Bridges v. Wixon (326 U.S. 135)
Under statute providing for deportation of aliens who are members of or affiliated with any organization that believes in the overthrow by force of the government of the United States, 'affiliation' imports less than membership but more than sympathy, and a working alliance to bring to fruition the proscribed program of a proscribed organization, as distinguished from mere co-operation with a proscribed organization in lawful activities, is essential. Immigration Act of 1918, §§ 1-3, as amended, 8 U.S.C.A. § 137(c, e-g).
[Syllabus from pages 135-137 intentionally omitted]
Messrs. Richard Gladstein, of San Francisco, Cal., and Lee Pressman, of Washington, D.C., for petitioner.
Sol. Gen. Charles Fahy, of Washington, D.C., for respondent.
Mr. Justice DOUGLAS delivered the opinion of the Court.