CIA World Fact Book, 2004/Kyrgyzstan

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CIA World Fact Book, 2004
Kyrgyzstan
CIA WFB Seal.png Kyrgyzstan Flag of Kyrgyzstan (WFB 2004).gif
Kyrgyzstan-CIA WFB Map.png
 
Introduction Kyrgyzstan
Background: A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, Kyrgyzstan was annexed by Russia in 1864; it achieved independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Current concerns include: privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedoms, interethnic relations, and combating terrorism.
 
Geography Kyrgyzstan
Location: Central Asia, west of China
Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 75 00 E
Map references: Asia
Area: total: 198,500 sq km
water: 7,200 sq km
land: 191,300 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundaries: total: 3,878 km
border countries: China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,051 km, Tajikistan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,099 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
Terrain: peaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) 132 m
highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m
Natural resources: abundant hydropower; significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc
Land use: arable land: 7.3%
permanent crops: 0.35%
note: Kyrgyzstan has the world's largest natural growth walnut forest (2001)
other: 92.35%
Irrigated land: 10,740 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: NA
Environment - current issues: water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices
Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes
 
People Kyrgyzstan
Population: 5,081,429 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.3% (male 835,599; female 804,384)
15-64 years: 61.6% (male 1,535,447; female 1,594,972)
65 years and over: 6.1% (male 120,555; female 190,472) (2004 est.)
Median age: total: 23.1 years
male: 22.2 years
female: 24 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.25% (2004 est.)
Birth rate: 22.13 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate: 7.19 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 36.81 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 31.11 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 42.23 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 67.84 years
male: 63.84 years
female: 72.05 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.71 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3,900 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)
adjective: Kyrgyzstani
Ethnic groups: Kyrgyz 64.9%, Uzbek 13.8%, Russian 12.5%, Dungan 1.1%, Ukrainian 1%, Uygur 1%, other 5.7% (1999 census)
Religions: Muslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%
Languages: Kyrgyz - official language, Russian - official language
note: in December 2001, the Kyrgyzstani legislature made Russian an official language, equal in status to Kyrgyz
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 99%
female: 96% (1989 est.)
 
Government Kyrgyzstan
Country name: conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
local short form: none
former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
Government type: republic
Capital: Bishkek
Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (oblastlar, singular - oblasty) and 1 city* (shaar); Batken Oblasty, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblasty (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblasty, Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty, Talas Oblasty, Ysyk-Kol Oblasty (Karakol)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence: 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: Independence Day, 31 August (1991)
Constitution: adopted 5 May 1993; note - amendment proposed by President AKAYEV and passed in a national referendum on 2 February 2003 significantly expands the powers of the president at the expense of the legislature
Legal system: based on civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Askar AKAYEV (since 28 October 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Nikolay TANAYEV (since 22 May 2002); note - Prime Minister Kurmanbek BAKIYEV resigned on 22 May 2002 when five demonstrators were killed in a clash with police in March of 2002; First Deputy Prime Minister Kubanychbek JUMALIYEV (since 19 March 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
election results: Askar AKAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Askar AKAYEV 74%, Omurbek TEKEBAYEV 14%, other candidates 12%; note - election marred by serious irregularities
elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; elections last held 29 October 2000 (next to be 30 October 2005); prime minister appointed by the president; note - President AKAYEV has publicly stated that he will not seek reelection when his current term expires in 2005
Legislative branch: bicameral Supreme Council or Jorgorku Kenesh consists of the Assembly of People's Representatives (70 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Legislative Assembly (35 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - in accordance with a 2003 referendum, the Parliament is slated to become unicameral with 75 deputies after the 27 February 2005 elections
election results: Assembly of People's Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; and Legislative Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; note - total seats by party in the Supreme Council were as follows: Union of Democratic Forces 12, Communists 6, My Country Party of Action 4, independents 73, other 10
note: the legislature became bicameral for the 5 February 1995 elections; the 2000 election results include both the Assembly of People's Representatives and the Legislative Assembly
elections: Assembly of People's Representatives - last held 20 February and 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA February 2005); Legislative Assembly - last held 20 February and 12 March 2000; elections for the new unicameral body or Jorgorku Kenesh are to be held 27 February 2005)
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed for 10-year terms by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president); Constitutional Court; Higher Court of Arbitration
Political parties and leaders: Adilet (Justice) Party [Toychubek KASYMOV]; Agrarian Labor Party of Kyrgyzstan [Uson SYDYKOV]; Agrarian Party of Kyrgyzstan [Erkin ALIYEV]; Alga, Kyrgyzstan (Forward, Kyrgyzstan) [Bolot BEGALIYEV]; Ar-Namys (Dignity) Party [Emil ALIYEV]; Asaba (Banner National Revival Party) [Azimbek BEKNAZAROV]; Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Omurbek TEKEBAYEV]; Communist Party of Kyrgyzstan [Klara ADZHIBEKOVA]; Democratic Movement of Kyrgyzstan or DDK [Jypar JEKSHEYEV]; Erkin Kyrgyzstan Progressive and Democratic Party [Bektur ASANOV]; Erkindik (Freedom) Party [Topchubek TURGUNALIYEV]; Future of Kyrgyzstan [Balbak TULEBAYEV]; Jany Kyrgyzstan (New Kyrgyzstan) [Dosbol NUR UULU]; Kairan El [Dooronbek SADYKOV]; Kyrgyz National Party [Bakyt BESHIMOV]; Kyrgyzstan Kelechegi [Ruslan CHYNYBAYEV]; Manas El (Party of Spiritual Restoration) [Chingiz AITMATOV]; Moya Strana (My Country Party of Action) [Joomart OTORBAYEV]; Party of Communists of Kyrgyzstan or KCP [Bakytbek BEKBOYEV]; Party of Justice and Progress [Muratbek IMANALIEV]; Party of Peasants [Esengul ISAKOV]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Council of Free Trade Unions; Kyrgyz Committee on Human Rights [Ramazan DYRYLDAYEV]; National Unity Democratic Movement; Union of Entrepreneurs
International organization participation: AsDB, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMIL, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Bakyt ABDRISAYEV
FAX: [1] (202) 338-5139
consulate(s): New York
telephone: [1] (202) 338-5141
chancery: 1732 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen M. YOUNG
embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, Bishkek 720016
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [996] (312) 551-241, (517) 777-217
FAX: [996] (312) 551-264
Flag description: red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of the roof of the traditional Kyrgyz yurt
 
Economy Kyrgyzstan
Economy - overview: Kyrgyzstan is a poor, mountainous country with a predominantly agricultural economy. Cotton, tobacco, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only tobacco and cotton are exported in any quantity. Industrial exports include gold, mercury, uranium, and natural gas and electricity. Kyrgyzstan has been fairly progressive in carrying out market reforms, such as an improved regulatory system and land reform. Kyrgyzstan was the first CIS country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. With fits and starts, inflation has been lowered to an estimated 7% in 2001, 2.1% in 2002, and 4.0% in 2003. Much of the government's stock in enterprises has been sold. Drops in production had been severe after the breakup of the Soviet Union in December 1991, but by mid-1995 production began to recover and exports began to increase. Kyrgyzstan has distinguished itself by adopting relatively liberal economic policies. The drop in output at the Kumtor gold mine sparked a 0.5% decline in GDP in 2002, but GDP growth bounced back to 6% in 2003. The government has made steady strides in controlling its substantial fiscal deficit and aims to reduce the deficit to 4.4 percent of GDP in 2004. The government and the international financial institutions have been engaged in a comprehensive medium-term poverty reduction and economic growth strategy. Further restructuring of domestic industry and success in attracting foreign investment are keys to future growth.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.808 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.7% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,600 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 38.7%
industry: 22.9%
services: 38.4% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 17.6% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line: 50% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 27.7% (1999)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 34.6 (1999)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (2003 est.)
Labor force: 2.7 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 55%, industry 15%, services 30% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate: 7.2% (1999 est.)
Budget: revenues: $371.5 million
expenditures: $387.1 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products: tobacco, cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool
Industries: small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals
Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production: 13.45 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 10.46 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports: 2.25 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports: 200 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production: 2,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption: 20,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports: NA (2001)
Oil - imports: NA (2001)
Natural gas - production: 16 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 2.016 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 2 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance: $-108 million (2003)
Exports: $548 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities: cotton, wool, meat, tobacco; gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, hydropower; machinery; shoes
Exports - partners: UAE 24.7%, Switzerland 20.3%, Russia 16.7%, Kazakhstan 9.8%, Canada 5.3%, China 4% (2003)
Imports: $601 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities: oil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: Russia 24.7%, Kazakhstan 24%, China 10.3%, US 6.7%, Uzbekistan 5.5%, Germany 5.3% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold: $399.3 million (2003)
Debt - external: $1.5 billion (2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $50 million from the US (2001)
Currency: Kyrgyzstani som (KGS)
Currency code: KGS
Exchange rates: soms per US dollar - 43.6484 (2003), 46.9371 (2002), 48.378 (2001), 47.7038 (2000), 39.0077 (1999)
Fiscal year: calendar year
 
Communications Kyrgyzstan
Telephones - main lines in use: 394,800 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 53,100 (2002)
Telephone system: general assessment: poorly developed; about 100,000 unsatisfied applications for household telephones
domestic: principally microwave radio relay; one cellular provider, probably limited to Bishkek region
international: country code - 996; connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik and 1 Intelsat; connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line
Radio broadcast stations: AM 12 (plus 10 repeater stations), FM 14, shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios: 520,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: NA (repeater stations throughout the country relay programs from Russia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Turkey) (1997)
Televisions: 210,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .kg
Internet hosts: 12,299 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA
Internet users: 152,000 (2002)
 
Transportation Kyrgyzstan
Railways: total: 470 km
broad gauge: 470 km 1.520-m gauge (2003)
Highways: total: 18,500 km
paved: 16,854 km (including 140 km of expressways)
unpaved: 1,646 km (1999 est.)
Waterways: 600 km (2004)
Pipelines: gas 367 km; oil 13 km (2004)
Ports and harbors: Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye)
Airports: 61 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 17
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
under 914 m: 2 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 44
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 37 (2003 est.)
 
Military Kyrgyzstan
Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense, Security Forces, Border Troops
Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory military service (2001)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,347,312 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,091,548 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 59,759 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $19.2 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.4% (FY01)
This page was last updated on 1 January 2003



This is a snapshot of the CIA World Fact Book as it existed on 26 March 2005