Translation:Genesis

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For other English-language translations of this work, see Genesis (Bible).
Genesis
Yahwist, Elohist, Moses (attributed), translated by Wikisource
The Free Bible
This page is part of the Wiki Bible Wikiproject


Chapter 1[edit]

1 In the beginning,[1] God created the sky[2] and the earth. 2 And the earth was unformed and empty,[3] and darkness was upon the surface of the abyss,[4] and God's spirit was drifting[5] upon the surface of the water.

3 And God said, "Let light be," and light was. 4 And God saw this light was good, and God separated the light from the darkness. 5 And God called the light day, and called the darkness night; and it was evening, and it was morning, one day.

6And God said, "Let there be a dome inside the waters, and let it maintain a divide between water and water." [6] 7And God made the dome, and divided the water which was under the dome from the water which was above the dome; and it was so. 8 And God called the dome Sky. And it was evening, and it was morning: a second day.

9 And God said, "Let the waters below the sky pool in one place, and the dry land show." And it was so. 10 And God called the dry ground Earth, and the pool of water he called Seas. And God saw it was good. 11 And God said, "Let the earth grow green with greenery, plants yielding seeds, fruit trees making fruit of its kind, with its seed inside, on the earth." And it was so. 12 And the land produced vegetation, plants producing seeds, according to their kinds, and trees yielding fruit with their seed inside. And God saw that it was good. 13 And it was evening and it was morning, a third day.

14 And God said, "Let there be lights in the dome of the sky, to separate the night and the day; and let them be for signs and for seasons, for days and years. 15 And let them serve as lights in the dome of the sky to light up the earth." And it was so. 16 And God made the two great lights: the big light, to govern the day, and the small light to govern the night, and the stars. 17 And God placed them in the dome of the sky, to light up the earth, 18 and to govern the day and night, and to distinguish between the light and the darkness. And God saw that it was good. 19 And it was evening, and it was morning: a fourth day.

20 And God said, "Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures; and let birds fly above the land, across the dome of the sky." 21 And God created the great sea creatures,[7] and all the various kinds the living beings that move about, which teemed in the water, and every sort of winged bird, and God saw that it was good. 22 And God blessed them, saying: "Bear fruit and multiply, and fill the water in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth." 23 And it was evening, and it was morning: a fifth day.

24 And God said, "Let the land bring forth various kinds of living beings: the various kinds of livestock, and crawling things, and wild animals." And it was so. 25 And God made the various kinds of wild animals, and the various kinds of livestock, and the various kinds of crawling things. And God saw that it was good.

26 And God said, "Let us make humankind in our image, in our likeness. And they will oversee the fish of the sea and the bird in the sky, and the livestock, and all the earth,[8] and all the crawling things that crawl upon the earth."

27 And God created the humankind in his image; in the image of God created it; male and female he created them. 28 And God blessed them, and God told them, "Bear fruit and multiply and fill up the earth, and conquer it, and oversee the fish in the sea, and the birds in the sky, and every animal which crawls upon the earth."

29 And God said, "Here: I give to you every seeding plant throughout all the earth, and every tree which has tree fruit, which produces seed. They are for you to eat. 30 And to every wild animal, and to every bird of the sky, and to everything crawling on the land which has within it the breath of life, [I give] every green plant for food." And it was so.

31 And God saw everything which he had done, and behold, it wa very good. And it was evening, and it was morning: the sixth day.

Chapter 2[edit]

1 The sky and the earth were completed, and all their array.

2 And God completed on the seventh day the creation which he had done, and rested on the seventh day from all the creation which he had done. 3 And God blessed the seventh day, and made it holy, because on it he rested from his creation, which God created and made.[9]

4 These are the narratives of the sky and the earth, when they were created, on the day that Yahweh[10] God made earth and sky.

5 No bush of the field was yet on the earth, and and no crops of the field had yet sprouted, because Yahweh God had not brought rain on the earth, and there was no human to work the ground. 6 Then a mist[11] went up from the earth, and watered all the surface of the earth. 7 And Yahweh God created a human[12] [from] the dust of the ground, and blew into his nostrils the breath of life, and the human became a living being. 8 And Yahweh God planted a garden in Eden, to the east; and there he put there the human whom he had formed.

9 And Yahweh God grew from the ground every tree pleasing to see and good for food. And the tree of life inside the garden, and the tree of knowing right and wrong[13]

10 And a river came out of Eden, to water the Garden; and from there it split and became four sources.[14] 11 The name of the one was Pishon,[15] which surrounded[16] all the land of Havilah,[17] where there is gold. 12 And the gold of that land is good; there is bdellium[18] and onyx[19] stones. 13 And the name of the second river was Gihon,[20] and it surrounded all the land of Kush.[21] 14 And the name of the third river is Hiddekel,[22] which goes to the east of Assyria.[23] And the fourth river is the Euphrates.[24]

15 And Yahweh God took the human, and set him in the garden of Eden, for him to work and to maintain.

16 And Yahweh God commanded the human, "From all the trees of the garden you may eat. 17 But from the tree of knowing right and wrong, you must not eat, because on the day you eat from it, you will die a certain death."

18 And Yahweh God said: "It is not good for a human to be alone. I will make him a helpmate, complementing him."

19 And Yahweh God formed from the ground every wild animal, and every bird in the sky, and he brought [it] to the man, to see what he would call it. And whatever that the human called a living thing, that was its name. 20 And the human gave names to all livestock and to birds of the sky, and to all wild animals, but the human[25] did not find a helpmate to complement him.

21 And Yahweh God dropped the human into a deep sleep, and as he slept, took one of his rib-bones, and closed the flesh back up in its place. 22 And Yahweh God built the rib-bone which he had taken from the human into a woman, and he brought her to the human.

23 And the human said, "This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh. I will call this a woman, because she was taken from a man."[26] 24 This is why a man leaves his father and his mother, and clings to his wife, and they become one flesh.

25 And they were both naked, the human and his wife, and felt no shame.

Chapter 3[edit]

1 And the snake was devious, more than all the wild animals that Yahweh God made. And it said onto the woman, "Did God really say that you may not eat from any tree in the garden?"

2 And the woman said to the snake, "We may eat the fruit of the garden trees. 3 But from the tree which is in the middle of the garden, God said, "Do not eat from it, and do not touch it, or you will die."

4 And the snake said to the woman, "You will not die. 5 Because God knows that the day you eat from it, your eyes will be opened, and you will be like gods,[27] knowing right and wrong."

6 And the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and delightful to the eyes, and that the tree was desirable for granting wisdom, she took some of its fruit and ate. She also gave some to her husband with her, and he ate. 7 And their eyes were opened, and they knew that they were naked, and they sewed fig leaves and made themselves loin-cloths.

8 And they heard the voice of Yahweh God, walking in the garden in the day's breeze, and the man and his wife hid from the face of Yahweh God among the trees of the garden.

9 And Yahweh God called to the man, and said "Where are you?"

10 And he said, "I heard your voice in the garden, and I saw that I was naked, and I hid."

11 And said, "Who told you that you are naked? Did you eat from the tree that I commanded you not to eat from?"

12 And Adam said, "The woman you placed with me, gave me [fruit] from the tree, and I ate."

13 And Yahweh God said to the woman, "What's this you've done?"

And the woman said, "The snake tricked me, and I ate."

14 And Yahweh God said to the snake, "Because you did this, cursed are you from all the livestock, and from all the wild animals. On your stomach you will go, and eat dust all the days of your life. 15 There will be a feud between you and the woman, and between your descendants and her descendants. They will crush your head, and you will bite their heel."[28]

16 To the woman he said, "I will greatly increase your labor in childbirth. Aching, you will give birth to sons. Your desire will be toward your husband, and he will rule over you."

17 And to Adam he said, "Because you listened to your wife, and ate from the tree, which I commanded you not to eat from, the land is cursed because of you. In labor you will eat [from] it all the days of your life. 18 And thorns and thistles will grow for you, and you will eat grain from the fields. 19 By the sweat of your brow, you will eat bread, until you return to the dirt, because from it you were taken: because you are dust, you will return to dust."

20 And the man called his wife Eve,[29] because she was the mother of all living.

21 And Yahweh God made for Adam and his wife tunics of leather, and dressed them.

22 And Yahweh God said, "Now, the man is like one of us, to know right and wrong, and now, so that he cannot reach his hand to take from the tree of life too, and eat, and live forever . . . " 23 So Yahweh God sent him from the garden of Eden, to work the ground from which he was taken, away from there. 24 And he evicted the man, and he placed eastward of the garden of Eden the Cherubim,[30] and the flame of the whirling sword[31] to guard the path to the tree of life.

Chapter 4[edit]

1 And the man lay with Eve, his wife; and she conceived, and gave birth to Cain,[32] and said, "I have gotten a man from Yahweh."[33] 2 And she went on to give birth to his brother, to Abel.[34] And Abel became a shepherd, and Cain worked the land.

3 And after many days, Cain brought from the fruit of the earth an offering to Yahweh. 4 And Abel, he also brought from the firstborn of his sheep, and their fat, and Yahweh favored Abel and his offering. 5 But he did not favor Cain and his offering; and Cain was furious, and his face fell.

6 And Yahweh said to Cain, "Why are you angry, and why is your face fallen? 7 See, if you do well, lifting up. And if you don't do well, sin[35] crouches[36] at the opening. Its desire is toward you, and you will[37] rule over it."[38]

8 And Cain said to his brother Abel, "Let us go into the field", and then, when they were in the field, Cain rose up against Abel his brother and killed him.[39]

9 And Yahweh said to Cain, "Where is Abel your brother?"

And he said, "I don't know. Am I my brother's baby-sitter?"

10 And he said, "What have you done? The voice of your brother's blood shouts to me from the ground. 11 And now, cursed are you from the earth, who has opened her mouth to take your brother's blood from your hands. 12 When you will work the ground, she will no longer give her strength to you. You will sway and wander on the earth."

13 And said Cain to Yahweh, "My punishment is more than I can bear! 14 You have evicted me today from the face of the earth, and from your face I will hide, and I will wander and sway, and the first person to find me will kill me!"

15 And Yahweh said to him, "For this reason, on anyone who kills Cain, seven times revenge." And Yahweh put a mark on Cain, so that no one who found him would attack him.

16 And Cain left from the presence of Yahweh, and settled in the land of Nod, east of Eden.

17 And Cain lay with his wife, who conceived and gave birth to Enoch,[40] and he was a city-builder, and named the city after his son, Enoch. 18 And to Enoch was born Irad, and Irad was the father of Mehuyael; and Mehiyael[41] was the father of Methushael, and Methushael was the father of Lamech. 19 And Lamech took two wives: the one named Adah, and the second Zillah. 20 And Adah bore Jabal: he was the father of the tent dweller and cattleman. 21 And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all those that play the harp and the pipe. 22 And Zillah, she also, gave birth to Tubal-Cain, a forger of sharp iron and copper tools. And Tubal-Cain's sister was Naamah.

23 And Lamech said to his wives, Adah and Zillah, "Listen to my voice, wives of Lamech; hear what I say. For I have killed a man because he wounded me, and a boy because he bruised me. 24 If Cain will be avenged seven times, then Lamech, seventy-seven times."

25 And Adam again lay with his wife, and she bore a son, and named him Seth,[42] "Because God appointed me another offspring in Abel's place", because Cain killed him. 26 And as for Seth, he also had a son, and he called him Enosh. Then began [the practice of] invoking Yahweh's name.

Chapter 5[edit]

1 This is the record of Adam's genealogy. On the day that God created Adam, in the image of God he made him. 2 Male and female he created them, and blessed them, and named them Adam[43] on the day they were created.

3 When Adam lived 130 years, he had a son in his image, in his likeness, and called his name Seth. 4 And the days of Adam after having Seth were 800 years, and he had sons and daughters. 5 And the days Adam lived totaled 930 years, and he died.

6 And Seth lived 105 years, and had Enosh. 7 And Seth lived after having Enosh 807 years, and had sons and daughters. 8 And the days of Seth totaled 912 years, and he died.

9 And Enosh lived 90 years, and had Kenan 10 And Enosh lived after having Kenan 815 years, and had sons and daughters. 11 And the days of Enosh totalled 905 years, and he died.

12 And Kenan lived 70, and had Mahalalel. 13 And Kenan lived after he became the father of Mahalalel 840 years, and had sons and daughters. 14 And the days of Kenan totaled 910 years, and he died.

15 When Mahalalel had lived 65 years, he became the father of Jared. 16 And Mahalalel lived after becoming the father of Jared 830 years, and had sons and daughters. 17 And all the days of Mahalalel totaled 895 years, and he died.

18 When Jared had lived 162 years, he became the father of Enoch. 19 And Jared lived after becoming the father of Enoch 800 years, and had sons and daughters. 20 And all the days of Jared were 962 years, and he died.

21 When Enoch had lived 65 years, he became the father of Methuselah. 22 And Enoch walked with God after becoming the father of Methuselah for 300 years, and had sons and daughters. 23 And all the days of Enoch totaled 365 years. 24 And Enoch walked with God, and was no more, because God took him.

25 When Methuselah had lived 187 years, he became the father of Lamech. 26 And Methuselah lived after becoming the father of Lamech 782 years, and had sons and daughters. 27 And all the days of Methuselah totaled 969 years; and he died.

28 When Lamech had lived 182 years, he had a son. 29 And he gave him the name Noah,[44] saying, "This one will comfort us from our work, from the labor of our hands, and from the earth which Yahweh has cursed." 30 And Lamech lived after becoming the father of Noah 595 years, and had sons and daughters. 31 And all the days of Lemech were 777 years, and he died

32 When Noah had lived 500 years, Noah became the father of Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

Chapter 6[edit]

1 Now when the humans began to become numerous on the ground, and daughters were born to them, 2 then the sons of the gods[45] saw the daughters of humans, that they were beautiful, and took for themselves wives, whomever they chose. 3 And Yahweh said, "My spirit will not dwell in[46] the humans forever, in that[47] they are flesh, and their days will be one hundred and twenty years. 4 The Nephilim[48] were in the land in those days, and also afterward when the sons of the gods went in to the daughters of man, who bore children for them. They are the famed warriors of remote antiquity.

5 And Yahweh saw how severe the evil of humans on earth was, how every thought their minds formed was only evil all day long. 6 And Yahweh regretted that he made humans on the earth, and his heart was filled with pain. 7 And Yahweh said, "I shall wipe out the humans I have created from the face of the earth, from humans, to livestock, to the crawling things, to the birds in the sky, because I regret that I made them. 8 But Yahweh[49] looked with favor at Noah.[50]

9 This is the family history[51] of Noah. Noah was a decent man, blameless among his contemporaries. Noah walked with God. 10 Three sons were born to Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

11 And the earth was ruined before God, and filled with violence.[52] 12 And God saw the earth, and behold, it was ruined, because all flesh had ruined its way of living on earth.

13 And God said to Noah, "The end of all flesh is coming before me, because the earth is full of violence because of them, and I will ruin them, along with the earth. 14 Make yourself an ark from gopher[53] wood. Make the ark compartments,[54] and smear it inside and out with tar. 15 You are to make it as follows. Three hundred cubits[55] will be the length of the ark, and fifty cubits its width, and thirty cubits its height. 16 Make a sky-light[56] for the ark, and finish it to a cubit from above, and make a door for the ark on its side. Make it with lower, second, and third [stories]. 17 And as for myself, I will bring the deluge, water on the earth,[57] to ruin all flesh with the breath of life in it under the sky. Everything on the earth will perish. 18

But I will make my covenant with you. You are to enter the ark, you, and your sons, and your wife, and your sons' wives with you. 19 And from all that lives, of all flesh, two of each you are to bring to the ark to stay alive with you; they will be a male and a female. 20 Of the various kinds of birds, and of the various kinds of livestock, and of the various kinds of things that crawl on the earth, two of each will come with you, to survive. 21 And you, take for yourself some of every food which can be eaten, and gather it to yourself. It will be food for you and for them to eat.

22 And Noah did it. He did everything exactly as God commanded.

Chapter 7[edit]

1 And Yahweh said to Noah, "Come, you and all your household, to the ark, because I see that you are righteous before me, in this generation. 2 Of every clean[58] animal, take to yourself seven pairs,[59] male and female, and from the animals which are not clean, two, a male and a female. 3 Also from the birds of the sky seven pairs, male and female, to keep their lineage alive throughout the earth. 4 Because in seven more days, I will bring rain on the Earth, forty days and forty nights, and I shall wipe out all living things which I have made from the face of the earth.

5 And Noah did all that Yahweh commanded him.

6 Noah was six hundred years old when the deluge was water on the earth.[60] 7 And Noah, his sons, his wife, and the wives of his sons with him, came into the ark to escape the waters of the flood. 8 From clean animals, from animals that were not clean, and from birds and everything that crawls on the ground, 9 two by two, they came to Noah in the Ark, male and female, as God had commanded to Noah. 10 Then after seven days, the waters of the flood were on the earth.

11 In the six-hundredth year of the life of Noah, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on that day all the fountains of the great abyss[61] were broken up, and the floodgates of the sky were opened. 12 And the rain was on the earth forty days and forty night.

13 On that very day Noah, and his sons Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and Noah's wife, and the wives of his sons, came and Shem and Ham and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah's wife, and his sons' three wives came with them into the ark: 14 they, and every kind of creature, and every kind of animal, and every kind of thing that crawls on the earth, and every kind of flier: every bird, every wing.[62] 15 And they came to Noah in the ark, two by two, of every flesh which has the breath of life.

16 And they that entered, male and female of all flesh, came in as God commanded him. And Yahweh shut him in.

17 And the deluge was forty days on the earth, and the waters increased, and carried the ark, and it lifted above the earth.

18 And the waters grew powerful and increased greatly over the earth, and the ark moved along the surface of the water. 19 And the waters grew exceedingly powerful over the land, and covered every high mountain under the entire sky. 20 Fifteen cubits higher the waters more powerful, and the mountains were covered.

21 All flesh died that crawled on the earth, among birds, and livestock, and wild animals, and everything swarming creature that swarmed on the the earth, and all the humans. 22 Everything that had the breath of life in its nostrils, of everything that lived on dry land, died.

23 And everything alive was wiped out from the face of the earth: from humans, to livestock, to crawling things, to birds of the sky; they were destroyed from the earth. Only Noah and those with him on the ark remained alive. 24 The waters overpowered the land one hundred fifty days.

Chapter 8[edit]

1 And God remembered Noah, and every wild animal, and all the livestock with him in the ark; and God made a wind pass over the earth, and the waters stilled. 2 And the fountains of the abyss[63] and the floodgates of the sky were stopped up, and rain stopped falling from the skies.

3 And they waters receded from the surface of the earth, bit by bit, and had gone down by the end of one hundred fifty days. 4 And the ark came to rest on the seventh month, on the seventeenth[64] day of the month, on the mountains of Ararat.[65] 5 The waters kept on decreasing, until the tenth month, on the tenth [day] of the month,[66] when the peaks of the mountains were visible. 6

And so, at the end of forty days, Noah opened the window of the ark which he made. 7 And he sent a raven, and it went back and forth, until the waters dried up off the land.

8 And he sent out a dove to see if the waters were lessened from the surface of the ground. 9 And the dove could not find any place to rest her feet, and returned to him in the ark, because water covered all the land. He reached and took her, and brought her into the ark with him.

10 And he let another seven days pass, and again he sent the dove out from the ark. 11 And the dove came to him at evening time, and there was a fresh olive leaf in her beak. And Noah knew that the waters had abated from off the land.

12 And he let another seven days pass, and again he sent out the dove, and she did not return to him again. 13 And so, on the six hundred first year, in the first month, on the first of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth. And Noah removed the covering from the ark, and looked, and he saw that the surface of the ground was dry. 14 And in the second month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, the land was dry.

15 And God spoke to Noah: 16 "Go out from the ark: you, and your wife, and your sons, and your sons' wives with you. 17 Bring out with you every living creature that is with you of all flesh: among birds, and among livestock, and among things that crawl on the earth, that they may breed abundantly on the earth, and be fertile, and multiply on the earth.

18 And Noah exited, with his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives. 19 Every animal, every crawling thing, every bird, every thing that crawls on the earth, went out with their families from the ark.

20 And Noah did built an altar for Yahweh, and he took from every kind of clean animal, and from every kind of clean bird, and sent up burnt offering on the altar. 21 And Yahweh smelled the soothing scent, and thought to himself, "I will never again curse the ground because of the human beings, although every human thought is bad from his youth, and I will never again kill all living things like I have done." 22 As long as the earth remains: sowing and reaping, cold and heat, summer and winter, and day and night will never cease.

Chapter 9[edit]

1 And God blessed Noah and his sons; and told them, "Be fertile, and multiply, and fill the earth. 2 All the wild animals, and the birds of the sky, and everything that crawls on the ground, all the fish of the sea will be frightened and terrified of you; they are given into your control. 3 Everything that moves and is alive will be serve as food for you. Like the green plants, I give them all to you.

4 "But flesh with its life -- its blood -- you must not eat.

5 "I will certainly demand vengeance for your lifeblood. I will demand vengeance against any animal, and I will demand vengeance against anyone who murders a fellow human being.

6 "Whoever sheds human blood, by humans his blood must be shed, because God made human beings in his own image.

7 "And as for you, be fertile, and increase, and swarm across the earth and increase in it."

8 And God spoke to Noah and to his sons with him, saying, 9

"And now I establish my covenant with you, and with your descendants after you, 10 and with every living being with you, birds, and livestock, and all the wild animals with you, with all that exited the ark, with every wild animal. 11 And I establish my covenant with you: never again will all flesh be cut off by the waters of the deluge, and never against will a deluge destroy the earth."

12 And God said, "This is the sign of the covenant which I set between me and you and all living beings which are with you, for endless generations. 13 I will set my bow in the cloud, and it will be a sign of the covenant between me and the earth.

14 "When I bring clouds over the earth, the bow will appear in the clouds, 15 and I will remember my covenant, which is between me and you, and every living being among all flesh. And there will never again will the waters become a deluge to destroy all flesh. 16 And the bow will be in the clouds, and you will see it and remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living being among all flesh upon the earth."

17 And God said to Noah, "This is the sign of the covenant which I establish up between myself and all flesh upon the earth."

18 And the sons of Noah who went out of the ark were Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and Ham was the father of Canaan. 19 These three were the sons of Noah, and from them the whole earth was populated.

20 And Noah began to be a farmer, and he planted a vineyard. 21 And he drank some of the wine, became drunk and was naked in his tent. 22 And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brothers outside.

23 And Shem and Japheth took a tunic and put it on both their shoulders, and walked backwards, and covered the nakedness of their father, and their faces were turned away, and they did not see their father's nakedness. 24

And Noah came to from his drunkenness, and he knew what his youngest son had done to him. 25 And he said, "Cursed is Canaan: a slave of slaves he will be to his brothers."

26 And he said, "Blessed be Yahweh, the god of Shem; and Canaan will be his slave." 27 "God will enlarge Japheth, and he will dwell in the tents of Shem, and Canaan will be a slave to him."

28 And after the deluge Noah lived 350 years. 29 And the days of Noah totaled 950 years, and he died.

Chapter 10[edit]

1 This is the genealogy[67] of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth. They had sons after the deluge.

2 The sons of Japheth were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan,[68] Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. 3 And the sons of Gomer were Ashkenaz, Riphath and Togarmah. 4 And the sons of Javan were Elishah and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.[69] 5 From these the maritime nations[70] branched out in their lands, each by their language, by their families, in their peoples.

6 And the sons of Ham were Kush,[71] Mitzraim,[72] Put[73] and Canaan.[74] 7 And the sons of Kush were Seba and Havilah[75] and Sabta and Raamah and Sabtecha. The sons of Raamah were Sheba[76] and Dedan.

8 And Kush was the father of Nimrod,[77] who began to be a mighty warrior on the earth. 9 He was a mighty hunter before Yahweh. That is why they say, "like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before Yahweh." 10 And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel,[78] and Erech,[79] and Akkad, and Calneh in the land of Shinar. 11 From that land Asshur came,[80] and built Nineveh, Rehoboth City, Calah, 12 and Resen between Nineveh and Calah; it is the Great City.

13 And Mizraim was the father of Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, 14 Pathrusim, and Casluhim (from there the Philistines came), and Caphtorim. 15 And Canaan was the father of Sidon his eldest,[81] Heth,[82] 16 the Jebusite,[83] the Amorite,[84] the Girgashite, 17 the Hivite, the Arkite, the Sinite, 18 the Arvadite, the Zemarite, and the Hamathite. And afterward the families of the Canaanites branched out. 19 And the borders of the Canaanites are from Sidon, as you go to Gerar, as far as Gaza, as you go to Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Admah, and Zeboim, as far as Lasha. 20 These are the sons of Ham, by their clans, by their languages, in their lands and their peoples.

21 And sons were also born to Shem, the ancestor of all the descendants of Eber, the older brother of Japheth. 22 The sons of Shem were Elam,[85] Asshur, Arpachshad,[86] Lud, and Aram.[87] 23 And the sons of Aram were Uz,[88] Hul, Gether, and Mash. 24 And Arpachshad was the father of Shelah, and Shelah was the father of Eber.[89] 25 Two sons were born to Eber: the name of the one was Peleg,[90] because in his days the earth was divided, and his brother's name was Joktan. 26 And Joktan was the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27 Doram, Uzal, Diklah, 28 Obal, Abimael, Sheba, 29 Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab. These are the sons of Joktan. 30 They lived in Mesha, as you come from Sepharah, the eastern mountain. 31 These are the descendants of Shem, by their families, by their languages, by their lands, by their peoples.

32 These are the families of the sons of Noah, by their genealogies, in their nations, and from these the peoples of the earth branched out after the deluge.

Chapter 11[edit]

1 Now all the earth had one language, with the same words.

2 And during their journey eastward,[91] they found a valley in the land of Shinar,[92] and they settled there. 3 And they said to one another, let us make bricks, and burn them in fire; and they had brick instead of stone, and tar instead of cement. 4 And they said, "Come, let us build us a city, and a tower with its top in the sky, and make ourselves famous, so that we do not disperse all over the earth."

5 And Yahweh came down to see the city and the tower which the humans had built. 6 And Yahweh said, "Indeed, they are one people and all have one language. If this is what they are beginning to do, now nothing which they plan to do will be withheld from them. 7 Let us go down there and confuse their language, so that they will not be able to understand one another." 8 So Yahweh dispersed them from there, across the whole earth, and they stopped building the city. 9 Because of this, it is called Babel, because there Yahweh confused[93] the languages of all the earth; and from there Yahweh scattered them across all the earth.

10 This is the genealogy of Shem.[94] Shem was 100 years old, and became the father of Arpachshad[95] two years after the deluge. 11 And Shem lived after becoming the father of Arpachshad 500 years, and had sons and daughters.

12 And Arpachshad lived 35 years, and became the father of Shelah. 13 And Arpachshad lived after becoming the father of Shelah 403 years, and had sons and daughters.

14 And Shelah lived 30 years and became the father of Eber. 15 After he had Eber, Shelah lived 403 years, and had sons and daughters.

16 Eber lived 34 years, and became the father of Peleg. 17 After he had Peleg, Eber lived 430 years, and had sons and daughters.

18 Peleg lived 30 years, and became the father of Reu. 19 After he had Reu, Peleg lived 209 years, and had sons and daughters.

20 Reu lived 32 years, and became the father of Serug. 21 After he had Serug, Reu lived 207 years, and had sons and daughters.

22 Serug lived 30 years, and became the father of Nahor. 23 After he had Nahor, Serug lived 200 years, and had sons and daughters.

24 Nahor lived 29 years, and became the father of Terah. 25 After he had Terah, Nahor lived 119 years, and had sons and daughters.

26 Terah lived 70 years, and became the father of Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

27 This is the genealogy of Terah.[96] Terah was the father of Abram, Nahor, and Haran, and Haran was the father of Lot. 28 And Haran died before Terah his father, in the land of his birth, in Ur Kasdim.[97]

29 Abram and Nahor took wives for themselves. Abram's wife was named Sarai, and Nahor's wife was Milca, daughter of Haran, father of Milca and father of Isca.

30 And Sarai was barren; she had no child.

31 And Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran, his grandson, and Sarai his wife, the wife of Abram his son, and left with them from Ur of the Chaldeans, to go the land of Canaan and they went until Haran, and settled there.

32 And the days of Terah were 205 years, and Terah died, in Haran.

Chapter 12[edit]

1 And Yahweh said to Abram, "Get yourself out from your land, from your birthplace, and from your relatives[98] to the land which I will show you. 2 And I will make you into a great nation, and I will bless you and grow your number, and your name will be a blessing. 3 I will bless those who bless you, and those who treat you with contempt I will curse; and all the families of the earth will be blessed through you."[99]

4 And Abram went when Yahweh spoke to him, and Lot went with him. And Abram seventy-five years old when he left Haran. 5 And Abram took Sarai his wife and Lot his nephew,[100] and all the property which they had purchased and the slaves they had acquired in Haran; and they left to go towards the land of Canaan.

They arrived in the land of Canaan, 6 and Abram travelled through the land, to Shechem, to Elon Moreh.[101]

There were Canaanites in the land in that time. 7 But Yahweh appeared Abram and said "To your offspring I will give this land; and here they will build an altar to Yahweh, who will appear to them."

8 And he move on from there towards the mountain east of Beth-el,[102] with Beth-el to the west and the Ai to the east. And he built there an altar to Yahweh, and there he invoked Yahweh's name.

9 Then Abram continued his journey, heading towards the Negev.[103]

10 Now there was a famine in the land, and Abram emigrated down to Egypt to live there, because the hunger in the land was heavy.[104]

11 And then, when he was close to entering Egypt, he said to Sarai his wife, "Listen please, I know that you are a beautiful woman to look at. 12 So when the Egyptians see you, they will say, 'This is his wife.' So they will kill me, and leave you alive. 13 Please say you are my sister, so that it will improve my lot because of you, and my life will be spared on your account."

14 And so it was, as Abram came to Egypt, that the Egyptians saw the woman, that she was very beautiful. 15 And the ministers of Pharaoh saw her, and they praised her Pharaoh; and the woman was taken to the house of Pharaoh. 16 And he treated Abraham well because of her. And he had sheep[105] and cattle, and male donkeys, and male and female slaves, and female donkeys, and camels.

17 And Yahweh plagued the Pharaoh with great calamities,[106] and his household, on account of Sarai, Abram's wife. 18 And Pharaoh summoned Abram and said, "What is this you have done onto me? Why did you not tell me that she is your wife? 19 Why did you say, 'She is my sister,' so I took her for myself for a wife? Now here is you wife -- take her and go!" 20 And Pharaoh commanded his men about him, and they sent him away with his wife and all his property.

Chapter 13[edit]

1 And Abram went up from Egypt, he and his wife, and all he had, and Lot with him, to the Negev.[107] 2 And Abram was heavily loaded with livestock,[108], with silver, and with gold.

3 And continued his journeys from the Negev to Beth-el, to the place where his tent had been originally, between Beth-el and and the Ai, 4 to the location of the altar which he had made there at first, and there Abram invoked the name of Yahweh.

5 And also Lot, who went with Abram, had sheep and cattle and tents. 6 The land could not support them both settling together, because their property was so vast that they could not settle together.

7 And Abram's herdsman and Lot's herdsman quarreled. Now Canaanites and Perizzites were living in the land at that time. 8 And said Abram to Lot, "Let there be no quarreling between me and you, and my herdsmen and your herdsmen: because we are relatives.[109] 9 All the land is in front of you. Please separate from me. If you go left, I will go right; and if you go right, I will go left."

10 Lot lifted up his eyes and saw all the Jordan plain, that it was all well-watered (before Yahweh destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah) like the garden of Yahweh, like the land of Egypt, as you go toward Zoar. 11 And Lot chose for himself all the Jordan plain, and Lot journeyed to the east; and they separated from one another.

12 Abram settled in Canaan, and Lot settled in the cities of the plain, and he cast his tents as far as Sodom. 13 And the men of Sodom were very much evil sinners to Yahweh.

14 And Yahweh said to Abram, after Lot separated from him, "Lift up your eyes, from the place where you are, north, and south,[110] and east, and west,[111] 15 because all the land that you see, I will give to you and to your descendants forever. 16 I will make your descendants like the dust of the earth, so that if a man could count the dust, your descendants could also be numbered. 17 Get up and walk through the land, along its length and width, because I will give it to you.

18 And Abram moved tent and came to settle among the Oaks of Mamre,[112] which is in Hebron, and there he built an altar to Yahweh.

Chapter 14[edit]

1 And it happened in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Kedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim,[113] 2 that they went to war against Bera king of Sodom, Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, also known as is Zoar.[114] 3 All these were allied in the valley of Siddim, which is the Salt Sea.[115]

4 Twelve years they served for Kedorlaomer, and the thirteenth year they rebelled. 5 And in the fourteenth year, Kedorlaomer came, and the kings with him, and they struck Rephaites[116] in Ashteroth Karnaim, and the Zuzites among them, and the Emites in Shaveh Kiriathaim, 6 and the Horites in their Mt. Seir, as far as El Paran, which is by the wilderness.

7 And they returned and and came to Ein Mishpat, also known as Kadesh, and struck all the territory of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites who lived in Hazezon Tamar.

8 And the king of Sodom, the king of Gomorrah, the king of Admah, the king of Zeboiim, the king of Bela, which is Zoar, went out and set their troops in order for battle with them, in the valley of Siddim, 9 against Kedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar--- four kings against five.

10 And the valley of Siddim is filled with tarpits, and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled and fell there, and the survivors fled to the hill-country. 11 And they took all the property of Sodom and Gomorrah, and all their food, and left. 12 And they took Lot, Abram's nephew, who lived in Sodom, and his property, and they left.

13 And someone who escaped came and told this to Abram the Hebrew, who was staying at the Oaks of Mamre, the Amorite, the brother of Eshkol and the brother of Aner, who were allies of Abram. 14 When Abram heard that his brother had been captured, he mustered the trained servants of his household, 318 of them, and pursued them as far as Dan.[117] 15 And he divided his raiding parties at night, he and his slaves, and defeated them and chased them as far as Hovah, which is north of Damascus.

16 And he retrieved all the property, and he also retrieved Lot his brother and all his property, and the women, and [all] the people. 17 And the king of Sodom went out to meet him after his return from defeating Kedorlaomer and the kings with him, to the valley of Shaveh, which is the King's Valley.

18 And Melchizedek, the king of Shalem,[118] brought out bread and wine. Now he was the priest of El Elyon. 19 And he blessed him, and said, "Blessed be Abram of El Elyon, creator of sky and land. 20 And blessed be El Elyon, who delivered your enemies into your hands." And he gave him a tenth of everything.

21 And the king of Sodom said to Abram, give me the people, and take the property for yourself.

22 And Abram said to the king of Sodom, "I have sworn[119] to Yahweh, El Elyon, creator of sky and land, 23 not to take [even] a thread or a shoelace, and not to take from anything that or yours, so that you cannot say, "I have made Abram rich," 24 except only what the young men have eaten, and the portion for the men who went with me: Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre. Let them take their portion.

Chapter 15[edit]

1 After these events, the words of Yahweh to Abram, in a vision, said, "Do not be afraid fear, Abram. I am you shield; your reward will be very great."[120]

2 And Abram said, "My lord Yahweh, what will you give me, when I myself go childless, and my heir[121] of my house is Damascus Eliezer."[122]

3 And Abram said, "As for me, you have given me no offspring, and now a member[123] of my household will inherit from me."

4 And then a message from Yahweh came to him, saying, "This one shall not inherit from you, but rather someone who comes from your own loins will inherit from you."

5 And he led him outdoors, and said, "Look, please, towards the sky and count the stars, if you can count them". And he said to him, "So will be your offspring."

6 And he believed in Yahweh; and he counted it to him as righteousness.

7 And he said to him, "I am Yahweh, who led you out of Ur Kasdim,[124] to give you this land as an inheritance."

8 And he said, "Lord Yahweh, how will I know that I will inherit it?"

9 And said to him, "Take me a heifer three years old, and a ram three years old, and a female goat three years old, and a turtle dove, and a hatchling."

10 And took himself all these, and on the altar split them, and set each half before the other, facing the other, but he did not split the bird.

11 And birds of prey descended on the bodies, but Abram frightened them away.

12 And when the sun set, a deep sleep fell on Abram, and a horror, a great darkness, fell upon him. 13 And he said to Abram, "Know for certain that your offspring will live as strangers in a land not their own, and they will be enslaved and oppressed for four hundred years. 14 Then I will judge the nation that enslaves them, and afterwards they will leave with much property.

15 "And you will die[125] in peace; you will be buried at a good old age. 16 And the fourth generation will return here, because the sin of the Amorites is not yet completed."

17 And when the sun had gone down, and it was dark, there was a furnace of smoke and a torch of fire which passed between those pieces. 18 On that day, Yahweh entered[126] a covenant with Abram, saying: "To your offspring I will give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the Euphrates, 19 the Kenite, the Kenizzite, the Kadmonite, 20 the Hittite, the Perizzite, the Rephaim, 21 the Amorite, the Canaanite, the Girgashite, and the Jebusite."

Chapter 16[edit]

1 Abram's wife Sarai didn't bear him children, and she had an Egyptian slave woman named Hagar. 2 And Sarai said to Abram, "See, Yahweh has now stopped me from bearing. Please sleep with my slave; maybe I can use her as a surrogate."[127] And Abram listened to Sarai.

3 So Abram's wife Sarai took Hagar the Egyptian, after Abram had lived in the land of Canaan for ten years, and gave her to Abram her husband as his wife. 4 And he slept with Hagar, and she became pregnant. When she realized she was pregnant, her opinion of her mistress diminished.

5 And Sarai said to Abram, "It is your fault that I am being mistreated. I put my slave in bed with you,[128] and when she realized she was pregnant, she looked down on me. May Yahweh judge between me and you!"

6 And Abram said to Sarai, "Look: you are in charge of your slave.[129] Do what you think is best." So Sarah treated her harshly, and she ran away from her.

7 And an angel of Yahweh found her at a spring of water in the wilderness, at the spring on the Way of Shur.[130] 8 And he said, "Hagar, Sarai's slave, where did you come from, and where are you going?"

And she said, "I am running away from my mistress Sarai."

9 The angel of Yahweh said to her, "Go back to your mistress, and submit yourself to her."[131]

10 And the angel of Yahweh told her, "I will greatly multiply your descendants, and they will be too numerous to count."

11 And the angel of Yahweh said to her, "You are now pregnant, and you will give birth to a son, and you will call his name Ishmael,[132] because Yahweh has heard your oppression. 12 He will be a wild donkey of a man, his hand against everyone and everyone's hand against him. He will live opposite all his brothers."

13 And she called the name of Yahweh, who was speaking to her, "You are El Roi,"[133] because she said, "Have I here seen after him who sees me?"[134] 14 That is why the well is called the Beer Lahai Roi.[135] Indeed, it is between Kadesh and Bered.

15 And Hagar gave Abram a son. Abram named his son, whom Hagar had, Ishmael. 16 Abram was eighty-six years old when Hagar bore Abram Ishmael.

Chapter 17[edit]

1 When Abram was ninety-nine years old, Yahweh appeared to Abram and said to him, "I am El Shaddai,[136] walk before me and be blameless. 2 And I will set my covenant between me and you, and I will make you extremely numerous."

3 And Abram fell face down, and God with to him, saying,

4 "I present my covenant with you: you will be the father of a multitude of nations. 5 No longer will you be called Abram. Your name will be Abraham, because I will make you the father of a multitude of nations.[137] 6 I will make you extremely fertile, and I grant you that nations and kings will descend from you. 7 And I establish my covenant between me and you and your descendants after you throughout their generations, as an everlasting covenant, to be your god and the god of your descendants after you. 8 And give you, and your descendants after you, the land where you have lived as a foreigner, all of Canaan, as an everlasting possession. I will be their god."

9 And God said to Abraham, "You must my covenant, you and your descendants after you throughout their generations. 10 This is my covenant which you shall keep, between me and you and your descendants after you: circumcise every male of you. 11 Circumcise the flesh of your foreskin, and it will be a sign of the covenant between me and you. 12 At eight days old you must circumcise every male throughout your generations, whether born in your own household, or bought with money from any foreigner who is not of your descendants. 13 You must circumcise anyone born into your household or bought with money, and my covenant will be in your flesh, as an everlasting covenant. 14 And any uncircumcised man, who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that person will be cut off[138] from his people. He has broken my covenant."

15 And God said to Abraham, "Sarai, your wife, you will not call by the name Sarai. Instead, Sarah is her name. 16 I will bless her, and also give you a son by her. I will bless her and make her into nations; kings of peoples will come from her."

17 And Abraham fell face down and laughed,[139] and said to himself, "Will someone a hundred years old have a son? And will Sarah, ninety years old, give birth?"

18 And Abraham said to the God, "If only Ishmael could live before you!"

19 And God said, "No. But rather, Sarah your wife will bear you a son, and you will call him Isaac;[140] and I will establish my covenant with him, as an everlasting covenant with his descendants after him."

20 "As for Ishmael, I have listened to you. Here: I will bless him, and made him fertile, and make him extremely numerous. He will be the father of twelve princes, and I will make him into a great nation. 21 But I will establish my covenant with Isaac, whom Sarah will bear you at the appointed time next year."

22 And he ceased to speak to him, and God ascended up from Abraham.

23 And Abraham took Ishmael his son, and all those born in his household, and all those purchased with money, every male of the household of Abraham, and circumcised the flesh of their foreskins, on the same day that God spoke with him. 24 Abraham was ninety-nine years old when he was was circumcised the flesh of his foreskin. 25 And Ishmael his son was thirteen years old when he was circumcised the flesh of his foreskin. 26 On that very day, Abraham and Ishmael his son were circumcised. 27 And all the men of his household, those born to the servants, and those purchased from a foreigner, were circumcised along with him.

Chapter 18[edit]

1 And Yahweh appeared to him at the Alon-trees[141] of Mamre; and he was sitting at the tent entrance, for the day was hot.

2 And he lifted his eyes and he saw: there were three men standing near him. When he saw them, he ran toward them from the tent entrance, and bowed toward the earth. 3

And he said, "My Lord,[142] please, if I have found favor with you, don't pass by your servant. 4 Let us get you a little water, and wash your feet, recline here underneath the tree. 5 I will get you a loaf of bread, and you can refresh yourselves before you go, seeing as you have visited your servant."

And they said, "Do you as you say."

6 And Abraham hurried towards his tent, to Sarah, and said, "Quick--take three seahs[143] of flour, knead it, and make cakes." 7 And Abraham ran to the cattle, and he took a good tender calf, and gave it to the servant, and hurried to prepare it. 8 And he took curds and milk, and calf he had prepared, and set it in front of them. Then he stood by them under the tree as they ate.

9 And they said to him, "Where is Sarah your wife?"

And he said "Here, in the tent."

10 And he said, "I will certainly return to you in nine months,[144] at which time Sarah your wife will have a son." Now Sarah was listening in the tent door behind him. 11 And Abraham and Sarah were old, getting on in years,[145], and Sarah had ceased to have her monthly cycle.[146]

12 And Sarah laughed[147] within herself, "After I have become old and frail, will I have pleasure, when my lord [Abraham][148] is old also?"

13 And Yahweh said to Abraham, "Why is it that Sarah laughed, to say, 'Will I really have a child when I am so old?' 14 Is anything too difficult for Yahweh? When it is time, I will return to you after nine months,[144] and Sarah will have a son."

15 And Sarah denied it, and said, "I didn't laugh", because she was fearful.

And he said, "No, but you did laugh!"

16 And the men stood from there, and they gazed towards Sodom, and Abraham walked with them, to send them off.

17 And Yahweh said, "Can I hide from Abraham what I am doing, 18 seeing that Abraham will surely become a great and strong nation, and all the nations of the earth will bless themselves by him?[149] 19 For I know him, that he will command his sons and his household after him to obey the way of Yahweh, to observe my righteous tradition,[150] so that Yahweh may bring upon Abraham was he said to him."

20 And Yahweh said, "There is a complaint against Sodom and Gomorrah, concerning very serious sin."[151] 21 I will go down know, and see whether they have done as the complaint against them [alleges]. If not, I will know."

22 And the men turned from there and went toward Sodom and Gomorrah, but Abraham still stood before Yahweh.[152]

23 Abraham approached, and said, "Will you really destroy the righteous with the wicked? 24 What if there are fifty righteous people in the city? Will you destroy and not spare the place for the sake of the fifty righteous people within it? 25 Far be it from you to do such a thing, to kill the righteous with the wicked indiscriminately! Far be it from you! Will the one who judges all the earth not do justice?"

26 And Yahweh said, "I find in Sodom fifty righteous, fifty in the city, I will spare the whole place for their sake."

27 Then Abraham replied, "Look now — I have taken it upon me to speak to My Lord, I, who am dust and ashes. 28 What is there are five less than fifty righteous? Will you destroy the whole city because of five people?"

And he said, "I will not destroy it if I find forty-five there."

29 He spoke to him again, and said, "What if there are forty found there?"

And he said, "I will not do it, for the sake of the forty."

30 And he said, "Please do be angry, My Lord, and I will speak. What if thirty are found there?"

And he said, "I will not do it if I find thirty there."

31 And he said, "Please now — I have taken it upon myself to speak to My Lord. What if twenty are found there?"

And he said, "I will not destroy it, for the sake of the twenty."

32 And he said, "Please do not be angry, My Lord, and I will speak one more time. What if ten are found there?"

And he said, "I will not destroy it, for the sake of the ten."

33 Then Yahweh left when he had finished speaking with Abraham, and Abraham went back to his place.


Chapter 19[edit]

1 And the two angels came to Sodom in the evening. Now Lot was sitting in the gate of Sodom. When Lot saw them, he stood up to greet them and bowed his face to toward the ground.

2 And he said, "Here, please, sirs, come to the house of your servant, and stay the night, and wash your feet. And when you wake up, you can go on your way."

And they said, "No — we can stay the night in the square."

3 But he insisted strongly, and they were swayed, and they came to his house. He gave them a drink and baked unleavened bread, and they ate.

4 Before they could lay down, and the men of the city, the men of Sodom, surrounded the house, from both young and old, all the people from the whole town. 5 And they called to Lot, and said to him, "Where are the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us, and we will rape[153] them."

6 Lot went out to them at the door, and he shut it behind him. 7 He said, "Please, my brothers, don't do this evil thing! 8 Please — here: I have two daughters who have never slept with a man. Please, let me bring them out to you, and do what you want to them. Only do not do anything to these men, seeing as they have come under the shadow of my roof."

9 And they said, "Back off!" They said, "This one came to us as a foreigner, and now he thinks he is a judge! We will treat you worse than them." They pushed hard against Lot, and came up to break down the door.

10 But the men reached out their arms and pulled Lot inside the house with them, and they closed the door. 11 And they struck the men at the door with blindness, both great and small, so that they exhausted themselves trying to find the door.

12 And the men said to Lot, "Who else do you have here? Your son-in-law, and your sons, and your daughters, and everything you own — get them out of this place, 13 because we are going to destroy this place, because the complaint against them has become great before Yahweh, and Yahweh has sent us to destroy it.

14 And Lot went out, and spoke to his sons-in-law, who were engaged to his daughters, and said, "Get up! Leave this place, because Yahweh will destroy the city." But his sons-in-law thought he was joking. 15 And as soon as dawn came, the angels urged Lot, saying: "Get up! Take your wife and your two daughters who are here, or else you will be destroyed swept away in this city's punishment."

16 But he procrastinated, so the men grabbed his hand, and his wife's hand, and his two daughters' hands — it was by Yahweh's mercy toward them — and brought him out, and set him outside the city.

17 Now as they were bringing them out, he said, "Flee for your life! Do not look behind you, and do not stay anywhere in the Jordan valley.[154] Escape to the mountain, or you will be swept away."


18 And Lot said to them, "No, please, My Lord,[155] 19 Please, now, you have looked favorably on your servant, and you have done me a great kindness in saving my life. But I cannot escape to the mountain, or else some misfortune may befall me, and I may die. 20 And here, please, there is a town nearby to flee towards, and it is small. Please, let me escape there — because it is small — and my life will be spared."

21 And he said to him, "See, I have accepted your request for this also. I will not overthrow the city which you have mentioned. 22 Escape to it quickly, beause I cannot do anything until you arrive there."

That is why that city is called Zoar.[156]

23 As the sun rose above the land, Lot arrived at Zoar. 24 Then Yahweh rained down sulphur and fire onto Sodom and Gomorrah from Yahweh out of the sky. 25 And he overthrew those cities, and all the Jordan plain, and everyone who lived in the cities, and the plants in the ground.

26 And his wife looked back behind him, and became a pillar of salt.

27 Early in the morning, when Abraham woke up and went to the place where he had stood before Yahweh, 28 he looked toward Sodom and Gomorrah, toward all the land of the Jordan plain, and there he saw smoke going up from the land like smoke from a furnace.

29 So it was, when God destroyed the cities of the Jordan plain, that God remembered Abraham, and sent Lot out from the overthrow when he overthrew the cities where Lot lived.

30 And lost went up from Zoar and lived in the hills, and his two daughters with them, because he was afraid to stay in Zoar. So he lived in a cave with his two daughters.

31 And the older one said to the younger, "Our father is old, and there in no man on earth to have relations with us.[157] 32 Come, let us ply our father with wine, and sleep with him, to keep our lineage alive by our father.

33 And they plied their father with wine, and that night, the older one came and lay with her father, and he was not aware of her lying down or getting up.

34 And so, the next day, and the older one said to the younger, "Look: yesterday evening I slept with my father. We will ply him with wine to drink tonight too. Come lay with him, and we will keep our lineage alive by our father." 35 And they made their father drink that night as well, and the younger got up and slept with him, and he was not aware of her lying down or getting up.

36 So both of Lot's daughters became pregnant by their father.

37 The older one gave birth to a son, and called his name Moab. He is the ancestor of today's Moabites.

38 The younger one had a son as well, and called him Ben-Ammi[158] He is the ancestor of the Bnei-Ammon[159] to this day.

Chapter 20[edit]

1 And Abraham journeyed from there to the land of the Negev, and he settled between Kodesh and Shur, and he lived in Gerar.[160] 2 And Abraham said about Sarah his wife, "She is my sister." And Abimelech, the king of Gerar, sent and took Sarah.

3 And God came to Abimelech in a dream at night, and said to him, "Look, you a dead man because of that woman you have taken. She is married to a husband."

4 But Abimelech has not come near her, so he said, "My Lord, would you kill even a righteous nation? 5 Didn't he say to me, 'She is my sister'? And even she herself said, 'He is my brother.' I did this with an innocent mind and clean hands."

6 And God in a dream told him, "I also know that you did this with an innocent mind, so I myself prevented you from sinning against me. For this reason, I did not let you touch her. 7 And now, return the man's wife, because he is a prophet, and he will pray for you, and you will live. But if you do not return her, know that you will certainly die, you and all your [people]."

8 And Abimelech woke in the morning, and called all his servants, and reported[161] all these things to them. And the men were very afraid.

9 And Abimelech summoned Abraham, and said to him, "What have you done to us? How have I wronged you, that you would bring upon me and my kingdom a great sin? You have done unspeakable things[162] to me."

10 And Abimelech said to Abraham, "What possessed you to do such a thing?"

11 And Abraham said, "Because I thought, 'This is not a God-fearing place, and they will kill be on account of my wife.' 12 And also, she really is my sister. She is the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother; and she became my wife. 13 And so, when the gods made me wander away from my relatives[163] I said to her, 'Do me this kindness: whatever place we come to, say about me, "He is my brother."'"

14 And Abimelech took sheep and cattle, male and female slaves, and gave them to Abraham; and returned Sarah his wife. 15 And Abimelech said, "Here my land is before you: settle where you please."

16 And to Sarah he said, "Look — I have given your brother a thousand [shekels] of silver. Now, let it be compensation for you, in the sight of all who are with you and everyone." So she was rebuked.[164]

18 So Abraham prayed to God, and God healed Abimelech and his wife, and his female slaves, and they gave birth. 17 Because Yahweh had closed up all the wombs of Abimelech's household, on account of Sarah, Abraham's wife.

Chapter 21[edit]

1 And Yahweh intervened for Sarah as he had said; Yahweh did for Sarah as he had spoken.

2 Sarah conceived and gave birth to a son for Abraham in his old age, at the set time which God had told him. 3 And Abraham named his son whom Sarah bore to him Isaac.[165] 4 And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac at eight days old, as God had commanded him. 5 And Abraham was one hundred years old at the birth of his son Isaac.

6 And Sarah said, "God has made laughter[166] for me. Everyone who hears will laugh with me." 7 And she said, "Who would have said to Abraham that Sarah would nurse children? But I have borne him a son in his old age."

8 And the boy grew, and was weaned, and Abraham held a great feast on the day that Isaac was weaned. 9 And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, who bore a son to Abraham, playing[167] with Isaac her son.[168] 10 And she said to Abraham, "Drive out this slave-woman and her son, so that this slave-woman's son will not inherit along with my son, with Isaac."

11 And this matter greatly troubled Abraham, on account of his son. 12 And God said to Abraham, "Do not be troubled about the youth and your slave-woman. Whatever Sarah tells you, listen to what she says, because by Isaac your offspring will be reckoned. 13 And I will also ordain that this son of the slave-woman will became a nation, because he is your offspring."

14 And Abraham awoke at dawn, and took bread and a jug of water, and gave them to Hagar, upon her shoulder, and the child.[169] And she left, and wandered in the wilderness of Beer-sheba. 15 When the water in the jug ran out, she cast the child under one of the bushes.

16 And she walked and sat facing him, as far as a bowshot, because she said, "Let me not see the death of the boy." She sat facing him, and cried with a loud voice.[170] 17 And God heard the voice of the youth, and an angel of God called to Hagar from the sky, and said to her, "What wrong, Hagar? Do not be afraid, because God has heard the voice of the youth over there. 18 Stand up and carry the youth, and hold him by the hand, because I will make him into a great nation."

19 And God opened her eyes, and she saw a water well. So she went and filled the jug with water, and she kissed the boy.

20 And God was with the youth, and he grew; and settled in the desert, and became an archer. 21 And settled in the wilderness of Paran, and took to himself a wife from the land of Egypt.

22 It happened in that time that Abimelech and Phicol his general said to Abraham, "God is with you, in everything you do. 23 And now, swear to by God here, that you will not decieve me, nor my posterity and my descendants. Just as I have treated you with loyalty, do the same for me, and for the land where you have been sojourning."

24 And Abraham said "I do swear".

25 And Abraham rebuked Abimelech on account of a well of water which Abimelech's subjects had seized.

26 And Abimelech said, "I did not know who did this thing. Not only did you not tell me, but I never heard of it before today." 27 And Abraham took sheep and cattle, and gave them to Abimelech; and the two of them made a treaty.

28 And Abraham placed seven female lambs by themselves.

29 And Abimelech said to Abraham, "What are these, these seven ewes, which you have placed by themselves?"

30 And he said, "Because you will take these seven ewes from me as testimony to me that I dug this well."

31 Therefore the place is called Beer-sheba, because the two of them swore an oath.[171]

32 They made a treaty at Beer-sheba. Then Abimelech and Phicol his general arose and returned to the land of the Philistines.

33 And he planted a tamarisk tree at Beer-sheba, and there he invoked the name of Yahweh, El Olam.[172]

34 And Abraham lived as a foreigner in the land of the Philistines many days.

Chapter 22[edit]

1 And it was after these events that the God tested Abraham. He said to him, "Abraham", and he replied replied "Here I am."

2 And he said, "Take now your son, your only one, whom you love, Isaac, and go you to the land of Moriah, and offer him as a burnt offering on one of the mountains, which I will tell you."

3 And Abraham awoke at dawn, and saddled his donkey, and took his two servants with him, and Isaac his son. And he split the wood for the burnt offering, and got up and traveled to the place where God told him.

4 On the third day, Abraham lifted his eyes and saw the place in the distance. 5 And Abraham told his servants, stay here with the donkey, and I and the young man will go there, and worship, and return to you."

6 And Abraham took the offering wood, and placed it on Isaac his son, and took the fire and the knife, and the two of them walked together. 7 And Isaac said to Abraham his father, and said "Father?"

And he replied "Here I am, son."

And he said "Here's the fire and the wood, but where is the lamb for the burnt offering?"

8 And Abraham said, "God himself will see to the animal for the burnt offering." And the two of them walked together.

9 When they came to the place where God had told him, Abraham built the altar there, and laid the wood in order. He tied up Isaac his son, and placed him on the altar on top of the wood.

10 And Abraham reached out and took the knife to slaughter his son.

11 And an angel of Yahweh called to him from the sky, and said, "Abraham! Abraham!"

And he said, "Here I am."

12 And he said, "Do not harm the boy, or do anything to him, because now I know that you fear God, seeing that you have not withheld your son, your only one, from me."

13 Then Abraham lifted his eyes and saw a ram caught in a thicket by its horns. And Abraham went and took the ram, and offered it as a burnt offering in place of his son.

14 And Abraham name the place Yahweh Yireh,[173] of which it is said today, "On the mountain of Yahweh it will be seen."[174]

15 And the angel of Yahweh called to Abraham a second time from the sky. 16 He said, "By my self I have sworn — a declaration of Yahweh — because you have done this thing, and have not withheld from my your son, your only one, 17 that I will abundantly bless you and greatly multiply your offspring like the stars of the sky, like the sand on the seashore, and your offspring will capture the city gate of their enemies. 18 By your offspring all the nations of the earth will bless one another, because you have obeyed my voice."

19 And Abraham returned to his servants, and they rose up and went together to Beer-sheba; and Abraham settled in Beersheba.

20 And then after these things, it was reported to Abraham, "Now, Milcah has also borne children to your brother Nahor: 21 Uz his first, Buz his brother, and Kemuel the father of Aram, 22 and Kesed, Hazo, Pildash, Jidlaph, and Bethuel." 23 And Bethuel was the father of Rebecca. These eight Milcah bore to Nahor, Abraham's brother. 24 And his concubine, Reumah, she also had children: Tebah, Gaham, Tahash, and Maacah.

Chapter 23[edit]

1 And the life of Sarah, the years of Sarah's life, amounted to one hundred twenty-seven years. 2 When Sarah died in Kiryath-Arba, which is Hebron, in the land of Canaan, Abraham went in to mourn and weep for her.

3 And Abraham rose up from the presence of his dead, and spoke with the Hittites, saying, 4 "I have lived among you as a foreigner. Grant me the title to a gravesite, that I may bury my dead out of my sight."

5 And the Hittites replied to Abraham, 6 "Hear us, my lord. You are a prince of God among us. Bury your dead in the best of our graves. None of us will withhold his best grave from you, so that you may bury your dead."

7 And Abraham arose, and prostrated himself before the people of the land, before the Hittites. 8 And he spoke with them, saying, "If you are willing that I should bury my dead away from my sight, hear me and speak for me to Ephron son of Zohar, 9 so that he will give me the cave of the Machpelah which is his, which is at the edge of his field. Give me ownership of the gravesite at full cost."

10 Now Ephron lived among the Hittites, and Ephron the Hittite replied to Abraham in full view of the Hittitesand all who came to the city gates, 11 "No, my lord, listen to me: I give you the field and the cave within it. I give it to you in full view of the sons of my people. I give it to you: bury your dead."

12 And Abraham bowed prostrate before the people of the land. 13 And he spoke to Ephron in full view of the people of the land, "If only you — please hear me — I will give you money[175] for the field. Take it from me, and I will bury my dead there."

14 And Ephron replied to Abraham, 15 "My lord, listen to me. The land is worth four hundred shekels. What is that between you and me? So bury your dead."

16 And Abraham heard Ephron, and Abraham weighed for him the silver to which he had attested with public knowledge of the sons of Het, four hundred shekels of silver passed to the merchant.

17 So Ephron's field, which is in the Machpelah, which is in front of Mamre, the field with the cave within it, and all the trees which were in the field in all its territory were deeded over[176]

18 to Abraham in full view of the Hittites, among all who were at the gate of the city.

19 After this, Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the cave of Machpelah's field which is in front of Mamre, which is Hebron, in the land of Canaan. 20 The field and the cave within it were transferred to Abraham's ownership as a gravesite from the Hittites.

Chapter 24[edit]

1 Now Abraham was old, advanced in years,[177] and Yahweh had blessed Abraham in all things. 2 And Abraham said to the oldest servant of his household, who ruled over all that he had, "Please, put your hand under my thigh,[178] 3 and I will make you swear by Yahweh, God of the heavens and God of the earth, that you will not take a wife for my son from the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I dwell. 4 But you shall go to my land and to my family, and take a wife for my son Isaac."

5 And the servant said to him, "Maybe the woman will not be willing to follow me to this land. Am I to return your son to the land that you came from?"

And Abraham said to him, "Be certain that you do not return my son to that place.

"Yahweh, the god of the skies, who took me from the house of my father, and from the land of my birth, and who spoke to me, who swore to me, saying, 'To your offspring I will give this land.' He will send his angel before you, to take a wife for my son, from there. 8And if the woman is not willing to go after you, you would be released from this oath to me. Just do not return my son there."

9 And the servant placed his hand underneath the thigh of Abraham his master; and swore to him an oath on this matter.

10And the servant took ten camels of his master's camels, and went off, and all his master's goods were in his hand. And he got up and went to Aram Naharaim,[179] to the city of Nahor.

11 And made his camels kneel down outside of the city by the well of water at dusk, at the time when women go out who draw water. 12 And he said, "O Yahweh, God of my master Abraham, please call her to me today, and do kindness to my master Abraham. 13 Look, I am standing by the fountain of water, and the daughters of the men of the city are coming out to draw water. 14 And let it be, that the young woman to whom I say, 'Let down your jug, please, that I may drink,' and she says, 'Drink, and I will also water your camels'— let her be the one you have chosen for your servant, for Isaac. And by that I will know that you have treated my master with kindness."

15 And it happened, before he had finished speaking, that there was Rebecca, daughter of Bethuel, the son of Milcah, the wife of Nahor, Abraham's brother, coming out with her jug on her shoulder. 16 And the girl was very good-looking, a virgin, no man had slept with her. And she went down to the fountain, and filled up her jug, and came up. 17 And the servant ran to meet her, and said, "Please let me drink a little water from your jug."

18 And she said, "Drink, sir." And she quickly let down her jug in her hand, and gave him a drink. 19 When she finished giving him a drink, she said, "I will draw water for your camels too, until they've finished drinking." 20 And she quickly emptied her jug into the watering-trough, and ran back to the well to draw water, and drew for all his camels. 21 And the man, watching her thoughtfully, kept silent, to know whether Yahweh had made his trip successful or not.

22 And then, when the camels had finished drinking, the man took a golden nose-ring weighing a half-shekel, and two bracelets for her hands weighing ten [shekels] of gold. 23 And he said, "Whose daughter are you? Please tell me, is there room in your father's house for us to lodge in?"

24 And she said to him, "I am the daughter of Bethuel the son of Milcah, whom she bore to Nahor."

25 She said to him, "We have plenty of feed and straw, and a place to lodge."

26 And the man bowed, and prostrated himself to Yahweh. 27 And he said, "Blessed be Yahweh, the god of my master Abraham, who did not abandon his loyalty and faithfulness toward my master. And I have been led by Yahweh to the house of my master's relatives."

28 And the girl ran and told these things to her mother's household. 29 And Rebecca had a brother, whose name was Laban. And Laban ran to the man who was outside, to the fountain. 30 When he saw the the nose-ring and the bracelet's on his sister's hands, and when he heard the things his sister Rebecca was saying, "This is what the man said to me", he came to the man. And there he was: standing by the camels at the well.

31 And he said, "Come, you blessed of Yahweh. Why stand outside? I have cleared the house, and a place for the camels."

32 And the man came into the house, and untied the camels. And he provided straw and feed for the camels, and water to wash his feet, and the feet of the men who were with him.

33 And food was set before him to eat, but he said, "I won't eat until I've told my errand."

And he said, "Speak."

34 And he said:

I am Abraham's servant. 35 And Yahweh has blessed my master greatly, and he has become great. And he has given him flocks and herds, and silver and gold, and male servants and female servants, and camels and donkeys. 36 And Sarah my master's wife bore a son to my master when she was old, and he has given him all that he has. 37 And my master made me swear, saying, "You shall not take a wife for my son from the daughters of the Canaanites, in whose land I dwell, 38 but you shall go to my father's house, and to my relatives, and take a wife for my son."

39 And I said to my master, "Maybe the woman won't follow me."

40 And he said to me, "Yahweh, before whom I walk, will send his angel with you, and make your journey successful. And you shall take a wife for my son from my relatives, and from my father's household. 41 Then you will be clear of my oath, when you come to my relatives. And if they do not give her to you, you will be clear from my oath."

42 And today I came to the fountain, and said, "O Yahweh, the God of my master Abraham, if you will make my journey successful, 43 see, I am standing by the fountain of water, and let it be, that the girl who comes to draw water, to whom I will say, 'Please give me a little water from your jug to drink,' 44 and she will say to me, 'You drink, and I will also draw water for your camels'--let that one be the woman that Yahweh has appointed for my master's son." 45 And before I was done speaking in my heart, there she was: Rebecca came out with her jug on her shoulder! And she went down to the fountain, and drew water. And I said to her, "Let me drink, please."

46 And she hurried to remove her jug from her shoulder, and said, "Drink, and I will also give water for your camels." So I drank, and she made the camels drink also.

47 And I asked her, saying, "Whose daughter are you?"

And she said, "The daughter of Bethuel, son of Nahor, born to Milcah." And I put the ring on her nose, and the bracelets on her hands. 48 And I bowed prostrate to Yahweh, and blessed Yahweh, the God of my master Abraham, who has placed me on the true path to take my master's brother's daughter for his son. 49 And now if you can find it within you to be kind and true towards my master, tell me. And if not, tell me, and I will turn to the right, or to the left.

50 Then Laban and Bethuel answered and said, "This thing comes from Yahweh. We cannot speak to you bad or good. 51 Here is Rebecca in front of you, take her and go, and let her be your master's son's wife, as Yahweh has spoken." 52 And when Abraham's servant heard their words, he prostrated himself to the ground before Yahweh. 53 And the servant brought out trinkets of silver, and trinkets of gold, and clothing, and gave them to Rebecca, and offerings also for her brother and mother.

54 And they ate and drank, he and the men who were with him, and stayed all night. And they got up in the morning, and he said, "Send me away to my master."

55 And her brother and her mother said, "Let the young woman stay with us some days, ten. After that she will go."

56 And he said to them, "Do not make me late, since Yahweh has made my journey successful. Send me and I will go to my master."

57 And they said, "We will call in the girl, and get her opinion." 58 And they called Rebecca, and said to her, "Will you go with this man?"

And she said, "I'll go." 59 And they sent Rebecca their sister away, and her nurse, and Abraham's servant, and his men.

60 And they blessed Rebecca, and said to her, "Our sister, you will become thousands of ten thousands, and your offspring will control the gate of those who despise them."

61 And Rebecca and her girls arose, and they rode upon camels, and followed the man. And the servant took Rebecca, and went his way.

62 And Isaac came from the way of Beer Lahai Roi, and he dwelt in the land of Canaan. 63 And Isaac went out to meditate in the field at the evening. And he lifted up his eyes, and saw: there were camels coming. 64 And Rebecca lifted up her eyes, and when she saw Isaac, she dismounted from the camel. 65 And she said to the servant, "What man is this who walks in the field to meet us?"

And the servant said, "It is my master." And she took the veil and covered herself. 66 And the servant told Isaac all the things that he had done. 67 And Isaac brought her into his mother Sarah's tend, and took Rebecca, and she became his wife, and he loved her. And Isaac was comforted after his mother's death.

Chapter 25[edit]

1 Abraham went on to take another wife, and her name Keturah.

2 And she bore him Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah. 3 And Jokshan was the father of Sheba and Dedan. And the sons of Dedan were Ashurim, Letushim, and Leummim.

4 And the sons of Midian were Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abida, and Eldaah. All these were the sons of Keturah.

5 And Abraham gave everything he owned to Isaac. 6 And to the sons of the concubines that Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts, and sent them away from Isaac his son, while he still lived, eastern, to the land of the east.

7 And these are the days of the years of the life of Abraham, which he lived: one hundred and seventy-five years. 8 And he perished, he died, at a good old age, old and content, and went to be with his ancestors.[180]

9 And Isaac and Ishmael, his sons, buried him in the cave of the Machpelah, in the field of Ephron, son of Zohar, the Hittite, which is facing Mamre, 10 the field which Abraham bought from the Hittites. There Abraham was buried, and Sarah with him.

11 And then, after the death of Abraham, God blessed Isaac his son, and Isaac lived by Beer Lahai Roi.

12 These are the generations[181] of Ishmael, son of Abraham, who Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah's slave, bore to Abraham.

13 These are the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names and their generations. Ishmael's oldest was Nebaioth, then Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, 14 Mishma, Dumah, Massa, 15 Hadad, and Tema; Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah.

16 These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names in their villages[182] and in their nomadic encampments, twelve princes of their nations. 17 And these are the years of Ishmael's life: one hundred and thirty-seven years, and he perished, he died, and went to be with his ancestors.[183]

18 And they lived from Havilah as far as Shur, which is facing Egypt as you go towards Assyria. He settled opposite all his brothers.[184]

19 And these are the generations[185] of Isaac son of Abraham. Abraham was the father of Isaac. 20 And Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebecca, the daughter of Bethuel the Aramean from Paddan-Aram, the sister of Laban the Aramean, as his wife. 21 Isaac prayed to Yahweh concerning his wife, because she was infertile, and Yahweh[186] accepted his prayer, and Rebecca his wife conceived.

22 And the sons were fighting inside her, and she said, "If this is how it is going to be, why is this I? And the boys were tossing within, and she said, "If this is how it is to be, then why am I . . .?"[187] And she went to inquire of Yahweh.

23 And Yahweh said to her, "Two peoples are in your womb, and two nations will be divided from within you. One people will overpower the other, and the older will be slave to the younger."

24 When the time came for her to give birth, it became apparent that there were twins in her womb. 25 The first came out red, like a hairy coat all over, and they called his name Esau. 26 And afterward his brother came out, with his hand grasping Esau's heel. His name was called Jacob.[188] Jacob was sixty years old when they were born.

27 When the boys grew up, Esau became a man skilled in hunting, a man of the outdoors,[189] while Jacob was a civilized man, living in tents. 28 And Isaac loved Esau, because of the taste of his game,[190] but Rebecca loved Jacob.

29 And Jacob stewed a stew; and Esau came from the fields, and he was exhausted. 30 And Esau said to Jacob, "Please, let me gulp down some of that red food,[191] because I am exhausted." This is why his name was called Edom.[192]

31 And Jacob said, "Sell me this day your firstborn's birthright."

32 And Esau said, "Look — I am about to die. So what use to me is a birthright?"

33 And Jacob said, "Swear to me today." And he swore to him, and he sold his birthright to Jacob. 34 So Jacob gave Esau bread and boiled lentils. He ate, drank, got up, and left. Esau treated his birthright with contempt.

Chapter 26[edit]

1 When there was a famine in the land, in addition to the earlier famine which was in the days of Abraham, Isaac went to Abimelech king of the Philistines at Gerar.

2 And Yahweh appeared to him and said:

Do not go down to Egypt. Stay in the land which I tell you. 3 Reside in this land, and I will be with you, and I will bless you, because it is to you and to your offspring that I will give these lands. I will keep the oath which I swore to Abraham your father.

4 I will multiply your descendants like the stars in the sky, and I will give all these lands to your descendants, and all the nations of the earth will bless themselves by your descendants,[193]

5 on account of how Abraham listened to my voice, and observed my instruction, my commandments, my regulations, and my laws.

6 And Isaac settled in Gerar.

7 When the men of that place asked about his wife, he said "She is my sister," because he was afraid to say "My wife," "lest the men of this place will kill me over Rebecca, because she is attractive." 8 And when he had been there many days, Abimelech king of the Philistines looked out through a window, and saw Isaac fondling Rebecca his wife. 9 And Abimelech summoned Isaac, and said, "She is most definitely your wife. Why did you say, 'She is my sister.'"

And Isaac said to him, "Because I said, 'or else I will die for her.'"

10 And Abimelech said, "What is this you have done to us? One of the people easily have slept with your wife, and you would have brought guilt on us."

11 And Abimelech commanded all the people, saying, "Whoever touches this man or his wife will be put to death."

12 And Isaac planted seed in that land, and that year he reaped one hundred times as much; Yahweh blessed him.

13 Isaac prospered more and more, and became very prosperous.

14 He had livestock, both flocks and herds,[194] and many slaves, and the Philistines were envious of him. 15 So the Philistines plugged up and filled with earth all the wells which his father's servants had dug in the days of Abraham his father. 16 And Abimelech said to Isaac, "Leave us, because you are much stronger than we are."

17 Isaac went from there and encamped in the valley of Gerar, and settled there. 18 And Isaac dug again the water wells which had been dug in the days of Abraham his father, which the Philistines had plugged up after the death of Abraham. And he called them the names which his father had called them.

19 And Isaac's slaves dug in the valley, and they found a well of flowing water.

20 And the herdsmen of Gerar quareled with Isaac's herdsmen, saying, "The water is ours." And he called the name of the well Esek,[195] because they contended with him.

21 And they dug another well, and they argued over it too, and he named it Sitnah.[196]

22 And he uprooted from there, and he dug another well, and they they did not argue over it. And he named it Rehoboth,[197] and said, "Because now Yahweh has made space for us, and we will be fertile in the land."


23 And he went up from there to Beer-sheba.

24 And Yahweh appeared to him that night and said, "I am the god of Abraham your father. Don't fear, because I am with you, and I will bless and multiply your descendants for the sake of Abraham my servant."

25 And he built an alter there, and called on the name of Yahweh, and pitched his tent there, and Isaac's servants dug out a well there.

26 And Abimelech came to him from Gerar, with Ahuzzath, one of his friends, and Phichol, his general.

27 And Isaac said to them, "Why have you come to me, considering that you hate me and sent me away from you?"

28 And they said,

We have seen that Yahweh is with you, and we said, "Let there be an alliance between us, between us and you, and let us make a covenant with you, 29 that you will not do us any harm, when he have not touched you, and have done to you only good, and have sent you away in peace. You are now blessed by Yahweh."

30 And he made a feast for them, and they ate and drank.

31 They got up early in the morning, and swore to one another. And Isaac sent them away, and they left him in peace.

32 It was on that very day that Isaac's servants came and reported to him about the well which they had dug, and said to him, "We have found water." 33 And he called it Shibah.[198] That is why the name of the city is Beer-sheba, to the present day.

34 When Esau was forty years old, he took as his wife Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Basemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite.[199] 35 They were a bitter disappointment[200] to Isaac and Rebecca.

Chapter 27[edit]

1 And when Isaac was old, and his eyesight darkened, he called Esau his elder son, and said to him, "Son."

And he said to him "Here I am".

2 And he said "As you can see, I have grown old, and I don't know the day I will die. 3 And now, please take your tools, your quiver and your bow, and go into the field and hunt game for me. 4 And make me those tasty dishes I love, and bring them to me, and I will eat, so that my soul can bless you before I die."

5 Rebekah heard Isaac saying this to Esau his son, and Esau went to the field to hunt wild game for his father.

6 And Rebekah said to Jacob her son, "I just heard your father speaking to Esau your brother, saying, 7 'Bring me wild game and make me tasty food to eat, and I will bless you in before Yahweh, before my death.' 8 And now son, listen to what I say. I command you this: 9 Go now to the flock, and take me two good young goats; and I will make them into tasty dishes for your father, as he likes. 10 Bring them to your father, and he will eat, so that he may bless you before he dies."

11 And Jacob said to Rebekah his mother, "But Esau my brother is a hairy man, and I am smooth skinned. 12 And maybe my father will feel me, and I will seem to him to mock him; and I will have landed a curse upon me, and not a blessing."

13 And his mother said to him, "May your curse fall on me, son. Just listen to me and go get me [the goats]."

14 He went, and took, and brought them to his mother, and his mother made the tasty dishes that his father loved.

15 And Rebekah took fine clothing belonging to Esau, her elder son, which her with her in the house, and put them on Jacob her younger son. 16 And she covered his arms and the smooth part of his neck with the goat skins. 17 And she placed the tasty dishes and bread which she had made in the hands of Jacob her son.

18 And he came to his father, and said "Father."

And he said "Here I am. Who are you, son?"

19 And Jacob said to his father, "I am Esau, your eldest. I did as you told me. Please, get up here and sit down and eat some of my wild game, so that your soul may bless me."

20 And Isaac said to his son, "How did you find it so quickly, my son?"

And he said, "Because Yahweh, your god, brought it to me."

21 And Isaac said to Jacob, "Please, come near, and I will feel you, my son, to see whether this is my son Esau."

22 And Jacob approached Isaac his father, and he felt him, and said, "The voice is the voice of Jacob, and the hands are the hands of Esau."

23 And he did not recognize him, because his arms were hairy like those of Esau, and he blessed him.

24 And he said, "Are you really my son Esau?"

And he said, "I am."

25 And he said, "Serve it to me and I will eat from my son's wild game, so that my soul will bless you." And he served it to him, and he ate. He brought him wine, and he drank.

26 And his father Isaac said to him, "Please, come here and kiss me, my son."

27 He came near, and kiss him, and he smelled the scent on his clothes, and he blessed him. He said,

See, the scent of my son,
like the scent of a field blessed by Yahweh.

28May God give you of heaven's dew,
of the fat of the land,
an abundance of grain and wine.
29Peoples will serve you,
nations bow down to you.
You will rule your brothers;
your mother's son will bow down to you.
Cursed be whomever curses you;
blessed be whomever blesses you.

30 And as Isaac finished blessing Jacob, just as Jacob went out from his Isaac his father, Esau arrived from his hunting.

31 He, too, made tasty food, and brought it to his father, and said to his father, "Let my father arise, and eat of his son's wild game, so that you soul may bless me."

32 And Isaac his father said to him, "Who are you?"

And he said "I am your firstborn son, Esau."

33 And Isaac trembled in great fear, and said, "Who? Where is one who hunted wild game and brought it to me? I ate it all before you came, and blessed him. So he will be blessed."

34 When Esau heard what his father said, he let out a very loud and bitter shout, and he said to his father, "Bless me as well, my father!"

35 And he said, "Your brother came in deviously, and took your blessing."

36 And he said, "Isn't it right that his name is Jacob? He has tripped me up[201] these two times. He took my birthright, and now look: he has taken my blessing!"[202] And he said, "Do you have no blessing left over for me?"

37 And Isaac answered and said to Esau, "Look — I have made him your master, and I am made all his relatives his servants. I have supported him with grain and wine. What more is left that I could do for you, my son?"

38 And Esau said to his father, "Do you only have one blessing, my father? Bless me also, my father!" And he wept with a loud voice.

39 His father Isaac replied to him,

Behold, your dwelling will be away from the fat of the land,
away from the dew of heaven above.
40You will live by your sword,
but be a slave to your brother.
And when you rebel, you will break his yoke off your neck.

41 And Esau grew livid at Jacob because of the blessing which he had received from his father. Esau said to himself, "The days of mourning for my father will come, and then I will kill my brother Jacob."

42 And Rebekah was told what Esau her older son had said, and she sent and called for Jacob her younger son, and said to him, "Look here, your brother Esau is going to take vengeance by killing you. 43 Please, my son, listen to me. Get up and run away to Laban my brother in Haran. 44 Stay with him a while, until your brother's rage subsides, 45 until your brother's anger turns away from you, and he forgets what you did to him. Then I will sent for you to return from there. Why should I lose you both in one day?"

46 And Rebekah said to Isaac, "I am weary of living because of the Hittite women. If Jacob takes a wife from Hittite women like these, from the women of this land, what good is my life to me?"

Chapter 28[edit]

1 And Isaac called for Jacob, and blessed him; and commanded him, saying, "You will not take a wife from the daughters of Canaan. 2 Arise and go to Paden Aram, to the house of Bethuel, your mother's father; and take for you there a wife, from the daughters of Laban, your mother's brother. 3 And El-Shaddai [136] will bless you, and will have you bear fruit, and multiply, and you will become a crowd of peoples. 4 And he will give to you the blessing of Abraham, you and your seed as well: to inherit the land you where you live as a foreigner, which God has given to Abraham."

5 And Isaac sent Jacob, and he went towards Padan-aram, to Laban son of Bethuel the Aramean, brother of Rebekah, mother of Jacob and Esau.

6 And Esau saw that Isaac blessed Jacob, and sent him off to Padan-aram to take himself a wife from there; and that in the course of blessing him, he commanded him, "You must not take a wife from the daughters of Canaan."[203] 7 And Jacob listened to his father and mother, and went towards Padad-aram. 8 And Esau saw that the daughters of Canaan were no good in the eyes of Isaac his father.

9 So Esau went to Ishmael and took Mahalath, the daughter of Ishmael, son of Abraham, sister of Nebaioth, in addition to his wives, to be his wife.

10 And Jacob left Beersheba, going towards Haran. 11 And he came upon a place where he spent the night, as the sun was setting, and he took one of the stones there to place and placed it under[204] his head, and he lay down in that place. 12 And he dreamed, and saw a ladder planted on the earth, its top reaching the sky. And on it, there were the angels of God, ascending and descending.

13 And there was Yahweh, standing above it, and he said, "I am Yahweh the god of Abraham your father, and the god of Isaac. The land which you are lying upon I will give to you and your descendants. 14 And your descendants will be as the dust particles on the earth, and you spread out west, east, north, and south, and by you all the clans of the earth will bless themselves,[205] and by your seed. 15 Indeed, I am with you, and will watch over you wherever you may go, and I will return you to this land, because I will not abandon you, until I have done that which I have told you."

16 And Jacob awoke from his sleep, and said, "So in fact Yahweh is within this place, and I did not know this."

17 And he was afraid, and said, "How terrifying is this place! It is nothing other than the house of God, and this is the Gate of Heaven."

18 And Jacob woke up in the morning, and took the stone which he had placed under[206] his head, and put it up as a monument; and he anointed oil atop its head. 19 And he called the place, Beth-el;[207] even though the city was originally named Luz. 20 And Jacob made a vow: "If God will be with me, and watch over me on my journey, and give me bread to eat, and clothes to wear, 21 and if I return safely to my father's house, then Yahweh will be my god. 22 And this stone which I have placed here as a monument will be the house of God. And of everything which you will give me, I will pay a tenth as a tithe."

Chapter 29[edit]

1 And Jacob wandered forth, and went to the land of the eastern people.[208] 2 And he looked and saw a well in a field, and saw three flocks of sheep lying there beside it, because it was from that well that they watered the flocks, and a large stone was set on top of the well. 3 When all the flocks were gathered there, the stone would be rolled from the mouth of the well, and they would water the sheep, and put the stone back to its place on the mouth of the well.

4 And Jacob said to them, "My brothers, where are you from?"

And they said "We are from Haran."

5 And he asked them "Do you know Laban son of Nahor?"

And they said "We know him."

6 And he asked, "Is he well?"

And they said, "He is well, and here comes Rachel his daughter with the sheep."

7 And he said, "Look, it is still broad daylight.[209] It is not time for the livestock to be gathered. Water the sheep, and let them graze."

8 And they said, "We cannot until all the herds are gathered. Then the stone is rolled from from the mouth of the well, and we will water the sheep."

9 As he was still speaking with them, Rachel came with the flock which belonged to her father, because she was a shepherd.

10 Then, when Jacob saw Rachel, the daughter of Laban, his mother's brother, and the flock of Laban his mother's brother, he approached and rolled the stone off the mouth of the well, and watered the flock of Laban his mother's brother.

11 And Jacob kissed Rachel, and lifted his voice, and cried. 12 Jacob told Rachel that he was her father's brother, and that he was Rebekah's son. And she ran and told her father.

13 And when Laban heard the news about Jacob, his sister's son, he ran out to meet him, and hugged him, and kissed him, and brought him to his house. Then he told Laban all these things.

14 And Laban told him, "Surely you are my flesh and blood."[210] And he stayed with him a full month.[211]

15 And Laban said to Jacob, "Because you are my brother, should you work for no pay? Tell me, what should your wages be?"

16 Now Laban had two daughters. The older was named Leah, and the younger was named Rachel. 17 And Leah's eyes were gentle,[212] but Rachel had a beautiful body and beautiful face. 18 And Jacob loved Rachel, and said, "I will work for you seven years, for Rachel, your youngest daughter."

19 And Laban said, "Better that I give her to you, than give her to another man. Stay with me."

20 So Jacob worked seven years for Rachel. His love for her made it seem like only a few days to him.

21 And Jacob said to Laban, "Bring me my wife, because my time is completed for me to sleep with her."[213] 22 And Laban gathered all the men there and held a feast. 23 When evening came, he took Leah his daughter and brought her to him, and he slept with her.

24 And Laban gave her his female slave Zilpa, to Leah his daughter, to be her slave.

25 When morning came, he realized that she was Leah. And he said to Laban, "What is this you have done to me? Did I work for you for Rachel? Why did you cheat me?"

26 And Laban said, "It is not our custom here to give the younger sister before the firstborn. 27 Finish the week[214] for this one, and we will give you the other one as well for another seven years of working for me."

28 And Jacob did so, and he fulfilled the week for the one, and he gave him Rachel his daughter to be his wife. 29 And Laban gave his female slave Bilhah to Rachel his daughter to be her slave.

30 He slept with Rachel also, and he loved Rachel more than Leah, and served him yet another seven years.

31 When Yahweh saw that Leah was hated, he opened her womb. But Rachel was infertile.

32 Leah conceived and gave birth to a son, and called him Reuben, because she said, "Because Yahweh has seen[215] my suffering. But now my husband will love me."

33 Again she conceived and gave birth to a son. And she said, "Because Yahweh has heard that I was hated, he has given me this one also." And she called his name Simeon.[216]

34 Again she conceived and gave birth to a son, and said, "Now this time my husband will stick close to me, because I have borne him three sons." That is why she called him Levi.[217]

35 And again she conceived and gave birth to a son, and said, "This time I praise Yahweh." That is why she called his name Judah.[218] Then she stopped having children.

Chapter 30[edit]

1 When Rachel saw that she had not borne Jacob any children, Rachel became jealous of her sister, and said to Jacob, "Give me sons or I will die!"

2 And Jacob became angry with Rachel, and said, "Am I in God's position, who has kept you from having children?"

3 And she said, "here is my slave Bilhah. Sleep with her, and she will give birth on my kness, and I will also have children by her."

4 So she gave him Bilha her slave as a wife, and Jacob slept with her. 5 Bilha conceived, and bore Jacob a son. 6 And Rachel said, "God has judged my case, and he has heard my voice, and given me a son." That is why she called his name Dan.[219]

7 Again Rachel's slave Bilhah conceived and bore Jacob a second son. 8 And Rachel said, "With great contortions[220] I have wrestled with my sister, and I have won." So she named him Naphtali.[221]

9 When Leah saw that she had stopped having children, she took Zilpah her slave, and gave her to Jacob as his wife. 10 And Zilpah, Leah's maid, bore Jacob a son. 11 And Leah said, "How fortunate!" And she called him Gad.[222]

12 And Zilpah, Leah's slave, bore a second son to Jacob. 13 And Leah said, "How happy I am![223] Because all the daughters will call me happy." So she called his name "Asher."[224]

14 Reuben went out in the time of the wheat harvest, and found mandrakes in the field, and brought them to Leah, his mother. And Rachel said to Leah, "Please give me your son's mandrakes."

15 And she said, "Is it a little thing that you have taken my husband? Will you also take my son's mandrakes?"

And Rachel said, "He will sleep with you tonight in exchange for your son's mandrakes."

16 When Jacob came in from the field in the evening, Leah went out to meet him, and said, "You will sleep with me, because I have hired you with my son's mandrakes." And he slept with her that night.

17 And God heard Leah, and she conceived and she bore Jacob a fifth son. 18 And Leah said, "God has give me my wages due, because I gave my slave to my husband." And she called him Issachar.[225]

19 And Leah conceived again, and bore a sixth son to Jacob. 20 And Leah said, "God has endowed me with a good dowry.[226] This time my husband will dwell[227] with me, because I have borne him six sons." So she called his name Zebulun.[228]

21 Afterward, she gave birth to a girl, and called her Dinah.

22 Then God remembered Rachel, and God listened to her, and he opened her womb. 23 She conceived and gave birth to a son, and she said, "God has taken away my reproach." 24 And she named him Joseph, and said, "Yahweh will add to me another son."[229]

25 Now when Rachel had given birth to Joseph, Jacob said to Laban, "Send me away, and I will go to my own place, to my own land. 26 Give me my wives and my children, for whose sake I have worked for you, and I will go, because you know the labor I have done for you."

27 And Laban said to him, "Please, if I have found favor in your sight — I have found out by divination that Yahweh[230] has blessed me for your sake."

28 And he said to him: "Name your price, and I will pay you."

29 And he said to him, "You know how I have worked for you, and how your livestock have fared with me, 30 because what little you had before has expanded into much, and Yahweh has blessed you since my arrival. And now, when will I also do something for my own household?"

31 And he said, "What should I give you?"

And Jacob said, "Do not give me anything. If you will do this one thing for me, I will go back to keeping and pasturing your flock. 32 I will pass through all your flock today, removing from it any sheep that is parti-colored, and every ram that is black, and the parti-colored goats. These will be my wages. 33 So my fair dealing will be clear: in the future, when you come to check on my wages, whatever is not parti-colored among the goats or black among the rams will be considered stolen if it is with me."

34 And Laban said, "Good! I agree with what you say."

35 So on that day he removed the male goats which were striped and parti-colored, and he removed all the female goats that were parti-colored, all that were partly white, and all the brown sheep, and gave them to the care of his sons.

36 And he placed three days' journey between himself and Jacob, and Jacob took care of the rest of Laban's flocks.

37 And Jacob took himself fresh branches of poplar, almond, and plane trees, and stripped off white streaks in them, exposing the white inner wood on the branches. 38 And he placed the branches which he had peeled in the watering troughs[231]in front of the flicks when the flocks came to drink. And they mated when they came to drink.

39 The sheep mated in front of the branches, and gave birth to striped and parti-colored offspring.

40 Jacob separated the lambs, and he set the flocks facing the parti-colored and brown ones in Laban's flock, and put his own flocks by themselves, and did not put them with Laban's flocks.

41 And whenever the vigorous sheep or goats mated, Jacob put out the branches in the watering-troughs for them to see, so that they would mate in front of the rods. 42 But when they were feeble, he did not put [the rods in front of them]. So the feeble ones belonged to Laban, and the vigorous ones to Jacob. 43 And Jacob became exceedingly wealthy, and had many flocks, and female slaves, and male slaves, and camels, and donkeys.


Chapter 31[edit]

1 And he heard the things that Laban's sons were saying: "Jacob has taken everything that belongs to our father, and from what belongs to our father he has made all his wealth." 2 And Jacob saw how Laban looked at him, and it was not the way it had been before.[232] 3 And Yahweh said to Jacob, "Return to the land of your fathers, to the land where you were born, and I will be with you."

4 And Jacob summoned[233] Rachel and Leah to the field where his flock was. 5 And he said to them, "I see the way your father looks at me, and it is not the way it was before, but the god of my fathers has been with me." 6 And you know how I have served your father with all my father. 7 But your father has deceived me, and changed my wages ten times,[234] but God did not allow him to harm me. 8 And if he said this — "The spotted will be your wages." — then all the sheep and goats had spotted offspring. And if he said this — "The striped ones will be your wages." — then all the sheep and goats had striped offspring. 9 So God has taken away your fathers livestock, and given them to me.

10 And then, when the flocks were mating, I lifted up my eyes and saw in a dream, and there were buck goats mounting females in the flock, and they were spotted, and speckled, and piebald.

11 And an angel of God said to me in a dream, "Jacob."

And I said "Here I am".

12 And he said, "Please, lift up your eyes, and see all the buck goats mounting females in the flock, spotted, and speckled, and piebald, because I have seen everything that Laban has done to you. 13 I am the God of Beth-el,[235] where you annointed a pillar, where you vowed a vow to me. Now rise up, leave this land, and return to the land of your birth."

14 And Rachel and Leah answered, and they said to him, "Is there any part for in our father's inheritance? 15 Has he not thought of us as strangers, because he has sold us and consumed our money? 16 For all the wealth which God has confiscated from our fathers belongs to us and our sons. So now, do whatever God told you."

17 So Jacob got up, and placed his sons and his wives on the camels. 18 And he led all his livestock, and all his possessions, the livestock he possessed, which he had gotten in Padan-aram, to go to Isaac his father in the land of Canaan.

19 Now Laban had gone to shear his sheep, and Rachel had stolen the family idols[236] which belonged to her father. 20 And Jacob had tricked[237] Laban the Aramean by not telling him that he was running away. 21 He ran away with everything he owned, and he rose up and crossed the river, and set off in the direction of Mount Gilead.

22 And it was reported to Laban on the third day that Laban had run away. 23 And he took his brothers with him and pursued him seven days' distance, and caught up with him at Mount Gilead.

24 And God came to Laban the Aramean in a dream at night, and said to him, "Be careful not to speak say to Jacob anything, good or bad."[238]

25 Then Laban overtook Jacob. Now Jacob had pitched his tent on the mountain, and Laban pitched his tent with his brothers at Mount Gilead.

26 And Laban said to Jacob, "What have you done? You have deceived me, and stolen my daughters like prisoners of war.[239] 27 Why did you secretly run away, and deceive me, and why did you not tell me? I would have sent you off with celebration, and songs on tambourine and harp. 28 Why did you not let me kiss my sons and daughters? You have behaved foolishly. 29 It is in my power to harm you, but the god of your father said to me last night, "Be careful not to say anything to Jacob, bad or good." 30 And though I understand why you left, because you missed your relatives, why did you steal my gods?"

31 And Jacob answered, and said to Laban: "Because I was afraid, because I thought you might take away your daughters from me by force. 32 If you find your gods with anyone, do not let him! In front of our relatives, point out what we have that is yours, and take it." Now Jacob did not know that Rachel had stolen them.

33 So Laban went into Jacob's tent and into Leah's tent, and into the tents of the two slave women, but he did not find them. He left Leah's tent, and went into Rachel's tent.

34 Now Rachel had taken the teraphim, and put them in the camel's saddle, and sat on top of them. And Laban search the whole tent, but did not find them. 35 And she said to her father, "Please let it not anger my lord, because I cannot stand up before you, because I am having my monthly cycle.[240] And he searched, but did not find the family idols.

36 And Jacob became angry, and rebuked Laban, and Jacob said in response to Laban, "What is my crime? What is my sin, that you lit off after me? 37 Now that you have touched all my things, what things have you found belonging to your household? Put it here in front of my relatives and your relatives, and let them judge between us! 38 These twenty years I have been with you, your sheep and your goats have not miscarried, and I have not eaten rams from your flock." 39 I did not bring you any livestock killed by animals. I bore the loss myself. You held me responsible for anything stolen by day or by night. 40 There I was: consumed by heat in the day, and by frost at night. Sleep fled away from my eyes.

41 This is how it was for me twenty years in your household. I served you fourteen years for your two daughters, and six years for your flock, and you have altered my wages ten times. 42 If the god of my father, the god of Abraham and the terror of Isaac, had not been with me, then you would have sent me away empty-handed. God has seen my oppression and the toil of my hands, and rebuked you last night."

43 And Laban replied to Jacob, "These daughters are my daughters, and these children are my children, and these flocks are my flocks, and all that you see is mine. And what can I do about these daughters of mine, or about their children they have? 44 And now, let us make a covenant, I and you, and let it serve as a witness between me and you."

45 And Jacob took a stone, and set it up as a pillar. 46 And Jacob told his relatives, "Gather stones." So they took stones and they made a heap, and they ate there on top of the heap. 47 And Laban called it Jegar Sahadutha, but Jacob called it Galeed.[241]

48 And Laban said, "This heap is a witness between me and you today." That is why it is called Galeed; 49 and Mizpah, because he "May Yahweh keep watch[242] between me and you, when we are absent from one another. 50 If you mistreat my daughters, and if you take other wives besides my daughters, God will be a witness between you and me even if no one else is with us."

51 And Laban said to Jacob, "Here is the heap, and here is the pillar, which I have set up between me and you. 52 May this heap be a witness, and may this pillar be a witness, that I will not cross over this heap to you, and that you will not cross over this heap to me, and this pillar, to do harm. 53 May the god of Abraham, the god of Nahor, and the god of their father judge[243] between us." And Jacob swore by the Terror of his father Isaac. 54 Then Jacob offered a sacrifice on the mountain, and called his relatives to eat bread, and they ate and stayed the night on the mountain. 55 Early in the morning Laban rose up, and kissed his sons and daughter, and blessed them. Then Laban went back to his place.

Chapter 32[edit]

1(31:55)[244] And Laban awoke in the morning, and kissed his sons and his daughters, and blessed them, and Laban went and returned to his place.

2(1) And Jacob went on his way, and angels of God met him. 3(2) And Jacob said, when he saw them, this is the encampment of God, and he gave that place the name Mahanaim.[245]

4(3) And Jacob sent messengers ahead him, to Esau his brother, in the land of Seir, the territory of Edom. 5(4) And he ordered them, saying, "This is what you must say to my master, Esau. This is what your servant Jacob says: I stayed as a guest of Laban, and stayed there until now. 6(5) I have bulls, donkeys, male slaves, and female slaves, and I have sent word to my master to find favor in your sight."

7(6) And the messengers returned to Jacob, saying, "We came to your brother Esau, and now he is coming to meet you, and four hundred men with him."

8(7) And Jacob become very afraid, and anxious, and he divided the people who were with him, and the flocks, the cattle and the camels, into two camps. 9(8) And he said, "If Esau comes to one of the camps, and strikes it, the remaining camp will escape."

10(9) And Jacob said, "God of my father Abraham, and god of my father Isaac, Yahweh, who told me, 'Return to your land, the land of your birth, and I will do good by you.' 11(10) I am small compared to all the kindness and all the faithfulness you have done for your servant, because with just my walking stick I crossed this Jordan, and now I have become two camps. 12(11) Save me, please, from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau, because I am afraid of him, that he might come and strike me, the mother and her sons." 13(12) And you said, "I will treat you well, and I will make your descendants like the sand of the sea, which is too vast to count."

14(13) And he slept there that night, and took from what he had a gift for Esau his brother: 15(14) two hundred she-goats, and twenty he-goats, two hundred ewes, and twenty rams, 16(15) thirty lactating camels and their calves; forty cows and ten bulls, twenty female donkeys, and ten foals. 17(16) He gave them to his slaves, each herd by itself. And he said to his slaves, "Go across ahead of me, and put a space between each herd and the next." 18(17) And he ordered the first, saying, "When Esau my brother meets you, and he asks you, 'Whose are you and where are you going, and whose are these in front of you?', 19(18) then say, 'They belong to your servant Jacob. It is a gift sent to my lord Esau. And now he is behind us."

20(19) And he also ordered the second, and the third, and all those who followed the herds, "This is how you are to speak to Esau when you find him."

21(20) "And also say, 'Jacob your servant is following behind us, because he said, "Let me pacify him, and afterward I will be his face. Perhaps he will accept me."'"

22(21) So the gift crossed over before him, and he stayed the night in the camp.

23(22) And he got up during the night, and took his two wives and his two female slaves, and his eleven sons, and crossed over the ford of Jabbok. 24(23) He took them and sent them across over the river, and sent across his things.

25(24) And Jacob was left alone, and a man wrestled with him until the break of dawn. 26(25) And when he saw that he was unable to defeat him, he struck[246] the hollow of his thigh,[247] and the hollow of Jacob's thigh was injured as he wrestled with him. 27(26) And he said, "Let me go, because day is breaking."

And he said, "I will not let you go unless you bless me."

28(27) And he said to him, "What is your name?"

And he said "Jacob."

29(28) And he said, "Your name will no longer be Jacob, but rather Israel, because you have wrestled[248] with God and with men, and won."

30(29) And Jacob asked, and said, "Please tell me your name."

And he said, "Why would you ask my name?" And he blessed him there.

31(30) And Jacob named the place Peniel, "Because I have seen God face to face, but my life has been spared."[249]

32(31) The sun rose as he pass through Penuel, limping because of his thigh.[250]

33(32) For this reason, the Israelites will not eat the gid hannashe,[251] which is in the hollow of the thigh, to this very day, because he touched the hollow of Jacob's thigh, in the sinew of the thigh-vein.

Chapter 33[edit]

1 Jacob lifted up his eyes and saw that Esau was on his way with four hundred men. And he divided the children between Leah, Rachel, and the two slave women. 2 And he put the slave women and their children ahead, and Leah and her children behind them, and Rachel and Joseph last. 3 He crossed over before them, and prostrated himself seven times, until he came near his brother. 4 And Esau ran toward him and embraced him, and fell on his neck, and kissed him, and they cried.

5 And he lifted his eyes, and saw the women and the children, and said "Who are these to you?"

And he said, "The children with which God has graced your servant." 6 And the handmaids approached, and their children, and they bowed down. 7 And Leah also approached and her children, and they bowed down, and afterward Joseph and Rachel, and they bowed down.

8 And he said, "Who are they to you, all this camp which I encountered?"

And he said, "To find grace with my lord."

9 And Esau said, "I have much, brother. Keep what you have."

10 And Jacob said, "No, please, if I have found favor in your view, then take my present from my hands, because this is why I have seen your face, like seeing the face of God, and you accepted you. 11 And please take my blessing which is deserved to you, because god had mercy on me, and because I have all." He was very insistent with him, so he accepted it.

12 And he said, "Let's pull up stakes and go, and I will go ahead of you."

13 And he said to him, "My lord knows that the children are delicate, and that my flocks and herds are nursing their young. Drive them hard one day, and all the sheep would die. 14 Let my lord, please, cross over ahead of his servant, and I will lead them along softly, at a pace suited for the livestock in front of me, at a prace suited for the children, until I come to my lord at Seir."

15 And Esau said, "Please, let me leave with you some of the people who are with me."

And he said, "Why so? Let me find favor with my lord."

16 So Esau turned back that day on his way to Seir.

17 Jacob journeyed on to Succoth and built himself a house, and for his livestock he made huts, and this is why the place is named Succoth.[252]

18 And Jacob came safely to the city of Shechem,[253] which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Padan Aram, and he camped in front of the city. 19 And he bought a parcel of land, at the field where he planted his tent, from the hands of the sons of Hamor, father of Shechem, for one hundred qesitah.[254] 20 And he erected an altar there and called it El Elohe Israel.[255]

Chapter 34[edit]

1 And Dinah the daughter of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob, went out to see the daughters of the land.[256]

2 When Shechem, the son of Hamor the Hivite, a leader in that land, saw her, he took her and lay with her, and forced her.[257]

3 His soul became attached to Dinah, and he loved the young woman, and spoke affectionately to the young woman.[258]

4 And Shechem spoke to Hamor his father, saying, "Take this girl to be my wife."

5 And Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter. Now his sons were with his livestock in the field, and Jacob held his tongue until they arrived. 6 And Hamor, the father of Shechem, went out to Jacob, to speak with him. 7 Jacob's sons returned from the field when they heard, and the men were upset. They were very angry, because he had done a foolish thing against Israel by lying with Jacob's daughter, a thing such as ought not be done.

8 And Hamor spoke with them, saying, "Shechem, my son, his soul is attached to your daughter. Please, give her to him as a wife. 9 Intermarry with us. Give us your daughters, and take our daughters for yourselves. 10 Live alongside us. The land is in front of you: live, do business, and acquire real estate in it."

11 And Shechem said to her father and her brothers, "Let me find favor in your eyes, and I will give you what you tell me. 12 Whatever extravagent dowry you ask of me, I will give what you ask, if you will give me the young woman as a wife."

13 Then the sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor his father, speaking deceitfully, because he had defiled Dinah their sister. 14 They said to them, "We are not allowed to do this, to give our sister to a man who has a foreskin, because it would be dishonorable to us. 15 But on this condition we will consent: if you will be like us, and circumcise all your males. 16 Then we will give our daughters to you, and we will take your daughters for ourselves, and we will live with you and become one people. 17 But if you will not listen to us and practice circumcision, then we will take our daughter and go."

18 Their words seemed good to Hamor and Shechem his son. 19 The young man did this without delay, because he was fond of Jacob's daughter. Now he was the most respected member of all his father's relatives.

20 Hamor and his son Shechem came to their city gate, and spoke with the men of the town, saying, 21 "These people are at peace with us, and they will live in the land and trade in it. Look — this land is broad enough for their presence. We will take their daughters as our wives, and we will give our daughters to them. 22 But on this condition they will give their consent to live among us and become a single people: if every male among us is circumcised just as they are circumcised. 23 Won't their livestock and possessions, and all their animals, become ours? If only we give our consent to them, they will live among us."

24 And all the people of his city,[259] they listened to Hamor and his son Shechem, and all the males who lived in the city were circumcised.

25 And then on the third day, when they were were in pain, two of Jacob's son, Simeon and Levi, Dinah's brothers, each took his sword and attacked the city unawares, and killed every male. 26 And they killed Hamor and his son Shechem with the sword, and took Dinah out of Shechem's house, and left.

27 Jacob's sons came upon the corpses and looted them, the city which had polluted their sister. 28 They took all their sheep, their cattle, their donkeys, and whatever was in the city, and whatever was in the field. 29 They took captive all their wealth, all their little ones, and all their women, and plundered all that was in the house.

30 Then Jacob said to Simeon and Levi, "You have trouble for me, to make me odious to the inhabitants of the land, to the Canaanites and the Perizzites. I have only so many men. They will gather against me, and attack, and I and my household will be exterminated."

31 And they said, "Should he treat our sister like a prostitute?"

Chapter 35[edit]

1 And God said to Jacob, "Get up and go to Bethel,[260] and stay there, and make an altar to El,[261] who appeared to you when you fled from your brother Esau."

2 And Jacob told his household, and all with him, "Remove the foreign gods, which are amongst you, and purify yourself, and change your clothes. 3 Let us get up and go up to Bethel, where I will make an altar to the El who answered me on the day of my trouble and was with me as I went on my journey." 4 So they gave Jacob all the foreign gods which they carried, and the rings which were in their ears, and Jacob buried them under the terebinth[262] which is by Shechem. 5 Then they continued their journey, and a fear of God came over the cities around them, and they did not pursue the sons of Jacob.

6 And Jacob came to Luz, which is in the land of Canaan (it is Bethel), him and all the people with him. 7 And he built an altar there, and he called the place there El Beth El,[263] because there God revealed himself to him when he was fleeing from his brother.

8 And Deborah, Rebeka's nurse, died and was buried under Bethel underneath the oak.[264] So they named it Oak of Weeping.[265]

9 And God appeared to Jacob again, as he was coming from Padan-aram, and blessed him. 10 And God said to him, "Your name is Jacob. You will not be named Jacob anymore. Rather, Israel will be your name." And he called his name Israel. 11 And God said to him, "I am El Shaddai.[136] Be fertile and multiply. A nation and an assembly of nations will descend from you, and kings will come forth from your loins. 12 I will give to you the land which I have given to Abraham and Isaac, and to your descendants after you I will give this land."

13 And God rose up above him, in the place which he had spoken with him. 14 And Jacob erected a pillar at the place where he spoke to him, a pillar of stone. He poured a drink-offering on it, and poured oil on it. 15 And Jacob named the place where God spoke to him Bethel.

16 They journeyed on from Bethel, and they were still some distance[266] from arriving at Ephrath, and Rachel went into labor, and she had a difficult labor. 17 Then, as she was experiencing difficulties in labor, the midwife said to her, "Don't be afraid. You're having another boy!"[267] 18 And then, as her life was going from her (because she died), she called his name Ben-oni, but his father called him Benjamin.[268]

19 And Rachel died, and was buried on the way to Ephrath, which is Bethlehem. 20 And Jacob erected a pillar above her grave, which is the pillar of Rachel's gave to the present day.

21 And Israel journeyed, and lay his tent just beyond Migdal-eder.[269] 22 As Jacob was staying in that land, Reuben went and slept with Bilhah, his father's concubine, and Israel heard.

Jacob had twelve sons. 23 The sons of Leah were Jacob's firstborn Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun. 24 The sons of Rachel were Joseph and Benjamin. 25 The sons of Rachel's slave Bilhah were Dan and Naphtali. 26 And the sons of Leah's slave Zilpah were Gad and Asher. These are the sons of Jacob which were born to him in Padan-aram.

27 And Jacob came to his father Isaac at Mamre, Kiriath-arba, which is Hebron, where Abraham and Isaac had sojourned. 28 And Isaac's days were one hundred eighty years. 29 Isaac breathed his last, and died, and went to be with his ancestors[270] at a ripe old age.[271] His sons Esau and Jacob buried him.

Chapter 36[edit]

1 And these are the generations[272] of Esau, who is Edom.

2 Esau took as his wives Canaanite women:[273] Adah the daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Oholibamah the daughter of Zibeon the Hivite; 3 and Basemath the daughter of Ishmael, the sister of Nebaioth. 4 Adah bore Esau Eliphaz, and Basemath gave birth to Reuel. 5 Oholibamah gave birth to Jeush,[274] Jalam, and Korah. These are the sons of Esau, who were born to him in the land of Canaan.

6 Esau took his wives, his sons, his daughters, all his servants, his livestock, all his animals, and all his possessions which he had acquired in the land of Canaan, and went to a land away from the presence of Jacob his brother, 7 because they had too much property to live together, and all the land where they sojourned could not support them because of their livestock. 8 So Esau settled in Mount Seir. Esau is Edom.

9 These are the generations of Esau, the ancestor of Edom,[275] in Mount Seir.

10 These are the names of the sons of Esau: Eliphaz the son of Esau's wife Adah, and Reuel the son of Esau's wife Basemath. 11 The sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz. 12 Timna was a concubine of Eliphaz the son of Esau, and she bore to Eliphaz Amalek. These are the sons of Esau's wife Adah.

13 These are the sons of Reuel: Nahath and Zerah, Shammah and Mizzah. There were the sons of Esau's wife Basemath.

14 These are the sons of Esau's wife Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah, the daughter of Zibeon. She gave Esau Jeush,[276] Jalam, and Korah.

15 These were the chiefs of the sons of Esau, the sons of Eliphaz, Esau's firstborn: chief Teman, chief Omar, chief Zepho, chief Kenaz, 16 chief Korah, chief Gatam, chief Amalek. These were the chiefs of Eliphaz in the land of Edom, sons of Adah.

17 These are the sons of Esau's son Reuel: chief Nahath, chief Zerah, chief Shammah, chief Mizzah. These were the chiefs of Reuel in the land of Edom. These were the sons of Esau's wife Basemath.

18 These were the sons of Esau's wife Oholibamah: chief Jeush, chief Jalam, chief Korah. These were the chiefs of Esau's wife Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah.

19 These were the sons of Esau, and these were their chiefs. He is Edom.

20 These were the sons of Seir the Horite, who lived in the land: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, 21 Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. These were the chiefs of the Horites, sons of Seir in the land of Edom.

22 The sons of Lotan were Hori and Hemam, and Lotan's sister was Timna.

23 These were the sons of Shobal: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam.

24 These are the sons of Zibeon: both Ayah, and Anah. This was the Anah who found the hot springs[277] in the wilderness, as he was pasturing the donkeys of Zibeon his father.

25 These are the sons of Anah: Dishon and Oholibamah the daughter of Anah.

26 And these are the sons of Dishan: Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Cheran. 27 These were the sons of Ezer: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan. 28 These are the sons of Dishan: Uz and Aran.

29 These are the Horite chiefs: chief Lotan, chief Shobal, chief Zibeon, chief Anah, 30 chief Dishon, chief Ezer, chief Dishan. These were the Horite chiefs in the land of Seir.

31 And these are the kings who ruled in the land of Edom before any king ruled over the Israelites.

32 Bela son of Beor ruled in Edom, and the name of his city was Dinhaba. 33 Bela died, and Jobab son of Zerah from Bozrah ruled in his place. 34 Jobab died, and Husham from the land of the Temanites reigned in his place. 35 Husham died, and Hadad son of Bedad ruled in his place, who defeated Midian in the plain of Moab. The name of his city was Avith. 36 Hadad died, and Samlah of Masrekah ruled in his place. 37 Samlah died, and Shaul from Rehoboth of the River ruled in his place. 38 Shaul died, and Baal-hanan son of Achbor ruled in his place. 39 Baal-hanan son of Achbor died, and Hadar ruled in his place. The name of his city was Pau, and his wife's name was Mehetabel daughter of Matred, the daughter of Me-zahab.

40 And these are the names of the chiefs of Esau, by their clans, by their places, by their names: chief Timna, chief Alvah, chief Jetheth, 41 chief Oholibamah, chief Elah, chief Pinon, 42 chief Kenaz, chief Teman, chief Mibzar, 43 chief Magdiel, chief Iram. These are the dukes of Edom. He is Esau, ancestor of Edom.

Chapter 37[edit]

1 And Jacob settled in the land where his fathers had wandered, in the land of Canaan.

2 And this is the narrative of Jacob: Joseph, seventeen years old, was a shephard along with his brothers, and he was still a boy by the sons of Zilpa and the sons of Bilha, his fathers wives; and Josheph came with a bad report about them to their father.

3 And of all his sons, Israel loved Joseph most, because a son to his old age he was; and he made him a striped gown. 4 And his brothers feared him, because their father loved him more than all his brothers--- and they hated him; and they couldn't speak to him normally.

5 And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told his brothers, and they hated him even more. 6 And he said to them: "Listen please, to this dream that I dreamed. 7 And here we are binding bundles in the field, and here my bundle rises up, also erect, and here your bundles come around it, and bow down to my bundle."

8 And his brothers told him: "So you will reign a king over us? rule over as a ruler?" and they continued to add the their hatred of him, for his dreams and for his words.

9 And he dreamed another dream, and told it to his brothers: and said: "Here, I dreamed another dream, and now, the sun and the moon, and eleven stars bow down to me."

10 And he told his father, and his brothers, and his father reproached him, and said to him: "What is this dream which you dreamed? Come, will I come myself and your mother and your brothers to bow down prostrate to you?"

11 And his brothers were jealous of him; and his father, remembered this thing.

12 And his brothers went to herd the sheep, and their father is in Shechem. 13 And Israel said to Joseph, "since your brothers are shepharding in Shechem--- you go, I will send you to them", and he told him, "Here I am."

14 And he said to him "Please go and see how your brothers are doing, and how the sheep are doing, and come back with news;" and he sent him from the valley of Hebron, and he came towards Shechem.

15 And a man found him, and here he is in the wrong field, and the man asked him, "What do you want?"

16 And he said "I ask you about my brothers; tell me please, where are they shepharding?"

17 And the man said, they drove out of this field, because I heard them say, let us go to Dothan"; and Joseph went after his brothers, and found them in Dothan.

18 And they saw him in the distance, and before he would approach them, they colluded against him, to kill him. 19 And they said, man to his brother, "Here is the master of dreams coming. 20 And now we will go and we will kill him, and we will throw him in one of the wells, and we said, a vicious animal ate him, and we will see what his dreams will become."

21 And Reuben heard, and rescued him from their hands, and he said, "let us not take a soul."

22 And Reuben said to them: "Don't spill his blood, throw him into that well in the desert, and don't lay a hand on him": so that he could rescue him from their hands, and return him to their father.

23 And it was when Joseph came to his brothers; and they stripped him of his gown, the gown with stripes, which he was wearing. 24 And they took him, and they threw him into the well, and the well is empty, no water in it.

25 And they went back to eating bread, and they lifted their eyes and saw, here is a procession of Ishmaelites coming from Gilad; and their camels are carrying spices and balm and laudenum, which they are going to take down to Egypt. 26 And Judah said to his brothers, "What is the point if we kill our brother and cover up his blood? 27 We'll go and sell him to the Ishmaelites, and we will not lay a hand on him, because he is our brother, our flesh." And his brothers listened to him.

28 And Midianites passed by, mechants, and they pulled Joseph from the well, and they sold joseph to the Ishmaelites for twenty shekels of silver; and they brought Joseph to Egypt.

29 And Reuben returned to the well, and lo, there's no Joseph in the well; and he rended his clothes. 30 And he returned to his brothers to say: "The boy, he isn't there, and where will I go?"

31 And they took Joseph's gown and they slaughtered a he-goat, and they dipped the gown in the blood. 32 And they sent the striped gown, and they brought it to their father, and they said "We found this, identify it please, is it your son's gown, or not?"

33 And he recognized it, and said, this is my son's gown, a vicious animal has eaten him: preyed on Joseph, as prey."

34 and Jacob tore his clothes, and put a sack on his hips, and mourned over his son, many days. 35 And all his sons and daughters arose to comfort him, and he would not be comforted, and he said, "I will go to the afterworld grieving for my son"; and he wept for him, his father.

36 And the Midianites sold him to Egypt, to Photiphar, eunoch of Pharoh, head chef.

Chapter 38[edit]

1 And it was at that time, and Judah went away from his brothers, and travelled to an Adulamite by the name of Chira (Hira)

2 And Judah there saw the daughter of a Canaanite man, by the name of Shua'; and he married her and came to her. 3 And she conceived, and bore a son; and called his name 'er(Er). 4 And conceived again and bore a son; and called his name Onan. 5 And continued again, and bore a son, and called his name Shelah(Shelah); and she was at Cheziv(Chezib) when he was born.

6 And Judah took a wife for Er his eldest; and her name was Tamar. 7 And Er, the eldest of Judah, was bad in the sight of Yahweh, and Yahweh ended his life.

8 And Judah said to Onan, come to your brother's wife and be with her, and raise a seed for your brother. 9 And Onan knew that the seed would not be his; and it was when he would go to his brother's wife that he expended it toward the ground, so as not to give his seed to his brother. 10 And wrong was this in the eyes of Yahweh, what he did; and he killed him also.

11 And Judah said to Thamar(Tamar) his bride, return a widow to your father's house, until Shelah my son has grown--- since he thought "Lest he die too, as did his brothers;" and Tamar left and returned to her father's house. 12 And many days went by, and Shua's daughter, the wife of Judah, died; and Judah was comforted, and went to his sheep-shearers himself and his friend Chira(Hira) the Adulamite, towards Timna. 13 And Tamar was told this: "Here is your father-in-law going towards Timna, to shear his sheep."

14 And she removed her widow's garments, and covered herself with a veil, and coverings, and she sat at the entrance to 'eynaiim(Enaim/two-eyes) which is on the way to Timna: because she saw that her man had grown, and she was not given to him as a bride. 15 And Judah saw her, and thought her a prostitute, because she had covered her face.

16 And he turned to her on the way, and said, "Let me come to you, because he did not know that she was his daughter-in-law, and she said, "What will you give me, if you come to me?"

17 And he said "I will send a kid goat from the flock; and she said, leave collateral until you send it"

18 and he said, "What collateral shall I give you?", and she said, "Your signet and your cord and your staff which you are holding". And he gave her, and he came to her, and she conceived by him.

19 And she got up and walked away, and took away her veil and put on the clothes of her widowhood.

20 And Judah sent the kid-goat, through his Adulamite friend, to take the collateral from the hands of the woman, and he did not find her. 21 And he asked the men of the place, to ask, "Where is she, the whore at Enaim, on the path?" and they said "There was no whore there."

22 And he returned to Judah, saying "I did not find her; and the people of the place said also: there was no whore there."

23 And Judah said, "Take it to her, lest we be shamed; here I sent this kid-goat, and you didn't find her."

24 And it was three months later, and it was told to Judah that Tamar, your daughter-in-law, has whored, and also, she has conceived, through her whoring. And Judah said, take her out and burn her. 25 She found out, and she sent to her father in law, saying: "By the man who's these are, I am pregnant; and she said, please recognize whose signet and cord and staff these are."

26 And Judah recognized, and said, "She is more righteous than I am, because for this reason I did not give her to Shelah my son"; and he did not lay with her again.

27 And when she is to give birth, lo, twins are in her belly. 28 And during her labor, one extended a hand and the midwife took it, and tied on his hand a thread, to mean, this one came out first. 29 And as he retracted his arm, then his brother came out, and she said, you have breached(Paratzta) a breech(Peretz) in me; and named him Peretz(Perez)

30 After, his brother came out, the one with the thread on his hand, and his name was Zarach(Zerah).

Chapter 39[edit]

1 And Joseph was taken down to Egypt, and Potiphar, Pharoh's castrated head chef, bought him from the Ishmaelites, who had taken him down there.

2 And Yahweh was with Joseph; and he became a successful man; and it was in the house of his Egyptian master 3 And his master saw that Yahweh was with him; and everything that he does, Yahweh in his hands makes succeed. 4

And Joseph found favor in his eyes, and he waited on him; and he appointed him to head his house, and everything that he had, he put in his hands. 5 And from the time that he appointed him head of the house, and everything he had, and Yahweh blessed the house of the Egyptian, because of Joseph; and the blessing of Yahweh was with everything that he owned, in the house and in the field. 6 And he abandoned control of everything he had to Joseph, and didn't know a thing with him, except for the bread which he is eating; and Joseph was well groomed and handsome.

7 And it was after these events, and the wife of his master lifted her eyes to Joseph, and said "Lay with me."

8 And he declined, and said to the wife of his master, saying: "As it is, with me, my master does not know what is in the house, and everything he has is in my hands. 9 He is not greater in this house than I am, and he has not hidden anything from me, except fpr you, because you are his wife; and how could I do this great wrong, and sin against God."

10 As it was, she spoke to Joseph day after day, and he didn't listen to her, didn't lay with her, be with her.

11 And it was one day, that he came home to work his craft, and there was nobody of the household there--- in the house. 12 And she grabbed him by the clothes saying: "Lay with me"; and he left his clothes in her hand, and escaped, exiting out.

13 And it was when she saw that he left his clothes in her hand, and escaped outside 14 And she called the men of the household, and spoke to them, saying: "Look, he has brought us a 'ivri(Hebrew man) to poke fun at us: he came to me, to lay with me, and I called in a loud voice. 15 And it was when he heard that I raised my voice and called out; that he left his clothes with me, and escaped and exited out."

16 And she placed his garment with her, until the master would come to his house. 17 And to him she said the same things, saying: "The Hebrew servant, which you brought us, came to me, to poke fun at me. 18 and it was when I raised my voice and called out; and he left his clothes with me, and escaped out."

19 And it was when his master heard the words of his wife, which she spoke to him, saying, "Things like these your servant did to me"; and his lips snarled.[278]

20 And Joseph's master took him, and gave him to the prison, the place where the prisoners of the king were imprisoned, and he was there in the prison. 21 And Yahweh was with Joseph, and he granted to him a kindness, and he gave him favor in the eyes of the head of the prison. 22 And the head of the prison put all the prisoners which were in the prison in Joseph's hands, and all that they did there, he did do. 23 And the head of the prison, saw to nothing in his charge, because Yahweh is with him, and whatever his does, Yahweh makes succeed.

Chapter 40[edit]

1 And it was after these events, that the wine-server of the King of Egypt, and the baker transgressed toward their master, the King of Egypt. 2 And Pharoh foamed against the head server and the head baker, two of his castrati. 3 And he put them under guard, the household of the head baker, into the prison: the place where Joseph was imprisoned.

4 And the head chef appointed Joseph to be with them, and serve them, and they spent many days arrested. 5 And each of the two dreamed himself a dream, one night--- to each man will be as the interpretation of his dream: the server and the baker of the King of Egypt, who are imprisoned in the prison. 6 And Joseph came to them in the morning, and saw them, and they are both downcast. 7 And he asked the Pharoh's castrati, who were with him under the guard of his master's house--- saying: "Why are your faces so down today?"

8 And they said to him--- "We dreamed a dream, and we have no interpretation;" and Joseph said to them; "Why, God has interpretations--- please tell me."

9 And the head server told his dream to Josheph, and said: "So, in my dream, and here is a grapevine in front of me. 10 And on the vine, are three branches; and one blooms and raises a pod, and upon its bunches the grapes turn ripe. 11 And Pharoh's cup is in my hands, and I take the grapes and drain them into the Pharoh's cup, and I give the cup into Pharoh's palm."

12 And Joseph said, "This is the interpretation: the three branches, they are three days, 13 in three days time, Pharoh will haul you off and put you at your seat, and give you Pharoh's cup in his hands, as you first were in his judgement, when you were his server. 14 But if you remember me, when you will be better off, please do me a kindness, and you mentioned me to Pharoh, and you got me out of this house. 15 Because I was kidnapped, stolen from the land of the Hebrews; and here too, I did nothing, for which they put me in this hole."

16 And the head baker saw that he interpreted dreams well, and said to Joseph: "Even as I am in my dream, and there are three baking baskets, 17 and in the top basket is every food that Pharoh eats, that is made by a baker. And the birds eat them from the the basket, above my head."

18 And Joseph answered, saying: "This is the interpretation: The three baskets are three days. 19 In three days, Pharoh will haul you off, and hang you on a tree, and the bird will eat your flesh off of you."

20 And it was on the third day, Pharoh's birthday, and he held a feast to all his servants, and he hauled the head server and the head baker amidst his servants. 21 And he put the head server to do his serving, and he put a cup to Pharoh's palm. 22 And the head baker, he let hang: as Joseph had interpreted for them. 23 And the head server did not remember Joseph. He forgot.

Chapter 41[edit]

1 And it was at the end of two years time, and Pharoh dreams, and he is standing by the river. 2 And here from the river, seven cows come up, beautiful to see, healthy with meat, and they grazed in the meadow. 3 And here are seven other cows coming up after them from the river, ugly, and scrawny, and they stood with the cows on the bank of the river.

4 And the ugly, scrawny cows ate the cows that were beautiful and healthy, and Pharoh awoke.

5 And he slept, and he dreamed again; and here are seven stalks of wheat, rising on one reed, healthy and good. 6 And here are seven stalks, thin and worn on the east, rising after them.

7 And the thin stalks swallowed the seven healthy, full stalks, and Pharoh awoke, and here is the dream.

8 And it was in the morning, and his spirit was anxious, and he sent out for all the scribes of Egypt, and all her wise-men; and Pharoh told them his dreams, and none could interpret them for Pharoh.

9 And the head server spoke to Pharoh, saying: "I bring up my transgressions today. 10 Pharoh fumed at his servants, and put me under guard, in the house of the head chef--- myself and the head baker. 11 And we dreamed a dream one night, myself and him: each as the interpretation of his dream, we dreamed. 12 And there with us was a Hebrew boy, servant to the head chef, and we told him, and he interpreted our dreams: each to his dream interpreted. 13 And as he interpreted for us, so it was: he placed me at my station, and him he had hang."

14 And Pharoh sent out and called for Joseph, and they rushed him out of the hole; and he, shaved and changed, came to Pharoh.

15 and Pharoh said to Joseph, "I dreamed a dream, and for it there is no interpretation; and I heard about you, that you hear a dream, and you interpret it.

16 And Joseph answered Pharoh, saying: "Without my doing. God will answer, and give Pharoh peace."

17 And Pharoh spoke to joseph: "In my dream, here I am standing on the bank of the river. 18 and here from the river, rise up seven cows, full of healthy meat, and beautiful to see, and grazed in the meadow. 19 And here are seven other cows rising up after them, scrawny and very ugly, and thin fleshed: as bad as I have not seen in all of Egypt. 20 And the thin bad cows consume the seven first cows, the healthy ones. 21 And they finish consuming, and you wouldn't know that they had consumed, their appearence is as bad as it was to begin with; and I awoke."

22 "And I saw, in my dream; and here seven stalks are rising on one reed--- full and good. 23 and here seven stalks, withered and east-side stripped--- rise up after. 24 And the thin stalks swallowed the seven good stalks; and I told the scribes, and none of them will tell me."

25 And Joseph said to Pharoh, "Pharoh's dream is one: God told Pharoh that which God is doing. 26 The seven good cows are seven years, and the seven good stalks are seven years: it is one dream. 27 And the seven bad, weak cows rising after them, are seven years, and the seven weak stalks, east-side stripped will be seven years of famine. 28 This is the thing which I have said to Pharoh: that which God does, he will show to Pharoh."

29 "And here seven years are coming--- a great plenty on all the land of Egypt. 30 And after them will arise a seven year famine, and all will forget all the plenty in Egypt, and the famine will decimate the land. 31 And plenty will not be known in the land, because that famine that follows, it will be very heavy."

32 "And as for the dream returning to Pharoh twice, it is because the thing is ready with God, and God is rushing to do it."

33 "And now if Pharoh sees, a good wise intelligent man, to lead over the land of Egypt. 34 Pharoh will do, to appoint officials on the land, and a five-fold divide the land of Egypt, in the seven years of plenty. 35 And gather all the food of these following good years; and amass it in a collection under Pharoh's control, food-wells, which he would guard. 36 And the food would be a supplement, for the land, for the seven years of famine which will be in the land of Egypt; and the land will not be decimated with hunger."

37 And what he said was good in the eyes of Pharoh, and in the eyes of all his servants. 38 And Pharoh said to his servants: "But will we find a man like this, the spirit of god with him?

39 And Pharoh said to Joseph, "After God informed you of all this, there is no one wise and intelligent as you. 40 You will be over my house, and all my people will deal according to your words, only the Throne shall be superior to you." [279]

41 And Pharoh told Joseph, "See I have given it to you to oversee all the land of Egypt."

42 And Pharoh removed his ring from his hand, and gave it to the hand of Joseph, and he dressed him in finery, and he put a gold chain on his neck. 43 And he carried him in his secondary carriage, and called upon him, "Abrech"(I bless you?); and put him over all the land of Egypt.

44 And Pharoh said to Joseph, "I am Pharoh, and no man will lift up his hand or his foot in all the land of Egypt, without you."

45 And Pharoh called Joseph by the name Tzaphenath Pa'anecha(Zephenath Paneha), and he gave him Asenath the daughter of Poti Phera'(Poti Pera) preist of On, for a wife. And Joseph went out, over the land of Egypt. 46 and Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharoh king of Egypt, and Joseph left Pharoh's presence, and travelled the whole of the land of Egypt.

47 And in the seven years of plenty, the land made heaps. 48 And seven years, he collected all the food which was in the land of Egypt, and he gave food in the cities: the food of the field of the city which surrounded it, he gave inside. 49 And Joseph gathered grain as the sand of the seas, so much, so much that he stopped counting, because it could not be counted.

50 And to Joseph were born two sons, before the year of the famine came, which Asenath, the daughter of Poti Phera, priest of On, bore him. 51 And Joseph named the eldest Menashe: because god bore for me(nashani) all my burdens, and those of all my father's house. 52 And he named the second Ephraim: because God has made me bear-fruit(hephrani) in the land of my torment.

53 And they ate during those seven years of plenty which were in the land of Egypt. 54 And the seven years of famine began to come, as Joseph had predicted; and there was a famine in all the lands, and in all the land of Egypt, there was bread. 55 And the land of Egypt hungered, and the people cried out to pharoh for bread; and Pharoh told all of Egypt, "Go to Joseph, and, what he tells you, do."

56 And the famine was over the whole Earth, and Joseph opened everything within them, and it stocked grain for the Egyptians, and the famine intensified over the land of egypt. 57 And all the Earth went to Egypt for grain, to Joseph: because the famine was strong over the whole Earth.

Chapter 42[edit]

1 And Jacob saw that there is grain in Egypt, and Jacob said to his sons, "Why would you get frightened?" 2 And he said, "Here I have head that there is grain in Egypt; go down and buy grain for us from there, and we'll live and not die."

3 And Joseph's brothers went down, eleven of them, to buy grain, from Egypt. 4 And Benjamin, Joseph's brother, Jacob didn't send with his brothers, because he said "Lest we have a disaster".

5 And the sons came to buy grain among all comers, because the famine was over the land of Canaan. 6 And Joseph is the overseer on the land, he supplies grain for all the people of the land; and Joseph's brothers came, and they bowed down prostrate, noses to the ground. 7 And Joseph saw his brothers, and recognized them, but he estranged himself from them, and talked harshly to them, and told them, "From where did you come?" and they said "From the land of Canaan, to stock up food".

8 And Joseph recognized his brothers, and they did not recognize him. 9 And Joseph remembered the dreams that he dreamed for them; and he told them "You are spies, you came to see the land's desolation."

10 And they told him: "No our lord; we came as your servants, to buy food. 11 We are, all of us, the sons of one man. We are honest. Your servants would not be spies."

12 And he told them "You have come for none other than to take in the desolation of the land."

13 And the said "we are twelve brothers, all your servants, sons of one man, in the land of Canaan, and the youngest is with our father today, and the one isn't here."

14 And Joseph told them: "That which I told you, saying, you are spies, 15 In this you will be tested: on the life of the Pharoh, you will get out of this, only if you bring your younger brother here. 16 Send out one from you, and he will take your brother, and you will be imprisoned, and your words will be tested, if you are telling the truth; and if not, then you are spies."

17 And he put them under guard three days. 18 And Joseph said to them on the third day, "Do this and live, I am God fearing. 19 If you are honest, I will let you all live, one of your brothers will be imprisoned in the house where you have been guarded, and you, go and bring the grain to your houses. 20 And bring your younger brother to me, and your words will be believed and you will not die;" and so they did.

21 And they said, one to another: "But we are guilty towards our brother, that we have seen his soul's distress in his pleas towards us, and we did not listen; for this reason this trouble has come to us."

22 And Reuben answered them, saying: "Why, I told you so, saying, don't sin against the boy, and you didn't listen, and it is his blood which is here demanded."

23 And they didn't know that Joseph heard, because the interpreter is between them. 24 And he turned away from them, and wept, and returned to them, and talked to them, and he took Simon from them, and imprisoned them away from their eyes.

25 And Joseph commanded, that they fill their containers with grain, and restore their money to each man's sack, and give them provisions for the journey, and so it was done. 26 And they carried their grain on their donkeys, and went away from there.

27 And one of them opened his sack to give feed to his donkey, in the lodge, and he saw his money, and here it was at the top of his satchel. 28 And he told his brothers: my money has been returned, and here it in my satchel; and their hearts leapt from their chest, and in terror they said to each other: "What is this that God has done to us?"

29 And they came to Jacob their father, to the land of Canaan, and they told him all that had happened to them, saying. 30 "The man, lord of the land, talked harshly to us, and he took us for spies in the land. 31 And we said to him, 'we are honest, we were not spies 32 we are twelve brothers, sons of our father, and one is not with us, and the youngest today is with our father in the land of Canaan.' 33 And the man, the lord of the land, said to us, 'with this I will know if you are honest, one brother leave with me, and toward the hunger of your house, take and leave. 34 And bring your youngest brother to me, and I will know that you are not spies, that you are honest. I will give your brother to you, and you can trade in the land.'"

35 And it was when they were emptying their sacks, and here each man, his roll of money is in his sack; and they will see the rolls of money, they and their father, and they frightened.

36 And Jacob their father told them, "I sent you, and Joseph is not with us, and Simon is not with us, and you will take Benjamin, destruction is upon me."

37 And Reuben spoke to his father, saying "Put to death my two sons if we will not return him to you; give him to my hand, and I will return him to you." 38 And he said, "My son will not go down with you: because his brother is dead and he alone is left, and if a disaster happened to him on the path you will be traveling, and you will bring down my gray hair, in sorrow, onto the underworld.

Chapter 43[edit]

1 And the famine was heavy on the land.

2 And it was when they had finished eating the grain which they brought from Egypt, and their father told them, "Go back and buy us a bit of food."

3 And Judah spoke to him, saying: "The man's promised to us his promise, he said, you will not see my face, without your brother with you. 4 If you will allow to send our brother with us, we will go down and buy you food. 5 and if you don't allow it, we will not go down, because the man told us, you will not see my face without your brother with you."

6 And Israel said, "Why did you do me this wrong? To say to the man that you have yet another brother?"

7 And Shaul said: "The man asked us about us and our birthplace, asking: 'Is your father still alive?' 'Do you have a brother?', and we told him, and on the basis of these things, could we have known that he would tell us to bring down our brother?"

8 And Judah said to Israel his father, "Send the boy with me--- and we will rise up and go; and we will live and not die; us, also you, and also our tots." 9 I will serve as his collateral, from my hand you shall require him: if I will not bring him to you, and put him in front of you, and I have sinned to you until the end of days. 10 Because if we had not procrastinated, we would have by now returned twice."

11 And Israel their father said to them: "If so then do this: take from the choice fruits of the land in your containers, and take an offering to the man; a bit of balm, a bit of honey, spices and myrrh, nuts and almonds. 12 and take double money in your hands, and the money that was returned in the mouth of your satchels, return with it in your hands, maybe it was a mistake. 13 and your brother, take him, arise, return to the man. 14 And El-Shaddai[136] give you mercy before the man, and release to you your other brother, and Benjamin, otherwise I will grieve to my grave."

15 And the men took this offering, and they took double money in their hands, and Benjamin, and they arose and went down to Egypt, and they stood before Joseph. 16 And Joseph saw them, saw Benjamin, and said to the steward of his house: "Bring the people to my house, and slaughter the meat, and prepare it, because these men will eat with me at noon."

17 And the man did as Joseph said, and the man brought the men to the house of Joseph. 18 And the men feared, because they were brought to Joseph's house, and they said, "Its on account of the money in our satchels the first time that we were brought here--- so as to look for an opportunity against us and attack us, and take as for slaves and take our donkeys."

19 and they approached the steward of Joseph's household, and they talked to him at the entrance of the house. 20 And the said, "In all honesty, my lord, the first time we came down, we came down to buy food. 21 And it was that we came to the lodge, and we opened our drawstrings, and here the money of each man is in the mouth of the satchel, the money in full weight; and we have brought it back in our hands. 22 And we brought other money down here in our hands, to buy food, because we didn't know who put our money in our satchels."

23 And he said, "Peace be with you, do not fear, your God and the God of your fathers has given you a treasure in your satchels--- your money, came from me"; and he brought Simon out to them. 24 And the man brought the men to Joseph house; and gave water and they washed their feet, and he gave feed to their donkeys.

25 And they prepared the offering until Joseph arrives at noon, because they heard, that they would break bread there. 26 And Joseph arrived home, and they brought him the offering which is in their hands in his house, and they bowed to him, down to the ground.

27 And he asked them, peace to you, and said: "Is your old father Ok? The one you talked about--- Is he still alive?"

28 And they said: "Your servant, our father, he is still alive and well." and they bowed their heads, then they prostrated themselves.

29 and he lifted his eyes and saw Benjamin his brother, his mother's son, and he said, "Is this your youngest brother, who you told me about?"; and he said, "God be merciful on you my son." 30 And Joseph hurried, because his emotions boiled up towards his brother, and he needed to weep; and he came to his room, and wept there.

31 And he washed his face, and came out, and restrained himself and said, "Serve bread". 32 and they place his by itself, and to them for themselves; and the Egyptians ate with him, to themselves--- because the Egyptians would not eat bread alongside the Hebrews, for it is an abomination upon Egypt. 33 And they sat in front of him, the firstborn according to his birthright, the younger according to his youth, and the men gawked one at the other. 34 And plates were brought from him, and Benjamin's portion was largest of all, as for five hands; and they drank and became drunk with him.

Chapter 44[edit]

1 And he commanded his steward, saying: Fill the satchels of the men food as they can carry; and put money of the man in the mouth of his satchel. 2 And my goblet, the goblet of silver, put in the mouth of the youngest's satchel. along with his grain-money. And he did as Joseph said to do.

3 The morning, light; and the men were sent off they and their donkeys. 4 They left the city, and didn't get far, and Joseph said to his steward, rise and chase after the men, and you caught up, and you told them, "Why did you repay bad deeds for good? 5 Because this is what my master drinks out of, and as he divined to guess; you wronged with what you have done."

6 And he caught up, and told them these things. 7 And they told him-- "Why would my lord speak these things, it is unthinkable for your servants to do such a thing. 8 This money, which we have found in the mouths of our satchels--- we returned it to you from the land of Canaan; so how would we steal from your master's house silver, or gold? 9 Whoever your servants shall find it with will be put to death, and we will become servants to you, lord."

10 And he said, "The time for your talking has also ended: whoever it shall be found with will become a servant to me, and you will be absolved."

11 And they hurried and each removed his satchel to the earth, and they opened each man's satchel. 12 And they were searched, beginning with the eldest, and ending with the youngest. And the goblet found in Benjamin's satchel.

13 And they tore their clothes, and each man loaded his donkey, and they returned to the city. 14 And Judah and his brothers came to Joseph's house, and he is still there, and they fell to their faces on the ground.

15 And Joseph told them, "What is this deed that you have done? Why you knew that I would divine to guess, a man such as me."

16 And Judah said, "What shall we say to our lord, what will we speak, what will we justify? God has found the wrongness of your servants, and we are here servants to you our master, us as well as the one in whose hand the goblet was found."

17 And he said, "It would be unthinkable for me to do this, the man in whose hand the goblet was found, he will be a servant to me, and you, go up in peace to your father."

18 And Judah approached him, and he said,

"For me sir, please, your servant will speak something to your ears, and don't snarl your lips[278] against your servant, because you are like the pharaoh himself.

19 My lord has asked his servants, saying: 'Do you have a father, or brother?'

20 And we will say to our lord, 'we have an old father, and a son of his old-age who is young, and his brother is dead, so he is the only one left from his mother, and his father loves him.'

21 and you said to your servants: 'Bring him down to me, and I will take a look at him'.

22 And we say to our lord, 'The boy could not leave his father, and he left his father, and he would die.' 23 And you said, to your servants, 'If you will not bring down your youngest brother, you will see my face no more.'

24 And this is why we came up, to your servant our father, and told him--- the things our lord has said, 25 And our father said, 'Return, buy us a bit of food.'

26 And we said, 'We couldn't go down unless our youngest brother is with us, and we go down, we would not be able to look on the face of the man, if our youngest brother is not with us.'

27 And our father, your servant, said to us: 'You know that my wife bore me two children. 28 And one is gone from me, surely preyed on as prey, and I did not see him up to this time. 29 And you took this one too from my presence, and a disaster struck-- and you brought out my grey hairs, and sent me badly to the underworld.'

30 And now, in coming to your servant, my father, and the boy is not with us, and his soul is tied to his soul. 31 And it will be, when he saw that the boy is not, he would die, and your servants would have brought his grey hair down on our father, in sorrow, to the underworld.

32 Because your servant is collateral for the boy, for my father, as I said: 'if I will not bring him to you, then I have sinned towards my father to all days.'

33 And now, I will sit as servant in place of the boy, a servant to my master, and the boy will go up with his brothers. 34 Because how can I go up to my father, and the boy is not with me? Lest I should see the evil which will come upon my father."

Chapter 45[edit]

1 And Joseph could not hold back from all those standing in front of him, and he called out "Take all the men away from me." And not a man was standing with him when Joseph confessed to his brothers. 2 And he his voice was filled with tears, which the Egyptians heard, the house of Pharaoh heard. 3 and Joseph said to his brothers: "I am joseph. Is my father still alive?" and his brothers could not answer him, because they startled from his face.

4 And Joseph said to his brothers, "Approach me please," and they approached. And he said:

I am Joseph, you brother, the one you sold toward Egypt.

5 And now, don't become sad, and don't let yourselves regret that you sold me here: because God sent me before you for sustaining life. 6 Because these past two years, the famine is in the viscinity of the land, and five more years without plowing and reaping. 7 And God has sent me before you, to put a remainder from the land away for you, and to preserve your life, in a great exodus. 8 And so, it was not you that sent me here, it was God. And he has placed me as a father to Pharaoh, and a lord over all his household, and a governor of all the land of Egypt.

9 Hurry, and go up to my father, and you tell him, 'Thus said Joseph, your son, God has placed me as the lord of all of Egypt, come down to me, don't wait. 10 And you will settle in the land of Goshen, and you will be close to me-- you and your sons and your sons' sons; and your sheep and your cows, and all that you own. 11 And I will provide for you there, because another five years it will be famine, lest you should be empoverished, you and your household, and all you have.'

12 And here your eyes can see, and the eyes of yout brother Benjamin, that you are hearing the words from my own mouth.

13 And you told me father about my honored position in Egypt, and everything you saw, and you hurry and you bring my father down to here."

14 And he fell on the neck of Benjamin his brother, and he wept; and Benajamin wept, upon his neck. 15 And he kissed all his brothers, and wept on them; and afterwards, his brothers spoke to him. 16 And the call was heard throughout Pharaoh's household, saying: "Joseph's brothers have come"; and it was good in Pharaoh's eyes, and in the eyes of his servants."

17 And Pharaoh said to Joseph: "Tell your brothers to do this: load up your beasts, and go, come to the land of Canaan. 18 And take your father and your housholds and come to me; and I will give you of the good of the land of Egypt, and you will eat the milk of the land. 19 And you are commanded to do this: take to you from the land of Egypt carts, for your wives and your tots, and carry your father, and come. 20 and you should not cast your eyes on your implements, because the best of all the land of Egypt is for you."

21 And the sons of Israel did so, and Joseph gave them carts as Pharaoh said, and gave them provisions for the journey. 22 and he gave to each man a change of clothes, and to Benjamin he gave three hundred shekels of silver, and five changes of clothes. 23 And to his father he sent this much: ten pack-asses, the best of Egypt, and ten mules carrying grain and bread and food, to his father, for the journey. 24 And he sent his brothers off, and they went; and he told them, don't lose your heads on the journey.

25 And they came up from Egypt; and they came to the land of Canaan, to Jacob, their father. 26 And they told him: "Joseph is still alive, and he is even governor of all the land of Egypt." and his heart stalled, because he did not believe them. 27 And they spoke to him, about all the things Joseph has spoken to them, and they showed the carts that Joseph had sent to carry him, and his father's spirit came alive.

28 And Israel said: "My son Joseph is still alive. I will go and I will see him, before I die."

Chapter 46[edit]

1 And Israel journeyed with all he had, and came to Beer Sheva'(Beersheba). And he offered sacrifices to the god of his father Isaac. 2 and God spoke to Israel in night visions, and said "Jacob, Jacob", and he said "Here I am". 3 And said: "I am the god who was your father's God. Don't be afraid of going down to Egypt, because I will turn you there into a big people. 4 I will go down to Egypt with you, and I will raise you up also; and Joseph will extend his hand to you.

5 and Jacob rose up from Beersheba; and the sons of Israel carried Jacob their father, and their tots and their wives, in cart which Pharaoh had sent to carry him. 6 And they took their cattle and their property, purchased in Canaan, and they brought it to Egypt: Jacob, and all his seed with him. 7

And these are the names of the sons of Israel who came to Egypt, Jacob and his sons: Jacob's eldest is Reuven(Reuben).

8 And the sons of Reuben: Chanoch(Hanoch) and Phalu(Pallu) and Chetzron(Hezron) nd Charmi(Carmi).

9 And the sons of Shim'on(Simon): Yemu-el(Jemuel) and Yamin(Jamin) and Ohad and Yachin(Jachin) and Tzochar(Zohar), and Sha-ul(Shaul) son of the Canaanite.

10 And the sons of Lewi(Levi): Gershon, Kehath(kohath), and Mrari(Merari)

11 And the sons of Yehudah(Judah): 'er(Er) and Onan and Shelah and Pheretz(Perez) and Zarach(Zerah). And Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan, and the sons of Perez where Chetzron(Hezron) and Chamul(Hamul).

12 And the sons of Yisaschar(Issachar): Tola'(Tola) and Puwah(Puvah) and Yov and Shimron.

13 And the sons of Zvulun(Zebulun): Sered and Elon and Yachlel(Jahleel).

14 And these are the sons of Leah, which she bore for Jacob in Paddan-Aram, and Dinah his daughter; all told, his sons and daughters were thirty three.

15 And the sons of Gad: Tzifyon(Ziphion) and Chagi(Hagi) Shuni and Etzbon(Ezebon) 'eri(Eri) and Arodi and Ar-eli(Areli).

16 And the sons of Asher: Yimnah(Imna) and Yishwah(Ishva) and Yishwi(Ishvi) and Vri'ah(Beriah)--- and Serach(Serah) their sister; and the sons of Beriah: Chever(Hever) and Malcki-el(Malchiel).

17 And these are the sons of Zilpa, which Lavan(Laban) gave to Leah his daughter. and she bore these for Jacob, sixteen souls.

18 The sons of Rachel, Jacob's wife, Yoseph(Joseph) and Binyamin(Benjamin).

19 And to Joseph were born in the land of Egypt, which were born him of Asenat, daughter of Poti-Phera', priest of On: Menasheh and Ephrayim(Ephraim).

20 And the sons of Benjamin, Bela' and Vecher(Becher) and Ashbel Gera and Na'aman(Naaman), Echi(Ehi) and Rosh; Muppim and Chuppim(Huppim) and Ard.

21 These are the sons of Rachel, which were born to Jacob--- all told, fourteen souls.

22 And the sons of Dan: Chushim(Hushim).

23 And the sons of Naphtali: Yachtzel(Jahzeel) and Guni and Yetzer(Jezer) and Shillem.

24 These are the sons of Bilhah, which Lavan gave to Rachel his daughter. And she bore these for Jacob, all told, seven souls.

25 All the souls that came with Jacob to Egypt, those that came from his loins only, excluding the wives of Jacob's sons, all told, sixty six souls. 26 And the sons of Joseph which were born to him in Egypt, two souls: all told, the souls of the house of Jacob which came down to Egypt are seventy.

27 And Judah he sent ahead of him to Joseph, to show the way to Goshen, and they came to the land of Goshen. 1 And joseph harnessed his carriage; and rose toward Israel his father, toward Goshen; and he saw him, and he fell on his neck, and wept on his neck, for some time. 1 And Israel said to Joseph, "I will die this time, after seeing your face, because you are still alive."

1 and Joseph said to his brothers and to his father's household:

I will go up and tell Pharaoh; and I will say to him: 'my brothers and my father's household from the land of Canaan came to me. 1 And the men are shepherds, they were cattlemen, and their sheep and cattle and all they own, they brought.'

1 And if Pharaoh called you, and asked 'What are your occupations?' 1 And you said, 'your servants have been herdsman from our youth untill now-- us and our fathers too' so that you will settle in the land of Goshen, because Egyptians detest all shepherds.

Chapter 47[edit]

1 And Joseph came and told Pharaoh: "My father and my brothers and their sheep and their cattle and everything that they have, came from the land of Canaan and they now in the land of Goshen."

2 And from among his brothers he took five, and he presented them before Pharaoh. 3 And Pharaoh said to his brothers: "What do you do?" and they said to Pharaoh, shepherds are your servants--- ourselves and our fathers also."

4 And they said to pharaoh "We came to inhabit the land, because there are no pastures for your servants' sheep, because the hunger is heavy in the land of Canaan; and now your servants will please settle in the land of Goshen."

5 And Pharaoh said to Joseph: "Your father and your brother came to you. 6 The land of Egypt is before you--- settle your father and your brothers in the best of the land: they will be settled in the land of Goshen--- and if you know that they have soldiers, I will put them them as managers of the herds that I have. 7

And Joseph came to Jacob his father, and he stood him in front of Pharaoh, and Jacob blessed Pharaoh. 8 And Pharaoh said to Jacob: "How many years have you lived?"

9 And Jacob said to Pharaoh, "The days of my wandering amount to one-hundred and thirty years: meager and bad have been the days of my life. They did not approach the days of my fathers, in the days of their wandering."

10 And Jacob blessed Pharaoh; and left Pharaoh's presence.

11 And Joseph settled his father and his brother, and gave them a holding in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, the land of Ra'amses-- as pharaoh commanded. 12 And Joseph supported his father and his brothers, and his father's whole household--- bread in proportion to their tots.

13 And there is no bread over the whole Earth, because the famine is very heavy; and the Land of Egypt and the land of Canaan shrank from the face of the hunger. 14 And Joseph accumulated all the money which is found in the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan, selling grain that they are purchasing, and Joseph brought the money to the house of Pharaoh.

15 And when the money from the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan was gone, all Egypt came to Joseph to say: "Give us bread, and why should we die facing you: because we ran out of money." 16 And Joseph said: "Bring your herds, and I will give to you for your herds-- if your money is gone."

17 And they brought their herds to Joseph, and Joseph gave them bread on their horses and the herds of sheep and the herds of cattle, and the donkeys; and dealt them bread for all their cattle, in that year.

18 And that year ended, and they came to him the second year and they said to him: "We will not keep from our lord that the money is finished, and the herds of beasts all to our lord, nothing is left before our lord, other than our expiring bodies and our lands. 19 Why shall we die in your presence, us and our lands buy, buy us and our lands, for bread; and we and our lands will be servants for Pharaoh and give seed and we will live and not die, the land will not be emptied."

20 And Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh, because the Egyptians sold each man his field, because the hunger is clenched upon them tight, and the land became Pharaoh's. 21 And the people, he moved to cities, from one end of Egypt until the other.

22 Only the land of the priests did he not buy. Because the priests had a share besides Pharaoh's. And they at the share which Pharaoh had given them, and for this reason they did not sell their lands.

23 And Joseph said to the people, "Since I have bought you and your lands today for Pharaoh, here is seed for you, and seed the land. 24 And it will be reaping season, and you will give a fifth to Pharaoh; and four hand-measures will you get for seeding the land and for eating, and to give to your households and your tots."

25 and they said, "You have saved our lives: we will be good in the eyes of your lord, and we will be servants to Pharaoh. 26 And Joseph made it a law until this very day, the land of Egypt belongs to Pharaoh, to remove the fifth part--- only the land of the priests does not belong to Pharaoh."

27 And Israel settled in the land of Egypt, in the land of Goshen and posessed it, and they bore fruit and became very many. 28 And Jacob live in the land of Egypt seventeen years, and they days of Jacob, the years of his life, amounted to one-hundred and forty-seven years.

29 And as the day of Israel's death came close, he called his son Joseph, and said to him: "If I have found grace in your eyes, please put your hand under my thigh; and do me a kindness in truth, do not bury me in Egypt. 30 And I will lay to rest with my fathers, and take me from Egypt, and bury me in their grave." And he said "I will do this as you say."

31 And he said "Swear to me-- and he swore to him; and Israel bowed on the head of the bed.

Chapter 48[edit]

1 And it was after these events, and it was said to Joseph "Here your father is sick." and he took his two sons with him, Menashe and Ephraim. 2 And he said to Jacob: "Here you son Joseph has come to you." and he embraced Joseph, and sat on the bed.

3 And Jacob said to Joseph:

El Shaddai[136] has appeard to me in Luz, in the land of Canaan, and he has blessed me. 4 And he said to me, here I will bear you fruit and I will multiply you and I will give to you a crowd of peoples. And I gave this land here to your seed after you, a permanent landholding.

5 And now, your two sons who were born to you in the land of Egypt, before I came to you, to Egypt, they are of mine: Ephraim and Menashe-- like Reuben and Simon will they be to me. 6 And those born to you, after them, they will be yours: they will be named after their brothers in their inheritance.

7And as I was coming from Paddan, Rachel died on me in the land of Canaan, on the way, with still a way to cover, as I was coming on Ephrat; and I buried her there on the path to Ephrat, in Beth-Lachem(Bethlehem)

8 And Israel feared the sons of Joseph, and said "Who are they?"

9 And Joseph said to his father, "These are my sons, which God has given me." And he said "Take them to me, please, and I will bless them."

10 And The eyes of Israel were heavy with age, he could not see, and he brought them close to him, and kissed them, and hugged them. 11 And Israel said to Joseph: "To see your face, I did not imagine; and here God has shown me your seed also."

12 And Joseph took them out, from between his knees, and he bowed with his nose on the ground. 13 And Joseph took the two of them, Ephraim in his right hand, to the left of Israel, and Menashe in his left hand, to the right of Israel, and he approached him. 14 And Israel sent his right hand and placed it on Ephraim's head, and he is the younger, And his left hand on Menashe's hand: with consideration upon his hands, because Menashe is firstborn.

15 And he blessed Joseph, and said: "The God in whose presence my fathers came before, Abraham and Isaac, the God who has shepharded me from before until this day, 16 The angel who spares me from all harm, will bless these youths, and will call into them my name, and the name of my forefathers Abraham and Isaac, and they will multiply in the face of the land."

17 And Joseph saw that his father had sent his right hand on the head of Ephraim--- and this was wrong in his eyes. And he supported his father's hand to take it off the head of Ephraim, to Menashe's head. 18 And Joseph said to his father, "Not so, father, because this is the firstborn, put your hand on his head."

19 And his father declined, and he said: "I knew, my son, I knew. He also will be a great nation, and he also will grow in number; but his younger brother will grow more than him, and his seed will fill the nations."

20 And he blessed them that day, to say "Israel's blessing upon you-- God will keep you Ephraim and Menashe, and will put Ephraim before Menashe."

21 And Israel said to Joseph, "Here I am dying; and God will be with you, and will return you to the land of your forefathers. 22 And I gave to you, one part more than your brothers, of what I have taken from Amorite hands with my sword and with my bow."

Chapter 49[edit]

1 And Jacob called his sons, and said:

Gather, and I will tell you what will happen to you in the latter days.[280] 2 Gather you and hear you sons of Jacob, and listen to Israel your father.

3 Reuben, you are my firstborn, my strength and my first ability, abundant in dignity and abundant in courage. 4 Restless as water, without power, because you went atop your father's lay; you did defile yourself, gone on my issuer.[281]

5 Brothers Simon and Levi, weapons of hatred are their familiars. 6 Let my soul not come into their confidence, and let my honor dwell not within their crowd: because they purposely killed men, and with their will, they castrated an ox. 7 Cursed are their spirits because of this, their transgressions were hard. I will divide them among the sons of Jacob, and spread them throughout Israel.

8 Judah, you are well known to your brothers, because your hand holds the nape of the neck of all your enemies. Your brothers will bow to you. 9 You are a lion's cub, Judah, from the preying of my son you rose, you kneel and crouch as the lion and her cubs, who shall found us? 10 The sceptre will not leave Judah, nor a lawmaker's staff from between his legs, so long as they come to Shiloh, to him the people will sway. 11 I will attach his foal to the vine, and the choice vine his donkey's foal, his sheep dressed in wine, his vest in the blood of grapes. 12 His eyes will be filled with wine; and his teeth will with milk be white.

13 Zebulun, in the coast of the sea will dwell, his will be the boats of the coast, and his thigh upon Tzidon(Zidon).

14 Yisaschar is a built-up donkey-- squatting between the sheepfolds 15 And will see that an offering thats good, and that the land is pleasant; and will give his shoulder for hauling, and he will be a servant porter.

16 Dan will judge his people, as one of the tribes of Israel. 17 And Dan will be a snake on the road, a horned-snake on the way which bites the heels of horses, and his carriage will fall backward. 18 I have hoped for your salvation, to Yahweh.

19 Gad, a troop will gather, and he shall march on his heel. 20 Since his bread will be fattened, and he will give, kingly delicacies.

21 Naphthali, sent of a doe, he gives good words.

22 Son Joseph is a fruitful vine, a fruitful fountain vine, its tendrils wind upon the wall. 23 And the arrow men will embitter him and shoot at him and hate him. 24 And will settle in the bend of his bow, and his hand are limber, from the hands of the grandest of Jacob, from him will be the shephard, the rock of Israel.

25 From the god of your fathers, and he will help you, and the Shaddai, and He will bless you, blessing on the breasts, blessings of the skies above, blessings of the abyss squatting below, blessings of breasts and womb.

26 your father's blessings surpass my ancestors' blessings, to the envy of the highest peaks of the world; they will make a head of Joseph, for a tiptop of his brothers' princes.

27 Benjamin, is a preying wolf, in the morning he will eat sated, and in the evening will divide the spoils.

28 These are all the tribes of Israel, twelve; And this is what their father told them, and he blessed them, each to their own blessing, blessed them. 29 And he commanded them, and said to them:

I am gathering upon my people-- bury me with my fathers: in the cave that is in Ephron the Hittite's field 30 In the cave which is in the field of Machpelah, on the face of Mamre--- in the land of Canaan, for which Abraham bought the field from Ephron the Hittite, to use as a catacomb.

31 There they buried Abraham, and Sarah his wife, there they buried Isaac, and Rebecca his wife, and there I buried Leah. 32 In the field and the cave which is in it, which were bought from the sons of Het.

33 And Jacob stopped commanding his sons, and picked up his legs onto the bed, and died, and gathered onto his peoples.

Chapter 50[edit]

1 And Joseph fell on the his father's face, and wept upon him, and kissed him.

2 And Joseph commanded his servants, the doctors, to embalm his father, and his doctors embalmed Israel. 3 And forty days elapsed for him, as such is the wait for the embalmed ones; and the egyptians cried for him seventy days.

4 And the days of his mourning passed, and Joseph spoke to the Pharaoh's household, saying:

Please, if I have found grace in your eyes, speak please to the ears of Pharaoh, and say:

5 "My father has sworn me to say: 'Here I am dying--- in my grave which I have lain for myself in the land of Canaan, there you will bury me, please go up there and bury your father, and return'"

6 And Pharaoh said: "Go up there and bury your father, as he has sworn you to do."

7 And Joseph went up to bury his father. And all the Pharaoh's servants went up with him, the elders of the household, and all the elders of the land of Egypt. 8 And all of Joseph's household, and his brothers and his father's household. Only their tots and sheep and cattle, did they leave in the land of Goshen. 9 And up with him went chariots and horsemen, and the camp was very full.

10 And they came to the threshing floor of Atad, which is in trans-Jordan. And they wailed there a great very loud wailing. and He performed a mourning for his father, seven days.

11 And the Canaanites settled on the land saw the grieving in Atad, and said: "This is a heavy mourning for the Egyptians;" For this reason, it was named Evel Mitzrayim(Abel Mizraim/Mourning-of-Egypt), which is trans-Jordan.

12 And his sons did so to him as he had commanded. 13 And they carried him to the land of Canaan, and they buried him in the cave of the field of Machpelah, which Abraham bought for a catacomb from Ephron the Hittite, there at Mamre.

14 And Joseph returned to Egypt, him and his brothers, and all those who came up with him to bury his father, after they had buried his father.

15 And Joseph's brothers saw their father's death, and they said to him: "Joseph will hate us. He will repay all the evil we have dealt him."

16 And they commanded Joseph, saying:

Your father commanded, before his death, saying: 17 "This you shall say to Joseph. 'Please don't carry the crime of your borthers and their sin, because they dealt you a wrong, and now please come to forgive the crime of the servants of the God of your fathers;'"

And Joseph wept as they told this to him.

18 And they came, also his brothers, and they fell before hem, and they said, "Here, we would be servants to you".

19 And Joseph said to them "Don't be afraid: have I replaced God? 20 And now, as you thought to do evil upon me, God has thought it good, for allowing this day, so as to let a numerous nation live. 21 And now, don't fear--- I will finance you and your tots." And he comforted them, and spoke to their hearts.

22 And Joseph returned to Egypt, him and his father's household, and Joseph's brothers, one-hundred and ten years. 23 And Joseph saw Ephraim's great grandchildren, also the sons of Machir son of Menashe-- were born on Joseph's knees.

24 And Joseph said to his brothers: "I am dying. And God has commanded a command to you: that you will go up from this land to the land which was promised to Abraham and to Isaac and to Jacob."

25 And Joseph had the Children of Israel swear an oath, saying: "God has commanded this command upon you: that you will take my bones up from here."

26 And Joseph died, one-hundred and ten years old, and they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. "In the beginning" is in Hebrew ברשית b'reshit. The grammar of 1:1-3 is disputed, and depends on whether one takes b'reshit as being in the construct state or absolute. At least three major options have been proposed. If one takes b'reshit as in the absolute state, the translation reads as it does in this translation. If one takes b'reshit as in the construct state, then there are at least two options. One option reads Genesis 1:1-2 as a single sentence: "When God began to create the sky and the earth, the earth was helter-skelter, and darkness was upon the abyss." Another option is to read a single large sentence extending from verse 1 to verse 3: "When God began to create the sky and the earth, the earth was helter-skelter, with darkness upon the abyss, and God's spirit drifting upon the surface of the water, then God said, 'Let there be light.' And there was light." Modern scholars are divided as to the construct vs. absolute question.
  2. The Hebrew word שמים shamayim, here "sky," also means "heaven" or "heavens", but in the context of this chapter seems to refer to where birds fly, not to where angels dwell.
  3. (1:2) unformed and empty. The Hebrew phrase תהו ובהו tohu wabohu expression a sense of primordial chaos, emptiness, or incompleteness. Various translations have been proposed.
  4. (1:2) abyss. The Hebrew term is tehom, which refers to the primeval waters at the time of creation, and in later passages to a tremendous ocean and/or water beneath the earth.
  5. (1:2) drifting. The Hebrew verb merahefet has been translated several ways. Proposals include "brooding," "moving," "fluttering," and "sweeping across" (replacing "upon" with "across" for this last option).
  6. (1:6) dome. The word רקיע raqia, here "dome", is given a vaguer translation by other scholars. Robert Young of Young's Literal Translation gives "expanse", while the King James Version gives "firmament". This verse is an object of religious controversy. Secular scholars read Genesis 1 as expressing the flat-earth cosmology typical of Ancient Near Eastern literature. The world is a flat disk, floating an deep sea called the tehom (here translated "abyss"), covered by a water-bearing solid dome called the sky, and the רקיע is the sky-dome. Some religious readers interpret Genesis 1 as a literal day-by-day description of the creation of the earth as we understand it today, and they give a more vague term which can be used to describe either the atmosphere between the sea and clouds, or a spiritual realm separate from the physical world.
  7. (1:21) great sea creatures. The Hebrew term is tanninim.
  8. (1:26) all the earth. In the Masoretic Text, which this translation follows, the list of things that the human beings are to oversee is entirely composed of animals, except for the phrase "all the earth" (kol haarets), awkwardly placed between two categories of animals, the domestic animals and the small crawling animals. At the same time, noticeably missing from this list is "all the wild animals" (kol hayat haarets) which we might expect to find here. The Genesis account has three categories of animals: domestic animals, (larger) wild animals, and crawling animals. If the word hayat has been dropped by a copying error, the list would originally have contained all three categories of land creatures. The Syriac Old Testament includes "all the wild animals," where the Hebrew has "all the earth," supporting the idea that a copying error has occurred. See Kittel's Biblia Hebraica, which recommends reading kol hayat haarets here.
  9. Heb:אֲשֶׁר-בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים לַעֲשׂוֹת which is grammatical if it means "which he created gods to make", but since this interpretation is difficult and unnatural, I left it tortured in the English.
  10. The name Yahweh, while appearing in the Hebrew text as the four consonantal letters יהוה‎ (Yhwh), is traditionally not pronounced by Orthodox Jews, who verbalize it as "Adonai"(Lord) or "HaShem"(the Name). Translations vary: some write the name out as "Yahweh," while others use "YHWH," "Lord," "Jehovah," or even leave in the Hebrew letters as יהוה‎. This text uses Yahweh, the best scholarly reconstruction of how the name was originally pronounced, in order to translate the text as closely as possible to its original intent.
  11. (2:6) The Hebrew word ed, here translated as "mist" is of uncertain meaning. It is unclear whether it refers to a mist, or to streams, or springs, or even flooding.
  12. (2:7) The Hebrew word for human is adam, similar in sound to the word "ground" (adamah).
  13. The Hebrew טוֹב וָרָע could also be translated good and bad, right and wrong, good and evil.
  14. (2:10) sources: literally, "heads."
  15. (2:11)Pishon. The identity of this river is unknown.
  16. (2:11) surrounded. Or, meandered through. The same is alternative translation is possible for the other rivers in this chapter.
  17. (2:11) Havilah. A land in South Arabia.
  18. (2:12) bdellium. The Hebrew word bedolah, translated here as "bdellium" is of uncertain meaning. If "bdellium" is the correct interpretation, it refers to a type of resin.
  19. (2:12) onyx. The Hebrew term shoham, translated here as "onyx," is of uncertain meaning. "Onyx" is a guess.
  20. (2:13) Gihon. The identity of this river is unknown.
  21. (2:13) Kush was a kingdom to the south of Egypt. See the Wikipedia article, Kingdom of Kush.
  22. (2:14) Hiddekel is better known as the Tigris.
  23. (2:14) Assyria. In Hebrew, Ashshur.
  24. (2:14) Euphrates. In Hebrew, Prath.
  25. (2:20) In this verse, the Masoretic Text has le-adam ("to Adam") but this translation assumes that the correct reading is la-adam ("to the human").
  26. The Hebrew word "woman" is isha, while the Hebrew word "man" used here is ish.
  27. (3:5) like gods. The Hebrew phrase kelohim may be translated either "like God" or "like gods."
  28. (3:15) crush . . . bite. In both cases the Hebrew word means injure. For the sake of smoother reading, and because the ways humans and snakes "injure" each other are pretty clear, this translation uses "crush" and "bite."
  29. Eve in Hebrew is Hawwa, and living is hay.
  30. (3:24) the Cherubim. Powerful and intimidating otherworldly beings. For biblical descriptions of the Cherubim and their role in the Bible, see Exodus 25:18-22, 37:7-9; Numbers 7:89; 1 Samuel 4:4; 2 Samuel 22:11; 1 Kings 6:23-29, 7:29; Psalm 18:10; Ezekiel 9:3, 10:1-22, 28:16.
  31. (3:24) the flame of the whirling sword. Some interpret this as a lightning bold, as Yahweh's own personal sword, as a magical self-moving weapon, or even as a messenger of Yahweh named Flame of the Whirling Sword. See Hendel, Ronald S. “‘The Flame of the Whirling Sword’: A Note on Genesis 3:24.” Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 104, no. 4, 1985, pp. 671–674. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3260679. And see also the Wikipedia article Cherub.
  32. This sentence is claiming that Eve named the boy "Cain" (Hebrew, qayin) because it sounded like the Hebrew word qaniti (here "gotten").
  33. (4:1) I have gotten a man from Yahweh. The grammar here is very unusual, and the verb translated as "gotten" is capable of multiple meanings. As a result, alternate interpretations of this sentence include, roughly, "I have created a man like Yahweh did," "With Yahweh's help I have procreated/produced a son," and "With Yahweh's help I have gotten a man."
  34. 4:2 Abel. In Hebrew, the name is Hebel, spelled and pronounced identically to the word hebel which is a major theme of Ecclesiastes. Hebel means vapor, nothingness, vanity, or transitory.
  35. (4:7) sin. Or perhaps, a sin offering.
  36. (4:7) crouches. Or, lies.
  37. (4:7) will. Or perhaps should, or can.
  38. This verse is unintelligible, and there have likely been one or more copying errors to bring it to its present state. G. R. Castellino writes, "In general commentators agree in considering [Genesis 4] v. 7 as corrupt." (From his article "Genesis IV 7", published in Vetus Testamentum, Vol. 10, Fasc. 4 (Oct., 1960), p. 442.) This translation has not attempted to make sense of the verse, but simply translates it literally, leaving it almost as confusing in English as it is in Hebrew
  39. The Masoretic text deletes what Cain said to Abel leaving an awkward sentence which is marginally grammatical. That the original included the text is attested not only by the Septuagint, but by every parallel extant independent bible tradition. This translation follows the Septuagint here.
  40. (4:17) Enoch: Hebrew, Hanok.
  41. (4:18) Mehuyael . . . Mehiyael. This translation reproduces the spellings found in the Masoretic Text. Apparently there has been an error.
  42. (4:25) "Seth," in Hebrew shet, sounds like "appointed" (shat).
  43. (5:2) Adam is Hebrew for human.
  44. Noah. The verse is claiming that Lamech named his son Noah from the verb "comfort", naham.
  45. sons of the gods. Or, sons of God, or, divine beings. So also in verse 4.
  46. (6:3) dwell in. The verb translated here as dwell in has an uncertain meaning. Other suggestions include "My spirit will not protect," or "My spirit will not put up with," or "My spirit will not quarrel with."
  47. (6:3) in that. The word beshagam, here translated as "in that" has an uncertain meaning. Another possible suggestion is "in their erring."
  48. A Hebrew term which refers, depending on the passage, to either giants or to the spirits of fallen warriors in the netherworld. See Numbers 13:33.
  49. The Septuagint has "Lord God" here. In the Septuagint "Lord" is what the translators wrote for Yahweh, so the Septuagint reads as if the Hebrew documents they used once read "Yahweh God" instead of merely "Yahweh" as in the Masoretic Text.
  50. (6:8) But Yahweh looked with favor at Noah. Literally, And Noah found favor in the eyes of Yahweh.
  51. This is the family history. Hebrew, "These are the toldot, a phrase which occurs repeatedly to introduce new material in Genesis, usually information that is at least in part genealogical.
  52. (6:11) violence. In Hebrew, hamas, rendered here as "violence," is a somewhat broader word, including not only violence but also oppression, abuse, and wrongful treatment of others more generally. So also in verse 13.
  53. (6:14) Gopher is the Hebrew word. The identity of the tree is unknown.
  54. The Hebrew word translated here as compartments is qinnim, which in every other biblical passage means "nest." It is unclear what it means in this context. One theory is that this is a misprounced hold-over from an earlier version of the story, in which the word was qanim, "reeds." Compare Moses' ark, the only other ark (Hebrew, teba) in the Bible, which was made of reeds and caulked with slime in a manner similar to Noah's ark (Exodus 2:3). Compare also the ark of Atra-Hasis, which was made of reeds. See Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis, Chapters 1-17, page 281.
  55. (6:15) A cubit is a measure of about 18 inches or perhaps a few inches longer (at least different cubits are attested in the Bible). If it is 18 inches, the ark is to be 450 feet long, 75 feet wide, and 45 feet tall.
  56. (6:16) window. Hebrew צֹהַר‎, tsohar, a word of uncertain meaning. Whether it is supposed to be some sort of window to let light in, or some sort of feature of the back or roof of the ark, or something else entirely, is uncertain.
  57. (6:17) the deluge, water on the earth. Dillmann's commentary on Genesis 1-11 suggests that perhaps the term mabbul (deluge) was unfamiliar to Hebrew readers, and so the author added the phrase water on the earth to explain what the term meant. Alternately, according to a possibility raised by Kittel's Biblia Hebraica, perhaps instead of reading mayim ("water") we should read miyyam (from the sea), thus, "I will bring the deluge from the sea on the earth."
  58. (7:2) clean. This means clean not in a physical sense, as a hygienic animal. This means clean in a ritual sense -- the animals which under biblical law were permitted food. For the biblical regulations governing clean and unclean animals, see Leviticus 11.
  59. (7:2) seven pairs. Literally, seven seven. Most interpreters taken seven seven as meaning that Noah is to take on seven pairs, fourteen animals, seven male and seven female, of each clean type of animal. On the other hand, there is a minority of translators who take this to mean that there are only seven animals of each clean kind going on the boat, presumably divided into three pairs and a "spare," perhaps for Noah to sacrifice later. The same issue appears in verse 3.
  60. (7:6) the deluge was water on the earth. This is what the Masoretic Text reads. It would be unsurprising if the verse read, the waters of the flood were on the earth. But why would someone write, the deluge was water? Ronald Hendel's Critical Edition (1998) of Genesis 1-11 sees the word water as a later addition to this verse by an editor trying to make the wording of this verse more closely match the wording in Genesis 6:17. See the note on 6:17.
  61. (7:11) abyss. Hebrew, tehom, the term that refers both to the primeval ocean present before the six days of creation (see Genesis 1:2), and to the water held deep beneath the ground)
  62. (7:14) flier . . bird . . . wing. What does this mean? August Dillmann, in his commentary on Genesis 1-11, raises two possibilities. First, that the text originally read every kind of flier. The Hebrew oph, here translated as flier, is the most common word for "bird" in the Bible, although it technically can include flying insects as well. Therefore, one possibility is that an editor added the words every bird, every wing, meaning every winged bird to clarify that in this case, Noah was only taking in birds, and not insects. On the other hand, perhaps the word wing means winged insect in this context. In that case every flier: every bird, every winged insect is a way to explicitly make it clear that both birds and insects were included on the ark. The wording is to obscure to be certain.
  63. abyss. Hebrew tehom, as in 1:2 and 7:11.
  64. (8:4) seventeenth: following the Masoretic Text. The Septuagint reads "twenty-seventh."
  65. (8:4) Ararat. The biblical Ararat is the same region as the historical Urartu.
  66. (8:5) until in the tenth month, on the tenth [day] of the month. This follows the Masoretic Text. The Septuagint reads, until the tenth month; then in the eleventh month, on the first [day] of the month, the peaks . . .
  67. (10:1) This is the genealogy. Literally, These are the toldot. Genesis has eleven toldot statements: at 2:4, 5:1, 6:9, 10:1, 11:10, 11:27, 25:12, 25:19, 36:1, 36:9, 37:2. Outside of Genesis, toldot statements appear in Numbers 3:1, Ruth 4:18, and 1 Chronicles 1:29. The term introduces information about a person (or in one case, "the heavens and the earth.") The information is generally genealogical, with two exceptions.
  68. (10:2)Javan (Hebrew Yawan) is the Ionians, and by extension, the Greeks.
  69. (10:4) Dodanim is following the Masoretic Text; the Septuagint reads Rodioi.
  70. (10:5) maritime nations. Robert Alter reads this Hebrew phrase as Sea Peoples, referring to the Sea Peoples associated with the Late Bronze Age Collapse.
  71. (10:6) Kush. That is, the Kushites, associated with the Kushite Kingdom to the south of Egypt.
  72. (10:6) Mizraim is simply the Hebrew name for Egypt.
  73. (10:6) Put. Also known as Phut
  74. (10:6) Canaan. The Canaanites.
  75. (10:7) Havilah. See Havilah.
  76. (10:7) Sheba. An ancient Yemenite people: the Sabaeans
  77. Nimrod. See Nimrod.
  78. (10:10) Babel is the Hebrew name for Babylon.
  79. (10:10) Erech is Uruk.
  80. From that land Asshur came. Or, From that land he came to Asshur. Asshur is Assyria.
  81. Sidon is a city.
  82. (10:15) Heth is the Hittites (Biblical Hittites),
  83. (10:16) The Jebusites were the Canaanites who lived in Jerusalem.
  84. (10:16) See Amorites.
  85. (10:22) Elam is the ancient civilization of Elam.
  86. (10:22) Arpachshad is sometimes (badly) spelled Arphaxad.
  87. (10:22) Aram is the Aramaeans.
  88. The location of Uz is not precisely known.
  89. Presumably, the descendants of Eber would be the Hebrews (Ibrim), although the Bible never explicitly equates this Eber with them.
  90. (10:25) The text is relating the name Peleg to the word "divided" (niphlegah).
  91. (11:2) eastward. Hebrew miqqedem. The word might mean traveling in an easterly direction, or it might simply that that during their journey they were in the east, without any specific information given as to which way they were moving.
  92. 11:2 Shinar. How large Shinar was, who can say?, but {Translation:Genesis#10:10|Genesis 10:10] locates it in Mesopotamia, where it includes Babylon, Uruk, and Akkad. See also Shinar (Wikipedia).
  93. (11:9) (He) confused is balal.
  94. (11:10) This is the genealogy. Hebrew, "These are the toldot." This is one of the eleven toldot statements of Genesis: 2;4, 5:1, 6:9, 10:1, 11:10, 11:27, 25:12, 25:19, 36:1, 36:9, 37:2.
  95. (11:10) Arpachshad. Spelled Arphaxad in some sources.
  96. This is a toldot statement. See note on 11:10.
  97. (11:28) Ur Kasdim is how it reads in Hebrew. It is sometimes translated "Ur of the Chaldeans." See Chaldea.
  98. (12:1) relatives. Hebrew bet ab (the plural would be bet abot). A literal translation of the phrase would be "father's house." However, in English "father's house" refers to the physical building one's father lives in or owns, while a bet ab in Hebrew is a collection of people. "Father's household" would be closer, except that a bet ab describes more than just the collection of relatives immediately living with one's father. For example, Number's 17:2 divides about two million Israelites into only twelve bet abot which shows that the phrase has a much broader reference than the English "household" grasps.
  99. will be blessed through you is in Hebrew nibreku beka. This translation takes the option of translated it as passive in meaning. Another option is to read it as reflexive: all the families of the earth will bless themselves through you, or worded differently will bless one another using your name. On the reflexive interpretation, which Rashi supports, the meaning is that Abraham will be such a paradigm of a blessed person that his name is used in blessing formulae, such as, "May you be as blessed as Abraham," and so on. For more detail, see the note in the NET translation on this point.
  100. (12:5) nephew. Literally, his brother's son.
  101. (12:6)Elon Moreh. Or, the Oak of Moreh or the Terebinth of Moreh.
  102. (12:8) Beth-el is Hebrew for house of El. The term El is both the title of the head Canaanite deity as a name applied to Yahweh in the Bible. Writing the name as Beth-el follows the Hebrew convention of treating this name as two words, but in English the location is more commonly known as Bethel.
  103. The Negev is an arid area toward the south part of the land of Canaan.
  104. (12:10) famine. While crops in the land of Canaan would be sensitive to lack of rainfall, as much of the land is on the very edge of what can be cultivated successfully using rain, the farming in the land of Egypt depended on irrigation, making Egypt's ability to produce food more secure.
  105. (12:16) sheep: Hebrew tson, a word which can include both sheep and goats.
  106. (12:17) calamities. Or, plagues. The Hebrew word can refer either to bad events caused by God or to diseases
  107. (13:1) Negev. An arid region to the south of Canaan.
  108. Heb: בַּמִּקְנֶה this word usually translated "cattle", but in chapter 40 is used to include sheep, with a more specific word for beef cattle.
  109. (13:8) relatives. Literally, brother-men.
  110. (13:14) south. Literally, toward the Negev.
  111. (13:14) west. Literally, toward the sea, referring to the Meditarranean.
  112. Oaks of Mamre. Hebrew Elonei Mamre. Another possible translation would be Terebinths of Mamre.
  113. (14:1) Amraphel, Arioch, Kedorlaomer, and Tidal are unknown to history. Shinar is a region in Babylonia, or a synonym for Babylonia. Elam is the ancient Elamite civilization. Ellasar is uncertain, but may refer to Larsa. Goiim might also be translated nations. Goiim might refer to Gutium, but this is uncertain.
  114. (14:2) The individual names of these kings are not recorded outside the Bible. The locations are in or around the Dead Sea, depending on how one interprets the story. The exact locations of Sodom and Gomorrah are unknown.
  115. (14:3) Salt Sea is another term for what is now called the Dead Sea.
  116. (14:5) Rephaites. Hebrew, Rephaim, identified elsewhere in the Bible as giants.
  117. (14:14) Dan was a city on the northern edge of the land of Canaan.
  118. (14:18) Shalem is traditionally identified with Jerusalem.
  119. (14:22) Literally, lifted up my hand.
  120. (15:1) "I myself shield you, your wages are very great." Others understand this to mean, "I am your shield, your exceedingly great reward." That is, Yahweh himself is understood to be Abraham's reward. This opinion is held by the translators of the KJV, ASV, Douay-Rheims Bible, and the Darby translation. Among versions that translate the reward as not being Yahweh himself, this version is joined by Young's Literal Translation and Bible in Basic English.
  121. (15:2) my heir. The Hebrew term translated here as steward is ben-mesheq, literally, son of mesheq of my house, where the term mesheq occurs only in this passage is has an uncertain. The name "Damascus" in Hebrew is dammesheq, as found later in this verse, so it has been suggested perhaps a copying error has resulted in the duplication of part of the word "Damascus." This translation attempts to make sense of the word by taking mesheq as meaning something like property, making the whole phrase refer to an heir.
  122. (15:2) Damascus Eliezer. Hebrew Dammeseq Eliezer. Dammeseq is the Hebrew name for the city of Damascus. As a result, the whole phrase has been traditionally rendered as Eliezer of Damscus. If that is its meaning, then the construction is very unusual: the normal way to write Eliezer of Damscus would be Eliezer Dammeseq.
  123. (15:3) member. Literally, son. Some translations render this phrase "son of my house(hold)" as "someone born in my house."
  124. (15:7) Ur Kasdim. Sometimes translated Ur of the Chaldeans.
  125. (15:6) die. Literally, come to your fathers
  126. (15:18) entered. Literally, cut.
  127. (16:2) use her as a surrogate. Literally, be built up from her.
  128. (16:5) I put my slave in bed with you. Literally, I put my slave in your bosom.
  129. (16:6) Your are in charge of your slave. Literally, your slave is in your hand.
  130. (16:7) The Way of Shur is a route going from the Negev to Egypt.
  131. (16:9) submit yourself to her. Literally, humble yourself under her hands.
  132. (16:11) Ishmael is Hebrew for May El hear or God hears.
  133. (16:3) El Roi means God of vision.
  134. (16:3) Have I here seen after him who sees me? The Hebrew phrase is difficult, and Skinner has suggested that the text has undergone some copying error(s) here.
  135. (16:14) Beer Lahai Roi "apparently means either 'Well of the Living One who sees me,' or 'Well of "He that sees me lives"'" (Skinner).
  136. 136.0 136.1 136.2 136.3 136.4 The Hebrew El Shaddai is a term of uncertain origins. Various hypotheses exist, including relating it to the Hebrew shaddai ("my breasts") or the Akkadian shadu ("mountain"). Traditionally, since the time of the Septuagint "El Shaddai" has often been translated as "God Almighty."
  137. (17:5) This verse gives the etymological reasoning as follows: your name will be changed from Abram to Abraham because you will be ab hamon goyim, "the father of a multitude of nations." In this and other passages of the Hebrew Bible, the term "nations" has the meaning "ethnic groups," not "modern governmental nation-states."
  138. (17:14) There has been some debate as to whether the penalty of being "cut off" refers to capital punishment, or to some lesser punishment such as excommunication.
  139. (17:17) laughed. Hebrew yitzhak, which became the name of Abraham's son by Sarah.
  140. (17:19) Isaac. Hebrew yitzhak. See the note on verse 17
  141. (18:1) This is usually translates as Oaks or Terebinths. The exact species if not known -- if the term refers to a single species at all.
  142. (18:3) My Lord. The Masoretic Text indicates a pronunciation that would indicate Abraham is addressing got as "Lord." If one vowel is changed, we could read either "My lord," or "My lords," as addressed to one or all three of the men.
  143. The seah was an ancient unit of volume. See Seah (Wikipedia).
  144. 144.0 144.1 (18:10, 14) in nine months. The Hebrew has a phrase here which cannot be directly translated into English: ka-et hayyah, literally "according to the time of life." This translation follows Skinner's suggestion that the phrase refers to the amount of time it takes for a woman to have a child. Other suggestions include "springtime," which could be thought of as "the time of life", or "next year."
  145. (18:11) getting on in years. Literally, going in the days.
  146. (18:11) Sarah had ceased to have her monthly cycle. Literally, the manner of women had ceased to be with Sarah.
  147. (18:12) laughed. A form of the same verb which is the basis of the name Isaac.
  148. (18:12) Abraham. The name Abraham here is supplied to make it clear that Abraham is the one referred to as "lord." Due to cultural differences, it may not be clear to a contemporary reader that a woman would refer to here husband in that way.
  149. (18:18) bless themselves. That is, Abraham will be such an outstanding example of success that people will use him in blessing formulae, such as "May you become like Abraham," and so on. Another interpretation is "and all the nations of the earth will be blessed through him."
  150. (18:19) to observe my righteous law. Literally, "to do tsedakah and mishpat." Tsedakah, traditionally translated as "righteousness," can refer to what is right in general, and mishpat refers to judicial judgment, justice, or tradition.
  151. (18:20) The grammar of this verse is very difficult, and a literal translation woudl not produce grammatical English. See Skinner.
  152. Abraham still stood before Yahweh. There is a rabbinical tradition (see Tiqqun soferim) that this verse originally read, but Yahweh still stood before Abraham, but that this was "corrected" so that Abraham is the one standing to avoid having the text treat Yahweh as standing like a person.
  153. (19:5) rape. The Hebrew word is yada, to know, which is used as a euphemism for sexual relations. The meaning is clear. See the following verses, where Lot offers his virgin daughters as an alternative.
  154. (19:17) Jordan valley: Hebrew, ha-kikkar.
  155. My Lord. The phrase is capitalized here to indicate that the Hebrew text is pointed by the Masoreties in such a way as to indicate Lot is speaking to Yahweh. However, the Masoretic points were added over a thousand years after the book of Genesis was written. The pre-Masoretic text, without the points, could take the interpretation "My Lord [Yahweh]," "my lords," (both angels) or "my lord" (one of them).
  156. (19:22) Zoar. Hebrew, tso'ar, which sounds like mits'ar, the word "small" which Lot used in describing it above.
  157. (19:31) have relations with us. Literally, to come in upon us as the way of all the earth.
  158. (19:38) Ben-Ammi means "son of my people."
  159. (19:38) Bnei-Ammon. Hebrew for sons of Ammon, referring to the Ammonites.
  160. Gerar was a town in Philistia, home of the Philistines.
  161. (20:8) reported . . . to them Literally, told . . . in their ears.
  162. (20:9) unspeakable things. Literally, deeds that should not be done.
  163. (20:13) relatives. In Hebrew it is bet abi, literally, my father's house, although in Hebrew the expression bet ab, "father's house" has a potentially much broader meaning in Hebrew than the English "father's house" or "father's household" would suggest.
  164. (20:16) compensation . . . in the sight. Literally, covering of eyes. [https://archive.org/details/criticalexegetic00skinuoft Skinner] explains this as a technical legal term. The idea is that the payment of compensation has the effect of legally "closing eyes" to the fact that a crime has been committed. Once a matter is settled, it is now "unseen" in the sense that it cannot be held against the person who has made restitution.
  165. (21:3) Isaac. Hebrew, Yitzhaq.
  166. (21:6) laughter. The word is tzhoq, to which the Isaac, Yitzhaq, is related.
  167. playing. Hebrew, m'tsaheq. This is, as is common for stories involving Isaac, another use of the verbal root related to Isaac's name (Yitzhaq in Hebrew).
  168. (21:9) "with Isaac her son. This translation follows the Septuagint and Vulgate for this verse; the Masoretic Text omits the words "with Isaac her son."
  169. (21:14) and the child. Interpreters vary as to whether the syntax of this verse, which is unusual, imply that the child is placed on Hagar's shoulder, or whether the boy is simply given to Hagar and the jub and bread placed on her shoulder. For those who read the verse as requiring that Hagar is physically carrying the boy, there is a contradiction with the notion that the boy is over fourteen years old, as required by the chronology of their births. Compare verse 15, in which she "cast" the boy under a bush.
  170. (21:16) cried with a loud voice. Literally, she lifted up her voice, and left.
  171. (21:31) Beer-sheba. Hebrew for well of oath or well of seven.
  172. El Olam. Meaning, Everlasting God.
  173. (22:14) Yahweh Yireh. Literally, Yahweh will see, or Yahweh will see to it, i.e. provide.
  174. The meaning of this last phrase is difficult, and several proposals have been made. See [https://archive.org/details/criticalexegetic00skinuoft Skinner].
  175. money. In Hebrew, "silver," the default means of exchange.
  176. (23:17) were deeded over. The Hebrew verb used does not necessarily imply that a written "deed" was necessarily transferred, but simply that the field's ownership was formally transferred.
  177. (24:1) years. Literally, "days."
  178. (24:2) thigh. The Hebrew word here, yarek, is commonly taken as a reference to testicles. Taking an oath under testicles was an an ancient way of solemnizing the oath.
  179. (24:10) Aram Naharaim. Hebrew for "Aram of the two rivers," that is, Mesopotamia.
  180. (25:8) went to be with his ancestors. Literally, was gathered to his people.
  181. (25:12) These are the generations. Hebrew, Elleh toldot. This phrase, which occurs repeatedly in Genesis, introduces (usually) genealogical information.
  182. (25:16) villages. According to Gesenius, this word can also refer to a moving "village" of nomads.
  183. (25:17) went to be with his ancestors. Literally, was gathered to his people.
  184. (18:1) He settled opposite all his brothers. Literally, He fell upon the face of all his brothers. A variety of interpretations exist, in addition to the one above. One is He (Ishmael, that is, the Ishmaelites) settled in hostility toward all his brothers. Another, He died (Ishmael) in the presence of all his brothers. Another, He (each tribe) fought against all his brothers (fellow tribes).
  185. These are the generations. Hebrew, Elleh toldot, a phrase which occurs repeatedly in Genesis and (generally) introduces genealogical information.
  186. (25:21) Yahweh (second occurrence). The Septuagint reads, "God" (ho theos). For the first occurrence Septuagint reads kyrios ("Lord") in agreement with the Masoretic Text's Yahweh.
  187. (25:22) As [https://archive.org/details/criticalexegetic00skinuoft Skinner] notes, part of Rebecca's question seems to be missing.
  188. (25:26) The name "Jacob" (Hebrew yaaqob) looks like the Hebrew word "heel" (aqeb).
  189. (25:27) outdoors. Literally, field.
  190. (25:28) because of the taste of his game. Literally, because of game on his lips.
  191. (25:30) red food. The Masoretic text here reads haadom haadom, "the red red." This version follows [https://archive.org/details/criticalexegetic00skinuoft Skinner]'s emendation, which reads the phrase as haadom haedom, proposing that Edom be taken to mean "food" or more specifically, the kind of food one might eat alongside bread.
  192. (25:30) Edom. The verse relates the name Edom to the word "red" (adom) and also, if Skinner's emendation is correct, to edom, referring to food.
  193. (26:4) bless themselves by your descendants. That is, your descendants will be such an example of divine blessing that that the surrounding nations will reference them in blessing formula, saying something along the lines of, "May you be blessed like the descendants of Isaac," or the like.
  194. (26:14) flocks refers to sheep and/or goats; herds refers to cattle.
  195. (26:20) Esek: Hebrew for "contention."
  196. (26:21) Sitnah is Hebrew for "accusation."
  197. Rehoboath. Hebrew for "open spaces."
  198. (26:33) Shibah looks a bit like the word oath (Hebrew Shebuah.).
  199. (26:34) Elon the Hittite. Following the Masoretic Text; Septuagint and Vulgate read Elon the Hivite.
  200. (26:35) bitter disappointment. Literally, bitterness of soul.
  201. (27:36) tripped me up. The verb is yʕqb, which Esau is relating to the name "Jacob" (Hebrew yʕqb). It means something like "trip," "supplant," "cheat," or "take advantage of." It likely also has an etymological relationship to ʕqb, "heel," which features in the birth story of Jacob and Esau.
  202. (27:36) Given that this exclamation already contains Esau's bitter wordplay likening Jacob to the verb "trip up" or "cheat," it seems possible that the verse is also intentionally comparing bkrty ("my firstborn birthright") with brkty ("my blessing").
  203. (28:6) Canaan refers here not to a person but to a nation. Thus, "daughters of Canaan" is an expression meaning "Canaanite women."
  204. (29:11) under. Or, near.
  205. (28:14) will bless themselves. That is, Jacob and his descendants will be so successful that they will be used in blessing formulae: that people will use them in blessings, such as "May you be as numerous and the descendants of Jacob," and so on. Another interpretation: and through you all the clans of the earth will be blessed, and through your seed.
  206. (28:18) under. Or, near.
  207. (28:19) Beth-el. Meaning, House of El or House of God.
  208. (29:1) eastern people. Literally, "sons of the east."
  209. (29:7) it is still broad daylight. Literally, the day is still large. The idea is that there is still a great deal of time left in the work day, so Jacob does not understand why the flocks are being gathered. To his eyes, the workers are gathering the flocks together as though it was night and they were finishing their work.
  210. (29:14) my flesh and blood. Literally, "my bone and my flesh."
  211. (29:14) a full month. Literally, "a month of days."
  212. gentle. The Hebrew word rak means generally "soft" or "weak." The exact sense of the term when applied to eyes is unclear. Perhaps it means, in a negative sense, that Leah's eyes were weak, or dull, or had some kind of defect. Alternately, it has been taken as a positive expression, that her eyes were "soft" or "gentle" in an attractive way. See James L. Kugel; James L Kugel (30 June 2009). Traditions of the Bible: A Guide to the Bible As It Was at the Start of the Common Era. Harvard University Press. p. 381. ISBN 978-0-674-03976-6. 
  213. (29:21) sleep with her. Literally, go in to her. So also in verse 23.
  214. (29:27) the week. The week of wedding festivities. Compare Judges 14:12.
  215. (29:32) seen. The verse appears to be relating the name Reuben to the Hebrew words raa ("he has seen") and ben ("a son").
  216. (29:33) Simeon. The verse relates the name "Simeon" (Hebrew Shimʕon) to the Hebrew verb shamaʕ ("has heard").
  217. (29:34) Levi. The verse relates the name Levi (Hebrew lewi) to the verb "be joined with," "adhere to," "stick close to" (Hebrew lawah).
  218. (29:35) The verse is relating the name Judah (Hebrew Yehudah) with the verb "praise," perhaps as an abbreviation of Yehudyah, "May Yah(weh) be praised." See Victor P. Hamilton (26 September 1995). The Book of Genesis, Chapters 18-50. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 268. ISBN 978-0-8028-2309-0. 
  219. (30:6) Dan means, according to the etymology given in this verse, he has judged (Hebrew dan).
  220. (30:8) great contortions: literally, contortions of God or contortions of gods.
  221. (30:8) Naphtali sounds like two words used in this verse: "wrestlings" (naphtulei) and I have wrestled (niphtalti).
  222. (30:11) Gad is Fortune.
  223. (30:13) How happy I am! Literally, in my happiness.
  224. (30:13) Asher sounds like two words in this verse: ashri ("my happiness") and ishruni ("they will call me happy").
  225. (30:18) Issachar (Hebrew Issakhar, perhaps originally pronounced Ish-sakhar.). This verse connects the name Issachar (Issakhar) he sekhari ("he has given me my wages"). Compare another form of the same verb, sekharti, "I have hired" in verse 16.
  226. (30:20) endowed . . . dowry. Neither the word translated here as endowed (Hebrew zabad) nor the word translated "dowry" (zebed) appears anywhere else, so the meanings assigned here are guesses.
  227. (30:20) dwell. The word translated as "dwell" here appears nowhere else, so its meaning is uncertain.
  228. (30:20) Zebulun. The verse is comparing Zebulun to the verb yizb'leni ("dwell ? with me") and probably also to zabad and zebed, but the meanings of all these words are too uncertain to give a firm accounting for the name Zebulun.
  229. (30:24) Joseph (Hebrew Yosef) is identical to the verb "he will add" (yosef), but also similar to the verb asaf ("taken away") from the previous verse.
  230. (30:27) Yahweh is what is found in the Masoretic Text. The Septuagint reads God, as if its Hebrew text read Elohim (God).
  231. (30:38) in the watering troughs. It appears that in Hebrew uses here two different words for watering troughs, so that the Hebrew literally reads, "in the watering troughs, in the watering troughs." It is possible that, when one of these words became obscure to readers, a copyists added a synonym for clarity. Alternately, the first word may mean "runnels."
  232. (31:2) More literally translated, the whole verse reads, And Jacob saw the face of Laban, and behold, it was not with him like yesterday and the day before.
  233. (31:4) summoned. Literally, sent and called for.
  234. ten times. This is likely a Hebrew idiom meaning simply "many times."
  235. God of Beth-el. Hebrew the El of Beth El.
  236. family idols. Hebrew teraphim. The exact nature of these sacred objects is uncertain, and "family idols" is a rough guess of what they might have been.
  237. tricked. Literally, "stolen the heart of," and idiom for deception.
  238. (31:24) anything, good or bad. Literally, from good to bad.
  239. (31:26) The Hebrew idiom here for "deceived me" is literally "stolen my heart," so that Laban says, You have stolen my heart, and stolen my daughters like prisoners of war.
  240. (31:35) having my monthly cycle. Literally, the way of women is to me.
  241. (31:47) Jegar Sahadutha and Galeed both mean "Witness Heap."
  242. (31:49) Mizpah means "place for keeping watch."
  243. (31:53) judge. This verb is a plural form in Hebrew, so it may indicate that Laban is thinking of more than one deity.
  244. (32:1)/(31:55). Where most English Bibles consider this the last verse of chapter 31, Hebrew Bibles treat this as the first verse of 32. Chapters numbers were added to the Hebrew Bible more than one thousand years after it was written, so it is a somewhat arbitrary question of where chapter divisions "should" be. Here, this translation follows the order in the Hebrew Bible, but gives the alternate English verse order immediately following.
  245. (32:3)(2). The Hebrew for encampment here is Mahane, and Jacob names the place Mahanaim, meaning "two encampments."
  246. struck. Or, touched.
  247. (32:26)(25) The phrase translated here as "hollow of thigh" (kap yarek) is used only in this story. Another interpretation is that the phrase refers to the scrotum. That is, the angel struck Jacob in the genitals, sending him away limping. Another interpretation sees this as referring to a hip socket. See Victor P. Hamilton (26 September 1995). The Book of Genesis, Chapters 18-50. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 331. ISBN 978-0-8028-2309-0. 
  248. (32:29)(28) The verse connects the words "wrestle" (srh) and the name El ("God") with the name Israel, giving assigning it a meaning along the lines of "he wrestles with God."
  249. (32:31) The verse treats the place-name Peniel as being equivalent to "face of God" (Hebrew pene el).
  250. (32:32)(31) Or, genitals," if the interpretation is correct that the wrestler struck Jacob's scrotum. See the note on verse 26 (25)
  251. (32:33)(32) gid hannasheh. The meaning of this term is disputed. Some take it as referring to the penis, others to a sinew or nerve near the thigh. On the term "hollow of the thigh" see verse 25. On gid hannasheh, see Victor P. Hamilton (26 September 1995). The Book of Genesis, Chapters 18-50. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 338. ISBN 978-0-8028-2309-0. 
  252. (33:17) Succoth (Hebrew Sukkoth) is not only the name of the place, but also the Hebrew word "huts."
  253. (33:18) safely to the city of Shechem. Hebrew shalem ir shekhem, which could alternately be read as "to Shalem, a/the city of Shechem."
  254. (33:19) qesitah. An ancient monetary unit, value presently unknown.
  255. El Elohe Israel. meaning El, the god of Israel. See [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_(deity)#Hebrew_Bible El (deity)].
  256. (34:1) daughters of the land. The idiom means, the women who lived in that land.
  257. (34:2) forced her. The Hebrew verb, anah, is usually interpreted in this passage as referring to rape. A minority of scholars hold that it refers to a violation or dishonoring compatible with consensual sex violating rules such as ethnic endogamy and/or sex without the girl's father giving permission. For an overview of the various usages of the term and scholarly opinions on this verse, see Mary Anna Bader (2006). Sexual Violation in the Hebrew Bible: A Multi-methodological Study of Genesis 34 and 2 Samuel 13. Peter Lang. p. 9ff. ISBN 978-0-8204-7873-9. 
  258. (34:3) spoke affectionately to the young woman. Literally, spoke to the heart of the young woman.
  259. (34:24) all the people of his city. Literally, all those going out from the gate of his city. A "city", in the Bible, refers to a group of people who live inside a walled area. The people would live inside the city, and go through its gates each day to work in their fields. Everyone who goes out of the gates, then, means everyone living in the cities.
  260. (35:1) Bethel. In Hebrew it is spelled as two words: beth el, "House of El (God)."
  261. El is a title or epithet given to the God of the Bible, and before that was the Canaanite high god, father of the other gods and goddesses. To exactly what extent the Bible's use of terms such as El, Shaddai, and Elyon reflects a connection to Canaanite religion is a matter of ongoing discussion and debate.
  262. (35:4) terebinth: or oak. The Hebrew word is Elah, which is used for large, significant trees, and likely has religious connotations.
  263. (35:7) El is a term used in the Bible for "Yahweh," and in traditional Canaanite religion for the high diety El. El Beth El thus means "El of the House of El."
  264. (35:8) the oak: or, the terebinth (Hebrew allon). This word appears to be more or less interchangeable with the word elah, used in verse 4. See the note there.
  265. (35:8) Oak of Weeping. Hebrew Allon Bakhuth, or spelled as in the King James Version, Allonbachuth.
  266. (35:16) some distance. The Hebrew phrase is kibrat-haarets, which is found only here, in Genesis 48:7, and in 2 Kings 5:19. It is not certain whether it represented some specific distance, or was a general term like "some ways", "about as far as a horse can run," or something else along those lines.
  267. (35:17) You're having another boy! Literally, because also this to you a son.
  268. (35:18) Ben-oni means "son of my pain," while Binyamin ("Benjamin") means "son of the right hand" or "southerner."
  269. (35:21) Migdal-eder. Or, the tower of Eder.
  270. (35:29) went to be with his ancestors. Literally, was gathered to his people.
  271. (35:29) at a ripe old age. Literally, old and full of days.
  272. (36:1) these are the generations. The Hebrew phrase, eleh toledoth, "These are the toledoth, does not have any exact equivalent in English. The phrase, or a similar phrase, is used repeatedly in Genesis to introduce information, usually of a genealogical nature.
  273. (36:2) Canaanite women. Literally, from among the daughters of Canaanite, a typical idiomatic formulation meaning "Canaanite women." Of course, these cannot be literally the daughters of Canaan, because Canaan is ten generations (about 500 years in the Masoretic chronology) prior to Esau, and more importantly because the verse names the women's fathers.
  274. (36:5) Jeush. This follows the Ketiv. The Qere reads, "Jeish." See [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qere_and_Ketiv Ketiv and Qere].
  275. (36:9) ancestor of Edom. The claims "Esau is Edom" and "Esau is the ancestor of Edom" both amount to the same thing: the claim that Esau is the forefather of the Edomites, a people living to the south of Judah.
  276. (36:14) Jeush. Again, the details are as described in the note on verse five.
  277. (36:24) hot springs. Hebrew, yemim, a plural word which occurs only here. The meaning is not clear. In addition to "hot springs" or "springs," a variety of other proposals have been made, including the traditional Jewish interpretation "mules" and the Targum's "giants" (emim).
  278. 278.0 278.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named BackNose
  279. The word כסא - "kis-se" in Biblical Hebrew refers exclusively to a Royal chair -that is: a Throne. Here, by using the phrase "the Throne", Pharoh is indirectly referring to the personification of the Monarchy; he is euphemistically referring to himself
  280. בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים -- this is usually translated "end of days", but it literally means the afterwards of days, and the descriptions are of what each man's descendants will do in the land of Israel much later, but not at the end of the world, so I used "latter days" which has both connotations, at least if you're a Mormon!
  281. פַּחַז כַּמַּיִם אַל-תּוֹתַר, כִּי עָלִיתָ מִשְׁכְּבֵי אָבִיךָ; אָז חִלַּלְתָּ, יְצוּעִי עָלָה. This is impossible to understand without the context of chapter 35, verse 21, and then it is clear. The Rabinnical sources I read about this verse are vague, although the meaning seems obvious in light of 35:21.

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