Boston Cooking-School Cook Book/Chapter 5

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Chapter V. BISCUITS, BREAKFAST CAKES, AND SHORTCAKES.

Batters, Sponges, and Doughs[edit]

BATTER is a mixture of flour and some liquid (usually combined with other ingredients, as sugar, salt, eggs, etc.), of consistency to pour easily, or to drop from a spoon.

Batters are termed thin or thick, according to their consistency.

Sponge is a batter to which yeast is added.

Dough differs from batter inasmuch as it is stiff enough to be handled.

Cream Scones[edit]

2 cups flour 1/2 teaspoon salt
4 teaspoons baking powder 4 tablespoons butter
2 teaspoons sugar 2 eggs
1/3 cup cream

Mix and sift together flour, baking powder, sugar, and salt. Rub in butter with tips of fingers; add eggs well beaten (reserving a small amount of unbeaten white) and cream. Toss on a floured board, pat, and roll to three fourths inch in thickness. Cut in squares, brush with reserved white, sprinkle with sugar, and bake in a hot oven fifteen minutes.

Baking Powder Biscuit I[edit]

2 cups bread flour 1 tablespoon lard
5 teaspoons baking powder 1 cup milk and water in equal parts
1 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon butter

Mix dry ingredients, and sift twice.

Work in butter and lard with tips of fingers; add gradually the liquid, mixing with knife to a soft dough. It is impossible to determine the exact amount of liquid, owing to differences in flour. Toss on a floured board, pat and roll lightly to one-half inch in thickness. Shape with a biscuit-cutter. Place on buttered pan, and bake in hot oven twelve to fifteen minutes. If baked in too slow an oven, the gas will escape before it has done its work.

Baking Powder Biscuit II[edit]

2 cups bread flour 2 tablespoons butter
5 teaspoons baking powder 1 cup milk
1/2 teaspoon salt

Mix and bake as Baking Powder Biscuit I.

Emergency Biscuit[edit]

Use recipe for Baking Powder Biscuit I or II, with the addition of more milk, that mixture may be dropped from spoon without spreading. Drop by spoonfuls on a buttered pan, one-half inch apart. Brush over with milk, and bake in hot oven eight minutes.

Fruit Rolls (Pin Wheel Biscuit)[edit]

2 cup flour 2/3 cup milk
5 teaspoons baking powder 1/3 cup stoned raisins (finely chopped)
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons sugar 2 tablespoons citron (finely chopped)
2 tablespoons butter
1/3 teaspoon cinnamon

Mix as Baking Powder Biscuit II. Roll to one-fourth inch thickness, brush over with melted butter, and sprinkle with fruit, sugar, and cinnamon. Roll like a jelly roll; cut off pieces three-fourths inch in thickness. Place on buttered tin, and bake in hot oven fifteen minutes. Currants may be used in place of raisins and citron.

Twin Mountain Muffins[edit]

1/4 cup butter 1 egg
1/4 cup sugar 1 cup milk
1/2 teaspoon salt 2 cups bread flour
5 teaspoons baking powder

Cream the butter; add sugar and egg well beaten; sift baking powder with flour, and add to the first mixture, alternating with milk. Bake in buttered tin gem pans twenty-five minutes.

One Egg Muffins I[edit]

31/2 cups flour 11/3 cups milk
6 teaspoons baking powder 3 tablespoons melted butter
1 teaspoon salt 1 egg
3 tablespoons sugar

Mix and sift dry ingredients; add gradually milk, egg well beaten, and melted butter. Bake in buttered gem pans twenty-five minutes. If iron pans are used they must be previously heated. This recipe makes thirty muffins. Use half the proportions given and a small egg, if half the number is required.

One Egg Muffins II[edit]

2 cups flour 2 tablespoons sugar
4 teaspoons baking powder 1 cup milk
1/2 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons melted butter
1 egg

Mix and bake as One Egg Muffin I.

Berry Muffins I (without eggs)[edit]

2 cups flour 2 tablespoons butter
1/4 cup sugar 1 cup milk (scant)
4 teaspoons baking powder 1 cup berries
1/2 teaspoon salt

Mix and sift dry ingredients; work in butter with tips of fingers; add milk and berries.

Berry Muffins II[edit]

1/4 cup butter 4 teaspoons baking powder
1/3 cup sugar 1/2 teaspoon salt
1 egg 1 cup milk
22/3 cups flour 1 cup berries

Cream the butter; add gradually sugar and egg well beaten; mix and sift flour, baking powder, and salt, reserving one-fourth cup flour to be mixed with berries and added last; the remainder alternately with milk.

Queen of Muffins[edit]

1/4 cup butter 1/2 cup milk (scant)
1/3 cup sugar 11/2 cups flour
1 egg 21/2 teaspoons baking powder

Mix and bake same as Twin Mountain Muffins.

Rice Muffins[edit]

21/4 cups flour 1 cup milk
3/4 cup hot cooked rice 1 egg
5 teaspoons baking powder 2 tablespoons melted butter
2 tablespoons sugar 1/2 teaspoon salt

Mix and sift flour, sugar, salt, and baking powder; add one-half milk, egg well beaten, the remainder of the milk mixed with rice, and beat thoroughly; then add butter. Bake in buttered muffin rings placed in buttered pan or buttered gem pans.

Oatmeal Muffins[edit]

1 cup cooked oatmeal 1/2 teaspoon salt
11/2 cups flour 1/2 cup milk
2 tablespoons sugar 1 egg
4 teaspoons baking powder 2 tablespoons melted butter

Mix and bake as Rice Muffins.

Graham Muffins I[edit]

11/4 cups Graham flour 1/3 cup molasses
1 cup flour 3/4 teaspoon soda
1 cup sour milk 1 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons melted butter

Mix and sift dry ingredients; add milk to molasses, and combine mixtures; then add butter.

Graham Muffins II[edit]

1 cup Graham or entire wheat flour 1 teaspoon salt
1 cup milk
3/4 cup flour 1 egg
1/4 cup sugar 3 tablespoons melted butter
5 teaspoons baking powder.

Mix and sift dry ingredients; add milk gradually, egg well beaten, and melted butter; bake in hot oven in buttered gem pans twenty-five minutes.

Rye Muffins I[edit]

Make as Graham Muffins II, substituting rye meal for Graham flour.

Rye Muffins II[edit]

11/4 cups rye meal 1/4 cup molasses
11/4 cups flour 11/4 cups milk
4 teaspoons baking powder 1 egg
1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon melted butter

Mix and bake as Graham Muffins II, adding molasses with milk.

Rye Gems[edit]

12/3 cups rye flour 1/4 cup molasses
11/3 cups flour 11/4 cups milk
4 teaspoons baking powder 2 eggs
1 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons melted butter

Mix and sift dry ingredients, add molasses, milk, eggs well beaten, and butter. Bake in hot oven in buttered gem pans twenty-five minutes.

Corn Meal Gems[edit]

1/2 cup corn meal 1 tablespoon melted butter
1 cup flour 1/2 teaspoon salt
3 teaspoons baking powder 3/4 cup milk
1 tablespoon sugar 1 egg

Mix and bake as Graham Muffins II.

Hominy Gems[edit]

1/4 cup hominy 1 cup corn meal
1/2 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons sugar
1/2 cup boiling water 3 tablespoons butter
1 cup scalded milk 2 eggs
3 teaspoons baking powder

Add hominy mixed with salt to boiling water and let stand until hominy absorbs water. Add scalded milk to corn meal, then add sugar and butter. Combine mixtures, cool slightly, add yolks of eggs beaten until thick, and whites of eggs beaten until stiff. Sift in baking powder and beat thoroughly. Bake in hot buttered gem pans.

Berkshire Muffins[edit]

1/2 cup corn meal 1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup flour 2/3 cup scalded milk (scant)
1/2 cup cooked rice 1 egg
2 tablespoons sugar 1 tablespoon melted butter
3 teaspoons baking powder

Turn scalded milk on meal, let stand five minutes; add rice, and flour mixed and sifted with remaining dry ingredients. Add yolk of egg well beaten, butter, and white of egg beaten stiff and dry.

Golden Corn Cake[edit]

1 cup corn meal 3/4 teaspoon salt
1 cup flour 1 cup milk
1/4 cup sugar 1 egg
5 teaspoons baking powder 2 tablespoons melted butter

Mix and sift dry ingredients; add milk, egg well beaten, and butter; bake in shallow buttered pan in hot oven twenty minutes.

Corn Cake (sweetened with Molasses)[edit]

1 cup corn meal 1/4 cup molasses
3/4 cup flour 3/4 cup milk
31/2 teaspoons baking powder 1 egg
1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon melted butter

Mix and bake as Golden Corn Cake, adding molasses to milk.

White Corn Cake[edit]

1/4 cup butter 11/4 cups white corn meal
1/2 cup sugar 11/4 cups flour
11/3 cups milk 4 teaspoons baking powder
Whites 3 eggs 1 teaspoon salt

Cream the butter; add sugar gradually; add milk, alternating with dry ingredients, mixed and sifted. Beat thoroughly; add whites of eggs beaten stiff. Bake in buttered cake pan thirty minutes.

Rich Corn Cake[edit]

1 cup corn meal 1/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup white flour 7/8 cup milk
4 teaspoons baking powder 2 eggs
1/4 cup sugar 1/4 cup melted butter

Mix and sift dry ingredients. Add milk, gradually, eggs well beaten, and butter. Bake in a buttered, shallow pan, in a hot oven.

Susie’s Spider Corn Cake[edit]

11/4 cups corn meal 1 teaspoon salt
2 cups sour milk 2 eggs
1 teaspoon soda 2 tablespoons butter

Mix soda, salt, and corn meal; gradually add eggs well beaten and milk. Heat frying-pan, grease sides and bottom of pan with butter, turn in the mixture, place on middle grate in hot oven, and cook twenty minutes.

White Corn Meal Cake[edit]

1 cup scalded milk 1/2 cup white corn meal
1 teaspoon salt

Add salt to corn meal, and pour on gradually milk. Turn into a buttered shallow pan to the depth of one-fourth inch. Bake in a moderate oven until crisp. Split and spread with butter.

Pop-overs[edit]

1 cup flour 7/8 cup milk
1/4 teaspoon salt 2 eggs
1/2 teaspoon melted butter

Mix salt and flour; add milk gradually, in order to obtain a smooth batter. Add egg, beaten until light, and butter; beat two minutes,—using egg-beater,—turn into hissing hot buttered iron gem pans, and bake thirty to thirty-five minutes in hot oven. They may be baked in buttered earthen cups, when the bottom will have a glazed appearance. Small round iron gem pans are best for Pop-overs.

Graham Pop-overs[edit]

2/3 cup entire wheat flour 7/8 cup milk
1/3 cup flour 1 egg
1/4 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon melted butter

Prepare and bake as Pop-overs.

Breakfast Puffs[edit]

1 cup flour 1/2 cup milk
1/2 cup water

Mix milk and water; add gradually to flour, and beat with egg-beater until very light. Bake same as Pop-overs.

Fadges[edit]

1 cup entire wheat flour 1 cup cold water

Add water gradually to flour, and beat with egg-beater until very light. Bake same as Pop-overs.

Zante Muffins[edit]

1/2 cup butter 2 cups corn meal
3/4 cup sugar 1 cup flour
3 eggs 1 teaspoon salt
11/2 cups milk 5 teaspoons baking powder.
1/2 cup currants

Cream the butter; add sugar, gradually, eggs well beaten, and milk; then add dry ingredients mixed and sifted, and currants. Bake in buttered individual tins.

Maryland Biscuit[edit]

1 pint flour 1 teaspoon salt
1/3 cup lard Milk and water in equal quantities
Southern Pupil

Mix and sift flour and salt; work in lard with tips of fingers, and moisten to a stiff dough. Toss on slightly floured board, and beat with rolling-pin thirty minutes, continually folding over the dough. Roll one-third inch in thickness, shape with round cutter two inches in diameter, prick with fork, and place on a buttered tin. Bake twenty minutes in hot oven.

GRIDDLE-CAKES[edit]

Sour Milk Griddle-cakes[edit]

21/2 cups flour 2 cups sour milk
1/2 teaspoon salt 11/4 teaspoons soda
1 egg

Mix and sift flour, salt, and soda; add sour milk, and egg well beaten. Drop by spoonfuls on a greased hot griddle; cook on one side. When puffed, full of bubbles, and cooked on edges, turn, and cook other side. Serve with butter and maple syrup.

Sweet Milk Griddle-cakes[edit]

3 cups flour 1/4 cup sugar
11/2 tablespoons baking powder 2 cups milk
1 teaspoon salt 1 egg
2 tablespoons melted butter

Mix and sift dry ingredients; beat egg, add milk, and pour slowly on first mixture. Beat thoroughly, and add butter. Cook same as Sour Milk Griddle-cakes. Begin cooking cakes at once or more baking powder will be required.

Entire Wheat Griddle-cakes[edit]

1/2 cup entire wheat flour 3 tablespoons sugar
1 cup flour 1 egg
3 teaspoons baking powder 11/4 cups milk
1/2 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon melted butter

Prepare and cook same as Sweet Milk Griddle-cakes.

Corn Griddle-cakes[edit]

2 cups flour 1/3 cup sugar
1/2 cup corn meal 11/2 cups boiling water
11/2 tablespoons baking powder 11/4 cups milk
11/2 teaspoons salt 1 egg
2 tablespoons melted butter

Add meal to boiling water, and boil five minutes; turn into bowl, add milk, and remaining dry ingredients mixed and sifted, then the egg well beaten, and butter. Cook same as other griddle-cakes.

Rice Griddle-cakes I[edit]

21/2 cups flour 1/4 cup sugar
1/2 cup cold cooked rice 11/2 cups milk
1 tablespoon baking powder 1 egg
1/2 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons melted butter

Mix and sift dry ingredients. Work in rice with tips of fingers; add egg well beaten, milk, and butter. Cook same as other griddle-cakes.

Rice Griddle-cakes II[edit]

1 cup milk Yolks 2 eggs
1 cup warm boiled rice Whites 2 eggs
1/2 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon melted butter
7/8 cup flour

Pour milk over rice and salt, add yolks of eggs beaten until thick and lemon color, butter, flour, and fold in whites of eggs beaten until stiff and dry.

Bread Griddle-cakes[edit]

11/2 cups fine stale bread crumbs 2 eggs
11/2 cups scalded milk 1/2 cup flour
2 tablespoons butter 1/2 teaspoon salt
4 teaspoons baking powder

Add milk and butter to crumbs, and soak until crumbs are soft; add eggs well beaten, then flour, salt, and baking powder mixed and sifted. Cook same as other griddle-cakes.

Buckwheat Cakes[edit]

1/3 cup fine bread crumbs 1/4 yeast cake
2 cups scalded milk 1/2 cup lukewarm water
1/2 teaspoon salt 13/4 cups buckwheat flour
1 tablespoon molasses

Pour milk over crumbs, and soak thirty minutes; add salt, yeast cake dissolved in lukewarm water, and buckwheat to make a batter thin enough to pour. Let rise over night; in the morning, stir well, add molasses, one-fourth teaspoon soda dissolved in one-fourth cup lukewarm water, and cook same as griddle-cakes. Save enough batter to raise another mixing, instead of using yeast cake; it will require one-half cup.

Waffles[edit]

13/4 cups flour 1 cup milk
3 teaspoons baking powder Yolks 2 eggs
1/2 teaspoon salt Whites 2 eggs
1 tablespoon melted butter

Mix and sift dry ingredients; add milk gradually, yolks of eggs well beaten, butter, and whites of eggs beaten stiff; cook on a greased hot waffle-iron. Serve with maple syrup.

A waffle-iron should fit closely on range, be well heated on one side, turned, heated on other side, and thoroughly greased before iron is filled. In filling, put a tablespoonful of mixture in each compartment near centre of iron, cover, and mixture will spread to just fill iron. If sufficiently heated, it should be turned almost as soon as filled and covered. In using a new iron, special care must be taken in greasing, or waffles will stick.

Waffles with Boiled Cider[edit]

Follow directions for making Waffles. Serve with BOILED CIDER. Allow twice as much cider as sugar, and let boil until of a syrup consistency.

Rice Waffles[edit]

13/4 cups flour 4 teaspoons baking powder
2/3 cup cold cooked rice 1/4 teaspoon salt
11/2 cups milk 1 tablespoon melted butter
2 tablespoons sugar 1 egg

Mix and sift dry ingredients; work in rice with tips of fingers; add milk, yolk of egg well beaten, butter, and white of egg beaten stiff. Cook same as Waffles.

Virginia Waffles[edit]

11/2 cups boiling water 11/4 tablespoons baking powder
1/2 cup white corn meal 11/2 teaspoons salt
11/2 cups milk Yolks 2 eggs
3 cups flour Whites 2 eggs
3 tablespoons sugar 2 tablespoons melted butter

Cook meal in boiling water twenty minutes; add milk, dry ingredients mixed and sifted, yolks of eggs well beaten, butter, and whites of eggs beaten stiff. Cook same as Waffles.

Raised Waffles[edit]

13/4 cups milk 1/4 cup lukewarm water
1 teaspoon salt 2 cups flour
1 tablespoon butter Yolks 2 eggs
1/4 yeast cake Whites 2 eggs

Scald milk; add salt and butter, and when lukewarm, add yeast cake dissolved in water, and flour. Beat well; let rise over night; add yolks of eggs well beaten, and whites of eggs beaten stiff. Cook same as Waffles. By using a whole yeast cake, the mixture will rise in one and one-half hours.

Fried Drop Cakes[edit]

11/3 cups flour 1/3 cup sugar
21/2 teaspoons baking powder 1/2 cup milk
1/4 teaspoons salt 1 egg
1 teaspoon melted butter

Beat egg until light; add milk, dry ingredients mixed and sifted, and melted butter. Drop by spoonfuls in hot, new, deep fat; fry until light brown and cooked through, which must at first be determined by piercing with a skewer, or breaking apart. Remove with a skimmer, and drain on brown paper.

Rye Drop Cakes[edit]

2/3 cup rye meal 1/2 teaspoon salt
2/3 cup flour 2 tablespoons molasses
21/2 teaspoons baking powder 1/2 cup milk
1 egg

Mix and sift dry ingredients; add milk gradually, molasses, and egg well beaten. Cook same as Fried Drop Cakes.

Raised Doughnuts[edit]

1 cup milk 1/3 cup butter and lard mixed
1/4 yeast cake 1 cup light brown sugar
1/4 cup lukewarm water 2 eggs
1 teaspoon salt 1/2 grated nutmeg
Flour

Scald and cool milk; when lukewarm, add the yeast cake dissolved in water, salt, and flour enough to make a stiff batter; let rise over night. In morning add shortening melted, sugar, eggs well beaten, nutmeg, and enough flour to make a stiff dough; let rise again, and if too soft to handle, add more flour. Toss on floured board, pat, and roll to three-fourths inch thickness. Shape with cutter, and work between hands until round. Place on floured board, let rise one hour, turn, and let rise again; fry in deep fat, and drain on brown paper. Cool, and roll in powdered sugar.

Doughnuts I[edit]

1 cup sugar 4 teaspoons baking powder
21/2 tablespoons butter 1/4 teaspoon cinnamon
3 eggs 1/4 teaspoon grated nutmeg
1 cup milk 11/2 teaspoons salt
Flour to roll

Cream the butter, and add one-half sugar. Beat egg until light, add remaining sugar, and combine mixtures. Add three and one-half cups flour, mixed and sifted with baking powder, salt, and spices; then enough more flour to make dough stiff enough to roll. Toss one-third of mixture on floured board, knead slightly, pat, and roll out to one-fourth inch thickness. Shape with a doughnut cutter, fry in deep fat, take up on a skewer, and drain on brown paper. Add trimmings to one-half remaining mixture, roll, shape, and fry as before; repeat. Doughnuts should come quickly to top of fat, brown on one side, then be turned to brown on the other; avoid turning more than once. The fat must be kept at a uniform temperature. If too cold, doughnuts will absorb fat; if too hot, doughnuts will brown before sufficiently risen. See rule for testing fat.

Doughnuts II[edit]

4 cups flour 1/4 teaspoon cinnamon
11/2 teaspoons salt 1/2 tablespoon butter
13/4 teaspoons soda 1 cup sugar
13/4 teaspoons cream of tartar 1 cup sour milk
1/4 teaspoon grated nutmeg 1 egg

Put flour in shallow pan; add salt, soda, cream of tartar, and spices. Work in butter with tips of fingers; add sugar, egg well beaten, and sour milk. Stir thoroughly, and toss on board thickly dredged with flour; knead slightly, using more flour if necessary. Pat and roll out to one-fourth inch thickness; shape, fry, and drain. Sour-milk doughnuts may be turned as soon as they come to top of fat, and frequently afterwards.

Doughnuts III[edit]

2 cups sugar 2 teaspoons soda
4 eggs 2 teaspoons salt
11/3 cups sour milk 2 teaspoons baking powder
4 tablespoons melted butter 1 teaspoon grated nutmeg
Flour

Mix ingredients in order given; shape, fry, and drain.

Crullers[edit]

1/4 cup butter 4 cups flour
1 cup sugar 1/4 teaspoon grated nutmeg
Yolks 2 eggs 31/2 teaspoons baking powder
Whites 2 eggs 1 cup milk
Powdered sugar and cinnamon

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, yolks of eggs well beaten, and whites of eggs beaten stiff. Mix flour, nutmeg, and baking powder; add alternately with milk to first mixture; toss on floured board, roll thin, and cut in pieces three inches long by two inches wide; make four one-inch parallel gashes crosswise at equal intervals. Take up by running finger in and out of gashes, and lower into deep fat. Fry same as Doughnuts I.

Strawberry Short Cake I[edit]

2 cups flour 2 teaspoons sugar
4 teaspoons baking powder 3/4 cup milk
1/2 teaspoon salt 1/4 cup butter

Mix dry ingredients, sift twice, work in butter with tips of fingers, and add milk gradually. Toss on floured board, divide in two parts. Pat, roll out, and bake twelve minutes in a hot oven in buttered Washington pie or round layer cake tins. Split, and spread with butter. Sweeten strawberries to taste, place on back of range until warmed, crush slightly, and put between and on top of Short Cakes; cover top with Cream Sauce I.

Strawberry Short Cake II[edit]

2 cups flour 1 tablespoon sugar
4 teaspoons baking powder 1/3 cup butter
1/2 teaspoon salt 1/3 cup milk

Mix same as Strawberry Short Cake I. Toss and roll on floured board. Put in round buttered tin, and shape with back of hand to fit pan.

Rich Strawberry Short Cake[edit]

2 cups flour Few grains nutmeg
1/4 cup sugar 1 egg
4 teaspoons baking powder 1/3 cup butter
1/2 teaspoon salt 1/3 cup milk

Mix dry ingredients and sift twice, work in shortening with tips of fingers, add egg well beaten, and milk. Bake same as Strawberry Short Cake II. Split cake and spread under layer with Cream Sauce II. Cover with strawberries which have been sprinkled with powdered sugar; again spread with sauce, and cover with upper layer.

Fruit Short Cake[edit]

1/4 cup butter 1/4 cup milk
1/2 cup sugar 1 cup flour
1 egg 2 teaspoons baking powder
1/4 teaspoon salt

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and egg well beaten. Mix and sift flour, baking powder, and salt, adding alternately with milk to first mixture. Beat thoroughly, and bake in a buttered round tin. Cool, spread thickly with sweetened fruit, and cover with Cream Sauce I or II. Fresh strawberries, peaches, apricots, raspberries, or canned quince or pineapple may be used. When canned goods are used, drain fruit from syrup and cut in pieces. Dilute cream for Cream Sauce with fruit syrup in place of milk.

Any shortcake mixture may be made for individual service by shaping with a large biscuit cutter; or mixture may be baked in a shallow cake pan, centre removed and filled with fruit, and pieces baked separately to introduce to represent handles.