The Bronze Star Medal is a United States Armed Forces individual military decoration which may be awarded for bravery, acts of merit, or meritorious service. When awarded for bravery, it is the fourth-highest combat award of the U.S. Armed Forces and the 9th highest military award (including both combat and non-combat awards) in the order of precedence of U.S. military decorations.
For meritorious service while interned as a Prisoner of War in North Vietnam from February to June 1970 and from February to October 1972. Through his ceaseless efforts, in an atmosphere of enemy harassment, threat of torture, and brutal treatment, he established and maintained intracamp communications. At great risk and in spite of further cruelty, he continued to devise many unusual and ingenious methods in communications, resulting in American and Allied prisoners resisting the enemy's demands and at the same time improving the prisoners morale. By his heroic endeavors, exceptional skill, and devotion to duty, he reflected great credit upon himself and upheld the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service and the United States Armed Forces.