CIA World Fact Book, 2004/Niger

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Introduction Niger
Background: Not until 1993, 33 years after independence from France, did Niger hold its first free and open elections. A 1995 peace accord ended a five-year Tuareg insurgency in the north. Coups in 1996 and 1999 were followed by the creation of a National Reconciliation Council that effected a transition to civilian rule by December 1999. Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with minimal government services and insufficient funds to develop its resource base. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa.
Geography Niger
Location: Western Africa, southeast of Algeria
Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 8 00 E
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 1.267 million sq km
water: 300 sq km
land: 1,266,700 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries: total: 5,697 km
border countries: Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km, Burkina Faso 628 km, Chad 1,175 km, Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
Terrain: predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Niger River 200 m
highest point: Mont Bagzane 2,022 m
Natural resources: uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, petroleum
Land use: arable land: 3.54%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 96.45% (2001)
Irrigated land: 660 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: recurring droughts
Environment - current issues: overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea
Geography - note: landlocked; one of the hottest countries in the world: northern four-fifths is desert, southern one-fifth is savanna, suitable for livestock and limited agriculture
People Niger
Population: 11,360,538 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 47.5% (male 2,749,039; female 2,643,479)
15-64 years: 50.4% (male 2,799,125; female 2,925,133)
65 years and over: 2.1% (male 128,101; female 115,661) (2004 est.)
Median age: total: 16.2 years
male: 15.7 years
female: 16.7 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.67% (2004 est.)
Birth rate: 48.91 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate: 21.51 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.11 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 122.66 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 118.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 126.96 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 42.18 years
male: 42.38 years
female: 41.97 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate: 6.83 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.2% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 70,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,800 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases: typhoid fever, malaria
overall degree of risk: very high (2004)
Nationality: noun: Nigerien(s)
adjective: Nigerien
Ethnic groups: Hausa 56%, Djerma 22%, Fula 8.5%, Tuareg 8%, Beri Beri (Kanouri) 4.3%, Arab, Toubou, and Gourmantche 1.2%, about 1,200 French expatriates
Religions: Muslim 80%, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christian
Languages: French (official), Hausa, Djerma
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 17.6%
male: 25.8%
female: 9.7% (2003 est.)
Government Niger
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Niger
conventional short form: Niger
local short form: Niger
local long form: Republique du Niger
Government type: republic
Capital: Niamey
Administrative divisions: 7 departments (departements, singular - departement) and 1 capital district* (capitale district); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder
Independence: 3 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: Republic Day, 18 December (1958)
Constitution: a new constitution was adopted 18 July 1999
Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President TANDJA Mamadou (since 22 December 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President TANDJA Mamadou (since 22 December 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Prime Minister Hama AMADOU (since 31 December 1999) was appointed by the president and shares some executive responsibilities with the president
cabinet: 23-member Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; second round last held 4 December 2004 (next to be held December 2009); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: TANDJA Mamadou reelected president; percent of vote - TANDJA Mamadou 65.5%, Mahamadou ISSOUFOU 34.5%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (113 seats; note - expanded from 83 seats; members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)
elections: last held 4 December 2004 (next to be held December 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNSD 47, CDS 22, PNDS 17, Social Democratic Rally 7 RDP 6i ANDP 5, Party for Socialism and Democarcy in Niger 1, other 8
Judicial branch: State Court or Cour d'Etat; Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel
Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ANDP [leader NA]; Democratic Rally of the People-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]; Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Mahamane OUSMANE]; National Movement for a Developing Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Mamadou TANDJA, chairman]; Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Social Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDPS-Zaman Lahiya [Moumouni Adamou DJERMAKOYE]; Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism-Tarayya or PNDS-Tarayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]; Party for Socialism and Democracy in Niger [leader NA]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [leader NA]; Union of Democratic Patriots and Progressives-Chamoua or UPDP-Chamoua [Professor Andre' SALIFOU, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MONUC, NAM, OIC, ONUB, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph DIATTA
FAX: [1] (202)483-3169
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227
chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gail Dennise Thomas MATHIEU
embassy: Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
mailing address: B. P. 11201, Niamey
telephone: [227] 72 26 61 through 72 26 64
FAX: [227] 73 31 67, 72-31-46
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small orange disk (representing the sun) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band
Economy Niger
Economy - overview: Niger is a poor, landlocked Sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence agriculture, animal husbandry, and reexport trade, and increasingly less on uranium, because of declining world demand. The 50% devaluation of the West African franc in January 1994 boosted exports of livestock, cowpeas, onions, and the products of Niger's small cotton industry. The government relies on bilateral and multilateral aid - which was suspended following the April 1999 coup d'etat - for operating expenses and public investment. In 2000-01, the World Bank approved a structural adjustment loan of $105 million to help support fiscal reforms. However, reforms could prove difficult given the government's bleak financial situation. The IMF approved a $73 million poverty reduction and growth facility for Niger in 2000 and announced $115 million in debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. Further disbursements of aid occurred in 2002. Future growth may be sustained by exploitation of oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $9.062 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.8% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $800 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 39%
industry: 17%
services: 44% (2001)
Population below poverty line: 63% (1993 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.8%
highest 10%: 35.4% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 50.5 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2002 est.)
Labor force: 70,000 receive regular wages or salaries (2002 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 6%, government 4%
Unemployment rate: NA (2002 est.)
Budget: revenues: $320 million - including $134 million from foreign sources
expenditures: $320 million, including capital expenditures of $178 million (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products: cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry
Industries: uranium mining, cement, brick, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses
Industrial production growth rate: NA (2001 est.)
Electricity - production: 242 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 325.1 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports: 100 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption: 5,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports: NA (2001)
Oil - imports: NA (2001)
Exports: $280 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities: uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions
Exports - partners: France 42.2%, Nigeria 28.9%, Japan 17.2%, Spain 4.4% (2003)
Imports: $400 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals
Imports - partners: France 16.4%, Cote d'Ivoire 13.8%, China 10.5%, Nigeria 7.7%, US 5.5%, Japan 4.9% (2003)
Debt - external: $1.6 billion (1999 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $341 million (1997)
Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Currency code: XOF
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 581.2 (2003), 696.988 (2002), 733.039 (2001), 711.976 (2000), 615.699 (1999)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Communications Niger
Telephones - main lines in use: 22,400 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 24,000 (2003)
Telephone system: general assessment: small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in the southwestern area of Niger
domestic: wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio relay; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned
international: country code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 6, shortwave 4 (2001)
Radios: 680,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 3 (plus seven low-power repeaters) (2002)
Televisions: 125,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .ne
Internet hosts: 134 (2003)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2002)
Internet users: 15,000 (2002)
Transportation Niger
Highways: total: 10,100 km
paved: 798 km
unpaved: 9,302 km (1999 est.)
Waterways: 300 km
note: Niger River is navigable to Gaya between September and March (2004)
Ports and harbors: none
Airports: 27 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 18
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 2 (2004 est.)
Military Niger
Military branches: Army, Air Force, National Intervention and Security Force
Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2004)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,460,637 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,333,027 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 122,363 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $21.7 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (2003)

This page was last updated on 1 January 2003

This is a snapshot of the CIA World Fact Book as it existed on 26 March 2005