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Chinese emporer; personal name Zaichun, previously transliterated T'ung-chih; the tenth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the eighth Qing emperor to rule over China, reigning from 1861 to 1875, but was largely overshadowed by the de facto rule of his mother Empress Dowager Cixi.


  • Edict for the Personal Rule of the T'ung-chih Emperor (1862, in Chinese) (external scan)

Works about Tongzhi[edit]

Works by this author published before January 1, 1925 are in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago. Translations or editions published later may be copyrighted. Posthumous works may be copyrighted based on how long they have been published in certain countries and areas.