CIA World Fact Book, 2004/Burundi

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Introduction Burundi
Background: Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated in October 1993 after only one hundred days in office. Since then, some 200,000 Burundians have perished in widespread, often intense ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. Hundreds of thousands have been internally displaced or have become refugees in neighboring countries. Burundi troops, seeking to secure their borders, briefly intervened in the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1998. A new transitional government, inaugurated on 1 November 2001, signed a power-sharing agreement with the largest rebel faction in December 2003 and set in place a provisional constitution in October 2004. Implementation of the agreement has been problematic, however, as one remaining rebel group refuses to sign on and elections have been repeatedly delayed, clouding prospects for a sustainable peace.
 
Geography Burundi
Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates: 3 30 S, 30 00 E
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 27,830 sq km
water: 2,180 sq km
land: 25,650 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries: total: 974 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and September to November, and dry seasons from June to August and December to January
Terrain: hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
highest point: Mount Heha 2,670 m
Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium, arable land, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 35.05%
permanent crops: 14.02%
other: 50.93% (2001)
Irrigated land: 740 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: flooding, landslides, drought
Environment - current issues: soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile
 
People Burundi
Population: 6,231,221
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2004 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 46.4% (male 1,459,251; female 1,430,332)
15-64 years: 50.9% (male 1,566,274; female 1,607,705)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 66,306; female 101,353) (2004 est.)
Median age: total: 16.5 years
male: 16.1 years
female: 16.8 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.2% (2004 est.)
Birth rate: 39.68 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate: 17.61 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 70.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 63.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 77.15 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 43.36 years
male: 42.73 years
female: 44 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.9 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 6% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 250,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 25,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases: typhoid fever, malaria
overall degree of risk: very high (2004)
Nationality: noun: Burundian(s)
adjective: Burundian
Ethnic groups: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
Religions: Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%
Languages: Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 51.6%
male: 58.5%
female: 45.2% (2003 est.)
 
Government Burundi
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
conventional short form: Burundi
local short form: Burundi
local long form: Republika y'u Burundi
former: Urundi
Government type: republic
Capital: Bujumbura
Administrative divisions: 16 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi
Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Constitution: 13 March 1992; provided for establishment of a plural political system; supplanted on 20 October 2004 by a provisional constitution approved by the parliament, which extended the transition, set ethnic quotas for government positions, and tentatively scheduled elections for February-April 2005
Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult
Executive branch: chief of state: President Domitien NDAYIZEYE (since 30 April 2003); note - NDAYIZEYE, a Hutu, was sworn in as president for the second half of the three-year transitional government inaugurated on 1 November 2001; Vice President Frederic NGENZEBUHORO (since 11 November 2004)
head of government: President Domitien NDAYIZEYE (since 30 April 2003); note - NDAYIZEYE, a Hutu, was sworn in as president for the second half of the three-year transitional government inaugurated on 1 November 2001; Vice President Frederic NGENZEBUHORO (since 11 November 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
elections: NA; current president assumed power on 30 April 2003 as part of the transitional government established by the 2000 Arusha Accord
Legislative branch: bicameral, consists of a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (expanded from 121 to approximately 140 seats under the transitional government inaugurated 1 November 2001; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and a Senate (54 seats; term length is undefined, the current senators will likely serve out the three-year transition period)
elections: last held 29 June 1993 (next was scheduled to be held in 1998, but was suspended by presidential decree in 1996; elections are planned to follow the completion of the three-year transitional government)
election results: percent of vote by party - FRODEBU 71.04%, UPRONA 21.4%, other 7.56%; seats by party - FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16, civilians 27, other parties 13
Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court; Courts of Appeal (there are three in separate locations); Tribunals of First Instance (17 at the province level and 123 small local tribunals)
Political parties and leaders: the two national, mainstream, governing parties are: Unity for National Progress or UPRONA [Alphonse KADEGE, president]; Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Jean MINANI, president]
note: a multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are: Burundi African Alliance for the Salvation or ABASA [Terrence NSANZE]; Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social Development or RADDES [Joseph NZEYIMANA]; Party for National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]; People's Reconciliation Party or PRP [Mathias HITIMANA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: loosely organized Hutu and Tutsi militias, often affiliated with Hutu and Tutsi extremist parties or subordinate to government security forces
International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, CEPGL, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Antoine NTAMOBWA
chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578
telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James Howard YELLIN
embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
telephone: [257] 223454
FAX: [257] 222926
Flag description: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below)
 
Economy Burundi
Economy - overview: Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on subsistence agriculture. Economic growth depends on coffee and tea exports, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings. The ability to pay for imports, therefore, rests primarily on weather conditions and international coffee and tea prices. The Tutsi minority, 14% of the population, dominates the government and the coffee trade at the expense of the Hutu majority, 85% of the population. Since October 1993 an ethnic-based war has resulted in more than 200,000 deaths, forced 800,000 refugees into Tanzania, and displaced 525,000 others internally. Doubts about the prospects for sustainable peace continue to impede development. Only one in two children go to school, and approximately one in ten adults has HIV/AIDS. Food, medicine, and electricity remain in short supply.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.78 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -1.3% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $600 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 47.4%
industry: 19.3%
services: 33.3% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 9.8% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line: 68% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 32.9% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 42.5 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.7% (2003 est.)
Labor force: 2.99 million (2002)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 93.6%, industry 2.3%, services 4.1% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA
Budget: revenues: $179.4 million
expenditures: $209 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2003)
Agriculture - products: coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, hides
Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing
Industrial production growth rate: 18% (2001)
Electricity - production: 155.4 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 177.5 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports: 33 million kWh; note - supplied by the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2001)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption: 2,750 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports: NA (2001)
Oil - imports: NA (2001)
Current account balance: $-35 million (2003)
Exports: $40 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities: coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides
Exports - partners: Switzerland 31.6%, UK 15.8%, Netherlands 5.3%, Rwanda 5.3% (2003)
Imports: $128 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities: capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: Kenya 14.6%, Tanzania 11.5%, Uganda 5.7%, France 5.1%, Zambia 5.1%, China 4.5%, India 4.5%, Japan 4.5% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold: $67.4 million (2003)
Debt - external: $1.133 billion (2002)
Economic aid - recipient: $92.7 million (2000)
Currency: Burundi franc (BIF)
Currency code: BIF
Exchange rates: Burundi francs per US dollar - 1,082.62 (2003), 930.75 (2002), 830.35 (2001), 720.67 (2000), 563.56 (1999)
Fiscal year: calendar year
 
Communications Burundi
Telephones - main lines in use: 23,900 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 64,000 (2003)
Telephone system: general assessment: primitive system
domestic: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relay
international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)
Radios: 440,000 (2001)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (2001)
Televisions: 25,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .bi
Internet hosts: 22 (2003)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)
Internet users: 14,000 (2003)
 
Transportation Burundi
Highways: total: 14,480 km
paved: 1,028 km
unpaved: 13,452 km (1999 est.)
Waterways: mainly on Lake Tanganyika (2004)
Ports and harbors: Bujumbura
Airports: 8 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2004 est.)
 
Military Burundi
Military branches: Army (including Naval Detachment and Air Wing), National Gendarmerie
Military manpower - military age and obligation: 16 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2001)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,419,755 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 747,400 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 81,862 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $33.3 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 6% (2003)
This page was last updated on 1 January 2003



This is a snapshot of the CIA World Fact Book as it existed on 26 March 2005