Some or all works by this author are in the public domain in India because they originate from India and their terms of copyright have expired. According to The Indian Copyright Act, 1957, all documents enter the public domain after 60 years counted from the beginning of the following calendar year after the death of the author (i.e. as of 2023, prior to January 1, 1963). Film, sound recordings, government works, anonymous works, and works first published over 60 years after the death of the author are protected for 60 years after publication.
Works by authors who died before 1941 entered the public domain after 50 years (before 1991) and copyright has not been restored.
Some or all works by this author are also in the public domain in the United States because they were first published outside the United States (and not published in the U.S. within 30 days), and they were first published before 1989 without complying with U.S. copyright formalities (renewal and/or copyright notice) and they were in the public domain in India on the URAA date (January 1, 1996). This is the combined effect of India having joined the Berne Convention in 1928, and of 17 USC 104A with its critical date of January 1, 1996.
The critical date for copyright in the United States under the URAA is January 1, 1941.
These works may be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.