Overland Monthly, thus speaks of the geological formation of the high plateaux and the lake region of Southeastern Oregon:"Coming from the northeast, the Blue Range of Oregon, the Cascade Range from the north, and the Sierra from the south, blend into or form a vast steppe or table-land of lava and sagefields, interspersed with a score of lakes, in size varying from five to forty miles in length, and proportionate width. This high separating belt of land and water commences at the Owyhee River and extends westward to the mountains, running at right angles to the ocean—a length of three hundred miles, and an average breadth of one hundred and fifty. There are three distinct chains of lakes in this district: The eastern, known as the Warner, inclusive of the Harney and Malheur. The second chain of lakes may be called the Goose Lake, including its northern links,—Albert, Silver, and other smaller lakes. Goose Lake nestles in the extreme north end of the Sierra, and is the source of Pitt River, the main branch of the Sacramento. This fact has been disputed, owing, perhaps, to the outlet being underground in the drier seasons. The third and last, and larger of the several chains, is the Klamath, embracing Wright and Rhett Lakes, farther south. The Warner Lakes string along more like a river; and the rapid current, setting north at all Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/214 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/215 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/216 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/217 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/218 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/219 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/220 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/221 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/222 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/223 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/224 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/225 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/226 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/227 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/228 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/229 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/230 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/231 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/232 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/233 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/234 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/235 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/236 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/237 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/238 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/239 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/240 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/241 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/242 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/243 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/244 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/245 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/246 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/247 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/248 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/249 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/250 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/251 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/252 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/253 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/254 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/255 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/256 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/257 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/258 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/259 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/260 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/261 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/262 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/263 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/264 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/265 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/266 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/267 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/268 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/269 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/270 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/271 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/272 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/273 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/274 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/275 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/276 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/279 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/280 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/281 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/282 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/283 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/284 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/285 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/286 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/287 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/288 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/289 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/290 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/291 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/292 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/293 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/294 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/295 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/296 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/297 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/298 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/299 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/300 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/301 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/302 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/303 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/304 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/305 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/306 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/307 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/308 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/309 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/310 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/311 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/312 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/313 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/314 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/317 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/318 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/319 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/320 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/321 The Puget Sound Printing Company is an institution of Tacoma.
The most conspicuous public buildings in Tacoma are the Northern Pacific Headquarters, the Hotel Tacoma, Hotel Rochester, Tacoma Theatre, Fannie Paddock Hospital (new), Annie Wright Seminary, St. Luke's Church, New Presbyterian Church, Swedish Lutheran Church, the Germania Hall, and Chamber of Commerce. But just at this day and hour the Tacoma Land Company have under consideration the plans for a new hotel to surpass the "Tacoma," and to cost half a million. They are also looking for the source of a future water-supply, the result of which will be something fine in the way of waterworks. Every morning's paper tell us of some projected improvement involving a great expenditure of money.
All this is nothing when compared with—let us say Chicago; but it is pretty well for Tacoma, whose real growth began four years ago. The money to do these things, we suggest, was drawn from the East. Yes, from the Eastern United States largely, but also from the Orient, from Great Britain, from South America, and from nearer home.Take an example of the introduction of capital from St. Paul. The St. Paul and Tacoma Lumber Company purchased from the land department of the Northern Pacific Railroad Company a tract of timbered land comprising the odd sections in fourteen townships lying southeast of Tacoma and south of Wilkeson and Orting in the Puyallup Yalley, comprising eighty thousand acres covered with a heavy growth of fir, cedar, and spruce, estimated to amount to three billion feet. One of the conditions of the sale to the St. Paul and Tacoma Lumber Company of this immense tract of valuable timber was the construction by them of a railroad of standard gauge and equipment from the town of Orting, on the line of the Northern Pacific, in a southerly course to the Nisqually River, and thence eastward into the coal fields of the Cascade Mountains, to serve the double purpose of bringing out timber and coal and opening up the country to settlement. The St. Paul company also bound itself to cut a certain amount of timber per year on these lands, which should be shipped to Tacoma, where they were to build mills with a capacity of one hundred Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/325 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/326 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/327 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/328 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/329 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/330 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/331 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/332 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/333 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/334 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/337 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/338 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/339 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/340 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/341 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/342 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/343 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/344 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/345 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/346 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/347 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/348 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/349 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/350 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/351 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/352 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/353 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/354 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/355 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/356 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/357 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/358 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/359 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/360 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/361 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/362 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/363 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/364 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/365 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/366 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/367 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/368 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/369 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/370 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/371 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/372 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/373 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/374 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/375 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/376 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/377 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/378 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/379 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/380 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/381 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/382 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/383 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/384 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/385 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/386 tion facilities, and enterprises which changed Oregon from an impassable wilderness to a charming route for tourists. Tho United States military officer who was conducting an Indian campaign; the miner who was exploring for, or had found the precious metal; the stock-raiser who fattened his cattle on the bunch-grass plains, and brought them back to market them at home; the farmer who learned rather late the productive quality of the soil east of the mountains, as well as the immigrant and the traveller, all had reason to thank the Oregon Steam Navigation Company for the means which made it possible for them to carry on their undertakings with ease and safety,—made it possible not from motives of gain exclusively, but with intelligent foresight for the country, as well as the company.
No corporation that ever was in Oregon has done for it and for the country north of the Columbia what this Navigation Company did. Its career as a civilizer has been only equalled in Washington by the Northern Pacific Railroad, which succeeded to the ownership of the O. S. N. Company's property by purchase, a short time before Jay Cooke's failure, which came near losing the railroad company its lands on the Portland branch. Ainsworth had been made a director in the Northern Pacific, and was general manager of its affairs out here. When Cooke failed the branch from the Columbia to the Sound was not completed, and the men employed were deserting, when the old Navigation Company came to the rescue with its own funds, paid off the men, and completed the road to Tacoma. They were able afterwards to buy back again a majority of the O. S. N. stock, and made improvements in its property before selling out to Villard, and assisting him to organize the Oregon Railway and Navigation Company, the control of which was relinquished to the Union Pacific. I hope I have shown why the name of Ainsworth should be preserved in the nomenclature of Oregon and Washington. While legislatures are naming new counties, why not remember this and others of the founders?At Pasco the Walla Walla passengers are detached from the through train, and proceed to Wallula Junction, crossing the Snake River, which is very wide here, by a handsome bridge. A few miles more brings us to Hunt's Junction, which is just above Wallula Junction, and the new town of Wallula, which Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/388 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/389 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/390 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/391 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/392 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/393 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/394 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/395 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/396 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/399 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/400 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/401 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/402 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/405 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/406 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/407 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/408 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/409 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/410 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/411 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/412 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/415 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/416 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/417 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/418 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/419 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/420 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/421 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/422 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/425 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/426 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/427 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/428 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/429 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/430 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/431 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/432 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/433 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/434 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/435 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/436 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/437 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/438 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/439 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/440 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/441 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/442 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/443 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/444 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/445 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/446 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/447 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/448 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/449 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/450 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/451 Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/452 Englander is commercial. In the agricultural portions of the
country are more people from the middle and western divisions of the Atlantic States.
I will now proceed to give, as I did for Oregon, a tabulated statement of the assessed valuation of ditferent sections by counties, which will help the reader to understand the relative
development of these districts, although the valuation is for 1889 and the population for 1890, when there must have been a large increase in valuation over 1889. Page:Atlantis Arisen.djvu/454